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CORPUS INSCRIPTIONUM INDICARUM 



VOL. I 



INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



CORPUS INSCRIPTIONUM INDICARUM 

VOL. I 

INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

NEW EDITION 

BY 

E. HULTZSCH, Ph.D. 

EPIGRAPHIST TO THE GOVERNMENT OF MADRAS, RETIRED 

WITH 55 PLATES 



PRINTED FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 

AT THE CLARENDON PRESS, OXFORD 
AND PUBLISHED THROUGH THE OFFICIAL AGENTS 



PREFACE 

■ 

THE printing of this volume was stopped in 1914 by the outbreak 
of war. In 1920 the Government sanctioned a resumption of 
printing, and the re-composition of those sheets which had been 

■ 

already struck off, but had become antiquated in the meantime owing 
to fresh researches. I have tried to sift critically, and to quote, when 

If 

necessary, whatever has been written by scholars on the subject in 
the course of nearly a century. The transcripts of the texts are based on 
mechanical copies furnished by the Archaeological Survey Department 
under orders of Sir John Marshall. The most perfect among these 
were contributed by my former assistant, now Government Epigraphist 
for India, Rao Bahadur H. Krishna Sastri. The plates issued with 
this volume are collotype reproductions of negatives which were prepared 
under my personal supervision by Mr. Carl Plettner. With the 
exception of the two Shahbazgarhi edicts VII and XII, the impressions 
of the two Kharoshthi versions of the fourteen rock-edicts proved 
unsuitable for reproduction, partly owing to the extreme roughness of 
the rocks on which these records are engraved, and partly because 
Sir Aurel Stein's careful estampages of them had become torn and 
damaged by frequent use. It is a pleasant duty to thank those scholars 
who have rendered me valuable assistance. Before the war I could 
avail myself of the ever ready advice of my late friend Dr. J. F. Fleet. 
To the late Professor Arthur Venis I am indebted for detailed criticisms 
of my rendering of the Girnar and Kalsi versions. Professor A. A. 
Macdoneix kindly looked at the proof-sheets of portions of the texts and 
translations. The proofs of the introduction were minutely examined 
by two old friends, Mr. Robert Sewell and Professor Th. Zachariae. 

E. HULTZSCH. 

Halle, 
October, 1922. 



a 3 



POSTSCRIPT 

THE issuing of this volume was still delayed by the printing of 
the collotype plates when I received from Mr. H. Hargreaves, 
Superintendent, Archaeological Survey, Frontier Province, Peshawar, 
a fresh set of inked estampages of the two north-western versions of the 
rock-edicts. These estampages have been made with great care and 
skill, and enable me at the last moment to furnish illustrations of the whole 
of the Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra edicts. The overlapping sections were 
clipped and pinned together in my presence by Mr. Plettner. In this way 
the creases and slips disfiguring other facsimiles which I had received in a 
pasted condition were avoided. Although, owing to the rough surface 
of the rocks, the new estampages are not quite perfect in every detail, they 
are the first ever made which admit of reproduction by photography, 
and they will thus allow students to check the transcripts of those 
valuable ancient records, and to acquire a first-hand knowledge of the 
whimsical and often ambiguous Kharoshthi characters. Scholars will 
feel much indebted to Mr. Hargreaves, who has now supplied this want, 
and to Sir John Marshall, at whose instance the new impressions were 
prepared by him. 

E. H. 

January \ 1924. 



CONTENTS 



LIST OF PLATES 
ABBREVIATIONS 



INTRODUCTION 

CHAPTER I. DESCRIPTION OF THE INSCRIPTIONS 

■ 

-i 

First part : The rock-edicts * 

L The Girnar rock . 

II. The Kalsi rock . 

III. The Shahbazgarhl rock 

IV, The Mansehra rock 

V. The Dhauli rock 

VI. The Jaugacla rock 
VI L The Bombay-Sopara fragment 



Second part: The pillar-edicts . * * -.- • 

L The Delhi-Topra pillar . > . . . 

II. The Delhi-MTrath pillar - 
III and IV, The Lauriya-Araraj and Lauriya-N andangarh 

V. The Rampurva pillar ...... 

VI. The Allahabad-Kosam pillar . . 

Third part: Minor pillar-inscriptions . 

I. The Samchx pillar 

1 1. The Sarnath pillar 

III. The Rummindei pillar 

IV. The Nigali Sagar pillar . 

Fourth part : Minor rock-inscriptions . 

I. The Rupnath rock-inscription 
The Sahasram rock-inscription 
The Bairat rock-inscription . 
The Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription 
The Maski rock-inscription . 
VI, VII, VIII. Rock-inscriptions in the Mysore State 
IX. The Barabar Hill cave-inscriptions ... 



II. 
III. 
IV. 

V. 



CHAPTER II. THE AUTHOR OF THE INSCRIPTIONS . 



CHAPTER III. ASOKA'S EMPIRE 



CHAPTER IV. ASOKA'S CONVERSION . 



iv 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

CHAPTER V. ASOKA'S DHARMA . • xlvii 

CHAPTER VI. GRAMMAR OF THE GIRNAR ROCK -EDICTS lvi 

CHAPTER VII. GRAMMAR OF THE KALSI ROCK-EDICTS . lxx 

CHAPTER VIII. GRAMMAR OF THE SH AHB AZGARH I 

ROCK-EDICTS . . ■ j . ' . . . . * . . lxxxiv 

Notes on the Mansehra version xcvii 

CHAPTER IX. GRAMMAR OF THE DHAULI AND JAUGADA 

ROCK-EDICTS . . . . xcix 

Note on the Bornbay-Sopara fragment . cxi 

CHAPTER X. GRAMMAR OF THE PILLAR-EDICTS . . cxi 

CHAPTER XL GRAMMAR OF THE MINOR ROCK-INSCRIP- 
TIONS cxxiii 

I. The rock-inscriptions at Rupnath, &c. - . - * • cxxiii 

II, The three rock-inscriptions in the Mysore State . . , . cxxviii 

+ 

TEXTS AND TRANSLATIONS 



First part: The rock-edicts i 

I. The Girnar rock . . . . , . - . • - - - . 1 

II. The Kalsl rock . . . > - . . . . . 27 

III. The Shahbazgarhi rock 5° 

IV. The Mansehra rock . , . . . - - . - 7 1 
V. The Dhauli rock , 84 

First separate rock-edict: Dhauli 9 2 

Second separate rock-edict: Dhauli . - . * - 97 

VI. The Jaugada rock ■ 10 1 

First separate rock-edict: Jaugada • - - . - - m 

Second separate rock-edict: Jaugada . . . - -" - 115 

VII. The Bomb ay-Sop ar a fragment of the eighth rock-edict - . 118 

Second part: The pillar-edicts , ' 119 

I. The Delhi-Topra pillar . * . . . - . - 119 

II. The Delhi-Mirath pillar - . 137 

III. The Lauriya-Arairaj pillar . 14 1 

IV. The Laupiya-Nandangarh pillar . ♦ . . , . . 145 
V. The Rampurva pillar . . 151 

VI. The Allahabad-Kosam pillar . . . . . . 155 

A. The six first pillar-edicts 155 

B. Queen's pillar-edict . . . - . . * 158 

C. KauSambI pillar-edict . • . - . . 159 



CONTENTS v 

* 

PAGE 

Third part: Minor pillar-inscriptions . > 160 

I. The Saihchi pillar * 160 

II. The Sarnath pillar 161 

IIL The Rummindel pillar 164 

IV. The Nigali Sagar pillar . 165 

• 

Fourth part: Minor rock-inscriptions . . . - - * . 166 

L The Rupnath rock-inscription . 166 

IL The Sahasram rock-inscription . . 169 

III. The B air at rock-inscription 171 

IV. The Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription ■ «,,,. 172 
V. The Maski rock-inscription - . . 174 

VI. The Brahmagiri rock-inscription . - * . - . .175 

VI L The Siddapura rock-inscription . . , - . . . 178 

VIII. The J atinga-Rame£ vara rock-inscription 179 

IX. The Barabar Hill cave-inscriptions . . . . . 181 

Appendix: Synoptical texts . - . . . . . . . 183 

I. The fourteen rock-edicts . . 183 

IL The two separate rock-edicts . . - : . . . 213 

III, The six pillar-edicts > 218 

IV. The Rupnath rock-inscription and cognate inscriptions . . 228 

Index • • . . 231 

CORRIGENDA . . . , . . . . . - " . . . 259 



LIST OF PLATES 



First and second rock-edicts: Girnar . 
Third to fifth rock-edicts: Girnar 
Sixth to eighth rock-edicts: Girnar 
Ninth to twelfth rock-edicts: Girnar « 
Thirteenth and fourteenth rock-edicts: Girnar 
Kalsi rock: East face * . . , . 
Kalsi rock : South face : 
Kalsi rock : North face , 

First to eleventh rock-edicts: Shahbazgarhl. Left half 

ii » » » „ „ Right half 

Seventh and twelfth rock-edicts: Shahbazgarhl . 
Thirteenth and fourteenth rock-edicts : Shahbazgarhl. Left half 

Right halfj 

First to eighth rock-edicts : Mansehra . 
Ninth to eleventh rock-edicts : Mansehra 
Twelfth rock-edict: Mansehra 
Thirteenth and fourteenth rock-edicts : Mansehra 
Dhauli rock: middle column 
Dhauli rock : left column . 
Dhauli rock: right column ... 
Jaugada rock : first column .... 
Jaugada rock: second column ... 
Jaugada rock: third column . 
Bombay-Sopara fragment of the eighth rock-edict 
Delhi-Topra pillar: North face 
Delhi-Topra pillar: West face 
Delhi-Topra pillar: South face 
Delhi-Topra pillar: East face . . - 
Delhi-Topra pillar : circular inscription 
Delhi-Mirath pillar: North face . 
Delhi-Mirath pillar: West face 
Delhi-Mlrath pillar: South face . 
Lauriya-Araraj pillar: East face . 
Lauriya-Araraj pillar: West face . . * 
Lauriya-Nandangarh pillar: East face , 
Lauriya-Nandangarh pillar : West face . 
Rampurva pillar: North face 
Rampurva pillar: South face 
Allahabad-Kosam pillar : upper half 
Allahabad-Kosam pillar: lower half 



FACING PAGE 

4 
io 

*4 

22 
26 

44 
5° 

. SO 

between pages 56 and 57 



. . 64 

"between pages 

68 and 69 
78 
80 
81 

84 
88 

94 
100 

104 

no 

116 

118 

122 

123 

128 

129 

134 
138 

139 
140 
142 
144 
148 
150 

152 

J 53 
156 

158 



LIST OF PLATES 

Allahabad-Kosam pillar; minor edicts . 

Sarhchi pillar-inscription ' 

Sarnath pillar-inscription ..... 
Rummindei pillawnscription . 
Nigalx Sagar pillar-inscription « 
Rupnath rock-inscription . . . 
Sahasram rock-inscription - - . . 

Bairat rock-inscription 

Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription - - 
Maski rock-inscription • . . ■ > 
Brahmagiri rock-inscription; upper half 
Brahmagiri rock-inscription : lower half 
Siddapura rock-inscription; upper half . . 
fsiddapura rock-inscription : lower half 
Jatinga-RameSvara rock-inscription: upper half , 
Jatinga-RameSvara rock-inscription: lower half , 
Barabar Hill cave-inscriptions . 



ABBREVIATIONS 

AJP = American Journal of Philology. 

ASSI = Archaeological Survey of Southern India, 

ASWI = Archaeological Survey of Western India* 

BRWW = Buddhist Records of the Western World (Beai). 

CR = Comptes Rendus. Acad<5mie des Inscriptions & Belles-Lettres. 

EI = Epigraphia Indica. 

GGA := Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen. 

GN = Nachrichten der KonigHchen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen.. 

Grammatik — Grammatik der Prakrit-Sprachen (Pischel). 

IA = Indian Antiquary. 

IF == Indogermanische Forschungen. 

Ind, Alt. = Indische Alterthumskunde (Lassen). 

Ind- Pal. = Indian Paleography (Buhler). 

JA = Journal Asiatique. 

Jaartelling = Over de Jaartelling der Zuidelijke Buddhisten (Kern). 

J AOS =s Journal of the American Oriental Society. 

JASB = Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 

JBBRAS — Journal of the Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society. 

JPASB == Journal & Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

JRAS = Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

KZ = Kuhn's Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Sprachforschung. 

Lotus = Le Lotus de la Bonne Loi (Burnouf). 

Memoirs, ASB = Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 

SBE — Sacred Books of the East. 

Skt. — Sanskrit 

SPAW — Sitzungsberichte der KonigHch Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 
VOJ = Vienna Oriental Journal 

ZDMG = Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. 



INTRODUCTION 

CHAPTER I. DESCRIPTION OF THE INSCRIPTIONS 

FIRST PART: THE ROCK-EDICTS 

* 

The above term is meant to comprise (i) the existing versions of the well-known 
* fourteen edicts % and (2) the two ( separate edicts ' which the Dhauli and Jaugada 
versions substitute for edicts XI to XI I L It does not include the minor rock- 
inscriptions, which will be treated in the fourth part 

I. The Giknar Rock (Text, p. 1). 

This famous set of Asoka's fourteen edicts is found about a mile to the east 
of Jimagayli, the capital of the Junagarh State in the Kathiavar Peninsula, * and at 
the entry of the dell or gorge which leads into the valley that girdles the mighty and 
sacred Girnar' mountain. 1 The inscription 'covers considerably over a hundred 
square feet of the uneven surface of a huge rounded* and somewhat conical granite 
boulder, rising 1 2 feet above the surface of the ground, and about 75 feet in circum- 
ference at the base/ 5 The boulder bears, beside ASoka's edicts, two other valuable 
documents : An inscription of the Mahakshatrapa Rudradaman records the restoration 
of the lake Sudariana, which had been ( originally constructed by the Vatiya Pushya- 
gupta, the provincial governor [rashtriya) of the Maurya king Chandragupta, and 
subsequently adorned with conduits by the Yavana king Tushaspha for A6dka the 
Maurya/ 3 Among local names it mentions Girinagara, i. e, the town of Junagarh 
or its ancient representative, and TJrjayat, i. e. the mountain now called Girnar. 4 The 
third inscription on the boulder is dated in the reign of the Gupta king Skandagupta and 
records further repairs of the lake Sudar£ana made in a. d. 456-7 by Chakrapalita, 
the son of Parnadatta who was governor of Surashtra. 6 

The Asoka inscription occupies the north-east face of the boulder. The fourteen 
edicts are arranged in two columns and divided from one another by straight lines. As 
may be seen on the third of the plates issued with Wilson's article in JRAS, 12. 153 ff,, 
the left column consists of edicts I to V and the right one of edicts VI to XII ; and 



1 ASWI, 94. The position of the inscribed stone is marked on Lieutenant Postans* sketch 
of Girnar in JASB, vol, 7, plate 54. 

3 ASWI, 3. 97. A photograph of the boulder is given on the plate facing page 94 of the 
same volume. 

3 Liiders, List of Brdhml Inscriptions (EI, vol. 10, Appendix), p, 99, 

4 EI, 8. 43. The later (Prakrit) form of Orjayat is Ujjayanta. C£ Hemachandra's 
Anekarthasamgraka, III, 279, and his Abhidhanachinidmmu^ IV, 97 3 ASWI, a. 154*?., and 
8, 338 ff, ; Ta\vney*s translation of Merutunga's Prahandhachintdmani^ Index, Another name 
of the Girnar mountain is Raivata or Raivataka. See e.g. Hemachandra's two Kosas, loc. cit. ; 
Maghas &Uupdlavadha^ IV, t ; GN 3 igai. 41. 

5 Fleets Gupta Inscriptions, p. 57 f, 

hi a b 



x INTRODUCTION 

edicts XIII and XIV are placed below V and XII. When Major James Tod visited 
Girnar in December 1822, the inscription seems to have been intact, 1 Subsequently 
portions of edicts V and XIII were blasted with gunpowder by the workmen of 
a pious merchant who constructed a causeway from Junagarh to Girnar- 2 At the 
recommendation of the late Dr. Burgess a shed has been specially built to protect the 
boulder from the sun and rain. 

The first decipherment of the Brahmi alphabet and, with it, of the Girnar inscription, 
is due to the learning and ingenuity of James Prinsep- 3 His transcript and translation 
Were based on tracings on cloth which had been taken in 1835 by Captain Lang for the 
Rev. Dr. J. Wilson of Bombay, 4 Fresh copies were made by Lieutenant Postans and 
Captain Lang in i838, 5 and by Captain (afterwards General) Le Grand Jacob and 
Professor Westergaard in 1842. 6 These materials were utilized by Mr. E> Nbrris for 
drawing up an improved plate of the Girnar inscription, from which Professor H. H. 
Wilsons transcript and translation in JRAS, vol. 12 (1850), were made. No better 
materials were available to three other scholars who examined the Girnar version, viz. 
Professor Chr. Lassen {Indische A Itertumsknnde), E. Burnouf {Lotus de la Bonne Lot ; 
Paris, 1852), and Professor H. Kern {Over de Jaartelling der Znidelijke Buddhisten 
en de Gedenkstukken van Agoka den Buddhist ; Amsterdam, 1873). 

The first perfectly mechanical estampages of the Girnar edicts were prepared 
in 1875 by Dr. J. Burgess, These were reproduced by collotype in 1876 in 
ASWI, 2. 98 ff., and also in I A, 5. 257 ff., with an English translation of Kerns 
Dutch versions of part of the edicts. 

A complete edition of the Girnar edicts is included in Senart's Inscriptions dePiyadasi, 
vol. I. An abridged English translation of his work appeared in IA, vols. 9 and 10. 
In J A (8), 12* 311 ff., Senart added the results of his inspection of the Girnar rock 
in situ. Buhler published a number of corrections and the text of edict XIII in his 
Beitrage zttr Erklarung der Asoka-Imchriften (ZDMG, vols- 37-48), and the full text of 
the Girnar version in EI, 2.. 447 if. The plates which accompany this article are much 
clearer than those issued in 1876, but seem to have been, touched up by hand. 
A Collection of Prakrit and Sanskrit Inscriptions printed at Bhavnagar (without 
year) contains the text, Sanskrit and English translations, and facsimiles, of the 
Girnar edicts, 

Two fragments of the lost portion of edict XIII were recovered recently and are 
now preserved in the Junagarh Museum. 7 Both of them were discussed by Senart 
(JRAS, 1900, 335 ff.), and the second of them also by Buhler (VOJ, 8. 318 ff.). Both 
pieces are shown in the plate which accompanies my transcript of edict XIII. 

As regards the Brahmi alphabet of the Girnar inscription I can refer the reader 
to Buhler's Indian Paleography, edited by Fleet (I A, vol. 33, Appendix), § 16. The chief 
peculiarity of the Girnar alphabet is the addition of the horizontal bar, marking the 
length of initial a, at the top of a } while it is elsewhere attached to the middle of the 
letter. The formation of groups of consonants, and the peculiar way in which the letter 
r is expressed in combination with other consonants, will be discussed in the chapter 
on the Girnar dialect (below, p. lviii. £). 



1 ASWI, 2. 95- s Cf. JASB, 7. 874. 

3 JASB, 7 (1838). 319 ff. 4 Id., pp. 157, aa8 f 334s 336. 

5 Id., p. 871 ff. 6 JBBRAS, 1. 357 f-> and a. 4io. 

7 They may be identical with two fragments picked up by Lieutenant Postans in 1838 ; 
see JASB, 7. 874. 



THE ROCK-EDICTS xi 
II. The Kalsi Rock {Text, p. 27). 

h J ■ 

This set of the fourteen edicts is engraved near Kalsi, a town in the Chakrata 
tsahsil of the Dehra Dun district of the United Provinces. About one and a half miles to 
the north of Kalsi 1 is a huge boulder of quartz on the western bank of the Jumna, just 
above the junction of the Tons river^ and about fifteen miles to the west of Mussooree..' 

' The block is i o feet long and i ofeet high, and about 8 feet thick at bottom. The south- 
eastern face has been smoothed, but rather unevenly, as it follows the undulations of the 
original surface- The main inscription is engraved on this smoothed surface.which measures 
5 feet in height, with a breadth of 5^ feet at top, which increases towards the bottom to 
7 feet io| inches. The deeper hollows and cracks have been left uninscribed, and the 
lines of letters are undulating and uneven. Towards the bottom, beginning with the 
tenth edie^ the letters increase in size until they become about thrice as large as those 
of the upper part Owing either to this enlargement of the letters, or, perhaps, to the 
latter part of the inscription being of later date, the prepared surface was too small 
for the whole record, which was therefore completed on the left-hand side of the rock. 
On the right-hand side an elephant is traced in outline.' 

' When first found by Mr. Forrest early in i860, the letters of the inscription were 
hardly visible, the whole surface being encrusted with the dark moss of ages ; but on 
removing this black film, the surface becomes nearly as white as marble/ 1 

Senart's edition of the Kalsi text in his Inscriptions de Ptyadasi, vol. I, was based 
on Cunningham's eye-copy of the inscription. Biihler published both the text and 
a translation from a rubbing supplied by Cunningham (ZDMG, vols. 37 and 40), and 
a revised version of the text of edict XIII from an impression prepared by Burgess 
(id., 43. 162 if.). A collotype of the first half of Cunningham's rubbing was issued with 
ZDMG, vol. 39. In EI, 2. 447 ff. , Biihler re-edited the Kalsi text, which was accompanied 
by reproductions of inked estampages by Burgess. 

The Kalsi alphabet exhibits the following chief peculiarities. The letter kh has 
a loop at the bottom ; see Bulger's Ind.Pai., plate 2, No* 10, columns II and III. A similar 
loop is found occasionally in the centre of / (id., No. 15, column III) and of s (id,, No. 39, 
column VII). The end of an edict is marked by a symbol resembling a crescent. 
From edict X the characters get larger, and the two letters £ and s/i are frequently 
used. The former of these occurs already twice in edict IV, 1. I3, 2 and the second 
twice in the Queen's edict on the Allahabad-Kosam pillar, 11. 1 and 4, once oh the 
Sarnath pillar, L 10, and once at Maski, 1. 2. In a few lines of the first part of the 
Kalsi inscription (29, 33-36, 39) the punctuation mark |, which occurs once in each 
of 11. 13, 25, 31, is employed many times. The same mark is found in the Sahasram and 
Maski rock-inscriptions. v 

III. The Shahbazgarhi Rock (Text, p, 50). 

■ 

While the alphabet of the two preceding sets of the fourteen edicts is the Brahmi, 
this one is written in those north-western cursive characters running from the right 
to the left whicfh used to be called Indo-Bactrian or Ariano- Pali, but to which Biihler 
restored the indigenous name Kharoshthi. The honour of the decipherment of this 
alphabet is divided between Prinsep, Lassen, Norris, and Cunningham. 3 A number 



1 Cunningham's Inscriptions ofAsoka y p. 12 f. 

2 Also once in each of the Bairat, Maski, and Siddapura rock-inscriptions, and twice at Jatinga 
Ramesvara. 

3 JASB, 1*3, 714; Ind. Pal, § 6. 

b2 



xii INTRODUCTION 

of Kharoshthi letters had been already identified from bilingual coins of the Indo-Grecian 
and Indo-Scythian kings, before the Shahbazgarhi inscription was discovered. 

Shahbazgarhi is a village on the Makam river, nine miles from Mardan, the head- 
quarters of the Yusufzai subdivision of the Peshavar district of the North- West Frontier 
Province, The inscription is about half a mile distant from this village and two miles 
from the village of Kapurdagarhl, 1 It f is engraved on a large shapeless mass of trap 
rock, lying about So feet up the slope of the hill, with its western face looking downwards 
towards the village of Shahbazgarhi/ 3 The edicts I to XI are on the east face 
(edict VII being entered on the left at the top of the rock), and the edicts XIII and 
XIV are on the west face. Edict XII is engraved on a separate boulder, which is now 
enclosed within a wall • 

M. (afterwards General) Court, of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's service, first notified 
the existence of a Kharoshthi inscription near Shahbazgarhi in 1836 and gave a few 
letters copied by himself* In 1838 Captain Burnes, being at Peshavar, sent an agent 
to Shahbazgarhi, who returned with an imperfect paper impression. In the same year 
Mr. C. Masson obtained through a young man a partial impression on calico. He then 
proceeded to the spot himself and prepared fresh copies. 3 His zeal deserves much praise, 
as at that time a journey through such an unpacified tract involved considerable 
personal risk* Masson's materials were brought to Europe and examined by Norris, 
who first read in them the word Devanaihpiyasa. With the help of this discovery, Dowson 
ascertained that the portion of which a facsimile is given in JRAS, 8 (1846), 303, is 
a duplicate of edict VII of the Girnar inscription. Norris further found that the front 
of the rock contained the edicts I to XI, and traced on the back of it portions of 
edict XIII, He also published die text of edict VII (id, p. 306 f.). In 1850 Wilson 
contributed a tentative transcript of both faces of the Shahbazgarhi rock, accompanied 
by plates drawn by Norris from Masson's copies (id., 12. 153 ff.). An independent 
eye-copy of the Shahbazgarhi inscription was prepared by Cunningham {Inscriptions 
of Asoka, p. 10)* 

Senart's transcript in his Inscriptions de Piyadasi, vol. I, had still to be based on 
the same imperfect materials. Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji furnished transcripts of the 
Shahbazgarhi and other versions of edict I (IA, 10. 107) and of edict VIII (J BBRAS, 
IS- 284). After the return from a trip to India, Senart published the results of his 
examination of edicts I to XI in situ (J A (8), 11. 521 ff,). The missing edict XII was 
discovered on a separate boulder by Captain Deane and edited both by Senart 
(id., p. 511 ff.) and by Buhler (EI, x. 16 ff.). The latter published the whole Shahbaz- 
garhi version in ZDMG, 43. 128 ff., and a fresh transcript and a translation of it in 
EI, 2. 447 ff., from estampages by Burgess. The only portions of which mechanical 
copies have been made public so far are edict VII (ZDMG, vol. 43) and edict XII 
(EI, 1. 16). 

IV. The Mansehra Rock (Text, p. 7 1). 

Like the Shahbazgarhi version this set of the fourteen edicts is written in the 
Kharoshthi alphabet. Mansehra is the head-quarters of a tahsll in the Hazara district 
of the North-West Frontier Province. The inscription is found to the north of the 
village and is engraved on three boulders. Of these, the first bears edicts I to VIII, 
the second edicts IX to XI on its north face and edict XII on its south face, and 



1 Cunningham's Inscriptions ofAsaia 9 p. 8. 

2 Id., p. 9. For a sketch-map of the locality see Cunningham's Arclu Reports^ vol. V, plate 3. 

3 JRAS, 8, 393 ff. ' - 



THE. ROCK-EDICTS xiii 

the third edicts XIII and XIV. The two first inscribed stones were discovered by 
Cunningham, 1 and the third in 1889 by a native subordinate of the Panjab Archseo- 
logical Survey, 2 - - . ! 

Senart was the first to transcribe edict XII (J A (8), n (1888). 5 it ff.) and, from 
insufficient materials, portions of edicts I to XI (id., 12. 319 ff.), Buhler edited the, 
whole Mansehra version first in ZDMG (43. 273 ff., and 44. 702 ff.), and a second time 
in EI (2. 447 ff.), from estampages by Burgess. J A (8), vol. 12 contains three plates 
reproduced from Cunningham's casts of edicts I to XII. These are so indistinct that 
they must be pronounced useless. 

V. The Dhatjli Rock (Text, p. 84). 

Dhauli is a village in the Khurda subdivision of the Purl district, Orissa, about 
seven miles south of Bhuvanesvar. The inscribed rock near the village was discovered 
in 1837 by Lieutenant Kittoe, who calls it f Aswastama \ 3 It * is situated on a rocky 
eminence forming one of a cluster of hills, three in number, on the south bank of the 
Dyah river/ 

f The hills before alluded to rise abruptly from the plains and occupy a. space of 
about five furlongs by three; they have a singular appearance from their isolated 
position, no other hills being nearer than eight or ten miles. They are apparently 
volcanic, and composed of upheaved breccia with quartzose rock intermixed/ 

1 The Aswastama is situated on the northern face of the southernmost rock near 
its summit; the rock has been hewn and polished for a space of fifteen feet long by ten 
in height, and the inscription deeply cut thereon/ 

' Immediately above the inscription is a terrace sixteen feet by fourteen, on the 
right side of which (as you face the inscription) is the fore half of an elephant, four feet 
high, of superior workmanship ; the whole is hewn out of the solid rock/ * 

While Prinsep was examining a lithograph of Kittoe's copies, he found that the 
greater part of the Dhauli inscription was identical with the Girnar edicts (JASB, 7, 157). 
He further ascertained that the Dhauli rock omits edicts XI to XIII of the Girnar 
version, but compensates for them by two separate edicts (id*, p. 219). These two 
he edited with a tentative translation (id, p. 438 ff.), adding Kittoe's lithograph of the 
whole Dhauli inscription (id., plate 10). As may be seen on this plate, the inscription 
is arranged in three columns. The middle column contains edicts I to VI, and the right 
column edicts VII to X and XIV, 5 and below them, within a border of straight lines, 
the second separate edict, while the first separate edict occupies the whole of 
the left column. 

Cunningham tt showed that it would be more correct to exchange the two desig- 
nations ' first and second separate edict 1 : the separate edict engraved in continuation 
of edict XIV ought to be called No. I, and the one engraved separately on the left 
No. II. This order is confirmed by the Jaugada rock (No* VII, below) where Prinsep's 
No. II is actually placed above No. I. But as all editors (besides Kern) have followed 



1 JA (8), 11. 508. 3 ZDMG, 44. 705. 

3 Can this name be due to a misreading of the word gajatame (see Text, p. 50), which 
is engraved below the figure of an elephant on the north face of the Kalsi rock, and which might 
have been originally engraved on the Dhauli rock too? See, however, Text, p. ga, n. 1. 

4 JASB, 7 (1838). 435-7- For a sketch of the elephant see id., plate 35, and for a photograph 
of it, the frontispiece of V. A. Smith's Early History of India. 

6 The commencement of each fresh edict is. marked. by a short horizontal dash. 
0 Inscriptions ofAsoka, pp* 16, ao. 



xiv INTRODUCTION 

■ ■ ' . 

Prinsep's arrangement, a change of numbers would now lead to much confusion, and it 
will be sufficient to keep in mind that the separate edict No. I was engraved after No. II. 

The two separate edicts were re-edited and translated by Burnouf (Lotus, p. 671 ff.) 
and, from Cunningham's copies, by Kern (JRAS, 1880. 379 ffi). Senart's edition of 
them 1 was based on estampages by Burgess* The same applies to Buhlers editions 
of the Dhauli version. He published the whole of it twice : once in German (ZDMG, 
39. 489 ff., and 41. 1 ff.) and once in English (ASSI, 1. 1 14 ff.). His second edition is 
accompanied by photo-Jithographs (plates 64-66), 

- 

VI, The Jaugada Rock (Text, p. 1 01). 

A duplicate of the Dhauli edicts is engraved at Jangadla, a ruined fort in the 
Berhampur taluka of the Ganjam district, Madras, about eighteen miles north-west of 
Ganjam town, on the northern bank of the Rishikulya river. 

The inscribed rock * is situated in what appears to have once been an extensive 
but now deserted town, surrounded by the debris of a lofty wall/ , 

' The rock is part of a large mass of rock or rocks, rising to various heights, and 
covering a large space of ground, I should say many thousand square yards.' 3 

' The Jaugacla inscriptions are written on three different tablets on the vertical face 
of the rock.' 

''The first tablet contained the first five edicts, but about one-half has been utterly 
lost by the peeling away of the rock/ 

'The second tablet comprised the next five edicts, namely, 6 to 10, to which was 
added the 14th or closing edict of the other versions* About one-third of this tablet 
has been lost by the peeling away of the rock/ 

' The third tablet contained the two separate or additional edicts which are found 
at Dhauli/ 

1 These two additional edicts are enclosed in a frame which separates them from 
the collected series of Asokas edicts/ - 

* The separation of these two edicts is more distinctly marked by the accompani- 
ment of the svastika symbol at each of the upper corners of the upper inscription, and of 
the letter m at the upper corners of the lower inscription/ 3 

'Copies of the inscriptions were taken in 1850 by the present Sir. Walter Elliot, 
who was perfectly aware that they contained only another version of ASokas edicts, 
which had already been found at Shahbazgarhl, Girnar, and Dhauli/ 4 

Thanks to orders of the Government of Madras, the rock is now protected by an 
iron roof and railing. • 

The two separate edicts of Jaugada were edited with those of Dhauli by 
Profe sor Kern. The first purely mechanical estampages of the rock were prepared by 
Burgess. On these Senart's edition of the two separate edicts was based. 6 Biihler 
published edicts I to X and XIV from a photograph by Mr. Minchin (ZDMG, vols. 37 

and 40) and the two separate edicts from Burgess's estampages (id., 41. 1 ff.). His 

■ 

1 Inscriptions de Piyadasi, 3. 105 ff., and IA, 19. 8a ff. 
3 Mr. W. F* Grahame in IA, 1 (1873). 319. ' ' 

3 Cunningham's Inscriptions ofAsoka, p. 19 £ In JPASB, 17. 333 f., Harit Krishna Deb very 
ingeniously explains the svastika symbol as a monogram consisting of two Brahnri & 9 s f and the m as 
the final letter of the sacred syllable dm, 

* Cunningham, op. cit, p. 18. For further attempts to copy the Jaugada inscriptions I may 
refer to the same page, and to R* SewelFs Lists of Antiquities^ vol- I, p. 4- 

6 For references see above, under Dhauli. d 



THE ROCK-EDICTS xv 

second edition of the whole Jaugada version (ASSI, I. ii4ffp) is accompanied by 
photo-lithographs (plates' 67-69). 

VIL The Bombay-Sopara Fragment (Text, p. 118). 

Sopara is an ancient town in the Bassein taliika of the Thana district, Bombay. 
There Pandit Bhagvanlal Indraji discovered in 1882 a broken block of basalt bearing 
about one-third of the eighth rock-edict of ASoka. The existing fragment suggests 
that a complete set of his edicts must have been engraved near Sopara. 

' The stone was found near the Bhatela pond to the east of the town close to the 
old landing-place/ 1 

The Pandit published a tracing and transcript of the fragment, along with the text 
of five other versions of edict VIII. The original stone is now preserved in the 
Museum of the Bombay Asiatic Society, 



SECOND PART: THE PILLAR-EDICTS 

This term is meant to comprise the ASoka inscriptions on the Delhi-Topra pillar 
and on the five other pillars which bear six of the seven edicts inscribed on it. The 
minor pillar-inscriptions will be treated separately in the third part- The * Queen's 
edict 9 and the * KauSarnbi edict however, are included in the second part, _ because 
they are inscribed on the Allahabad-Kosam column which bears also six of the chief 
pillar-edicts. 

L Tim Delhi-Topra Pillar (Text, p. 119)* 

r 1 

This famous monument ' is a single shaft of pale pinkish sandstone, 42 feet 7 inches 
in length, of which the upper portion, .35 feet in length, has received a very high polish, 
while the remainder is left quite rough.' 3 It used to be known by the names of ' Bhima- 
sena's pillar [ Golden pillar ', 1 Firoz Shah's pillar \ and ' Delhi-Siwalik pillar \ Shams-i 
Siraj, a historian of Firoz Shah (a.ix 1351-88), informs us that it stood originally 'in 
the village of Tobra, in the district of Salaura and Khizrabad, in the hills 3 that Sultan 
Firoz had it carried to Delhi ; and that he erected it again on the top of his palace at 
Flrozabad. From Tobra near Khizrabad, which was ninety kd$ from Delhi, the column 
was carried on a truck with forty-two wheels to the bank of the Jamna, whence it 
was floated down the river to Firozabad (Delhi) on a number of large boats. 

Cunningham {Arch. Reports, 14. 78 f.) identified the village of Tobra, where the 
pillar stood originally, with the present Topra, on the direct line between Ambala and 
Sirsava, eighteen miles to the south of Sadhora, and twenty-two miles to the south-west 
of Khizrabad. The pillar is standing to the present day on the roof of the three-storied 
citadel [kotla) of Firoz Shah outside the 'Delhi Gate' to the south-east of modern 
Delhi. 4 An elevation of the building, with the pillar on the top of it, was published in 
1788 in the first volume of the Astatic Researches, p. 379, and a sketch of it in 1803 in 
vol. 7, p. 175, plate 4. 



1 JBBRAS, 15- 282. 2 Cunningham's Inscriptions ofAsoka, p. 35, 

a Elliot-Dowson's History of India, 3. 35°* 

4 See a note by Lieutenant Kittoe, JASB, 6* 796 f., and the map facing p. 185 of Baedeker's 
Indien* 

* . * 



xvi - r INTRODUCTION 

.The Delhi-Topra pillar bears seven edicts of ASoka, of which the last and longest 
is unique, while other specimens of the first six edicts have been discovered elsewhere. 
The first six edicts and the eleven first lines of the seventh edict are arranged in four 
columns on the north, west, south, and east faces of the pillar j the eleven remaining 
lines of the seventh edict run all round the pillar. 

Besides the ASoka edicts and. several minor records of pilgrims and travellers, 1 the 
pillar bears three short inscriptions of the Chahamana Visaladeva of Sakamban, son of 
Annalladeva (EI, 9. 67, n. 5), dated a.d. 1164, which have been edited last by Kielhorn 
from Fleet's impressions (I A, 19, 215 ff.). 

The Delhi-Topra pillar-inscription is the first record of ASoka that was read and 
translated in 1837 by Prinsep (JASB, 6. 566 ff,). Facsimiles of this inscription had 
been in the possession of the Asiatic Society of Bengal 4 since its very foundation, with- 
out any successful attempt having been made to decipher them * (id., p. 566). 

' On searching the Society's portfolio ' Prinsep ' found the five original manuscript 
plates of Captain Hoare, whence the engravings published in the Researches 2 seem to 
have been copied/ 

1 1 found also two much larger drawings of the first and last inscription of the 
series, apparently of the actual dimensions. — These I suppose to have been the 
originals presented to Sir William Jones by Colonel Polier, and therefore of themselves 
venerable for their antiquity ! * (id,, p. 567). 3 

The ingenious manner in which Prinsep succeeded in deciphering the ancient 
Brahmi alphabet deserves to be recorded here in his own words : 

'In laying open a discovery of this nature, some little explanation is generally 
expected of the means by which it has been attained. Like most other inventions, 
when once found it appears extremely simple ; and, as in most others, accident, rather 
than study, has had the merit of solving the enigma which has so long baffled the 
learned/ 

1 While arranging . and lithographing the numerous scraps of facsimiles for 
Plate XXVII, 4 I was struck at their all terminating with the same two letters, ^R. 
Coupling this circumstance with their extreme brevity and insulated position, which 
proved that they could not be fragments of a continuous text, it immediately occurred 
[to me] that they must record either obituary notices, or more probably the offerings and 
presents of votaries, as is shown to be the present custom in the Buddhist temples of 
Aya; where numerous dhvajas or flag-staffs, images, and small chatty as are crowded 
within the enclosure, surrounding the chief cupola, each bearing the name of the donor. 
The next point noted was the frequent occurrence of the letter ^, already set down 
incontestably as , s, before the final word : — now this I had learnt from the Saurashtra 
coins, deciphered only a day or two before, to be one sign of the genitive case singular, 
being the ssa of the Pali, or sya of the Sanskrit. " Of so and so the gift must then 
be the form of each brief sentence ; and the vowel a and Anusvara led to the speedy 
recognition of the word ddnam (gift) , teaching me the very two letters, d and most 
different from known forms, and which had foiled me most in my former attempts. 

- 

Since 1834. also my acquaintance with ancient alphabets had become so familiar that 
most of the remaining letters in the present examples could be named at once on 
re-inspection. In the course of a few minutes I thus became possessed of the whole 

r 

1 See Cunningham's Arch* Reports^ 1. 167, and 5. 143 f. 

2 See Asiatic Researches^ vol. 7, plates 6-10. 3 Cf. Asiatic Researches^ 1. 379. 

* f Inscriptions from Sanchee, taken in facsimile on paper by Capt. E. Smith, Engineers/ w 



THE PILLAR-EDIGTS 



xvii 



alphabet, which I tested by applying it to the inscription on the Delhi column* 
(id, p< 460 £). 

The first four edicts were examined by Burnouf in his Loins, and the fourth and 
sixth by Kern in his Jaartelling. Senart's edition and translation of the Delhi-Topra 
pillar-edicts in his Inscriptions de Piyadasi (2. 1 ff.) were based on Cunningham's eye- 
copies. In- 1884 Fleet issued excellent photo-lithographs, to which BUhler added 
transcripts in the Nagarl character (I A, 13. 306 ff.), and which were utilized in 
Sir George Grierson's English translation of Senarts French article (I A, vols, 17 and 18). 
Finally Buhler edited and translated the seven pillar-edicts twice, in German (ZDMG, 
vols* 45 and 46) and in English (EI, 2. 245 ff.). 

■ 

II. The Delhi-Mirath Pillar (Text, p. 137). 

This pillar now stands on the so-called * Ridge ' to the north-west of modern Delhi. 1 
Like the Delhi-Topra pillar, it was carried to Delhi by Firdz Shah. Shams-i-Siraj tells 
us that it stood before in the vicinity of Blirath, now ,a town and the head-quarters of 
a district of the United Provinces, and that Firoz Shah re-erected it at Delhi on a hill 
in the Kushk-i-Shikar or * Hunting- Palace V which is known to have been situated on 
the Ridge. 3 

The pillar bears, besides some modern scribblings, 4 a more or less damaged version 
of the first five edicts of the Delhi-Topra pillar. A lithograph of its inscription was 
published by Prinsep in JASB, vol. 6 (1837), plate 42, from impressions forwarded by 
Major P. L. Pew, who added the following particulars : 

* This very ancient Hindu pillar was dug out of some ruins near a well, and was 
probably destroyed by the blowing up of a powder magazine which I understand once 
existed near the spot It consists of five pieces/ 

( The pillar is sandstone, and to its perishable nature is to be attributed the imper- 
fect state of the inscriptions 5 (id, p. 795), 

Padre Tieflfen thaler, who visited Delhi towards the middle of the eighteenth 
century, already saw the same five pieces lying - on the top of the Ridge, and also 
ascribed the destruction of the pillar to gunpowder. 5 

' There the five pieces remained undisturbed for upwards of a century, when the 
inscribed portion was ' sawn off 6 and ' sent down to Calcutta to the Museum of the 
Asiatic Society- Within the last few years this piece has been returned to Delhi, and 
the pillar has again been set up in its old position/ 7 

I A, vol- 19 contains a facsimile of the Delhi-Mlra*h pillar-edicts by Fleet with 
transcripts by Buhler (p. 122 ff.), who reprinted the text twice, in ZDMG (vols, 45 and 
46) and in EI (2, 245 ff.). 

A fragment bearing portions of the two last lines of the sixth edict was offered to 
the British Museum in 1913. Its dimensions render it very probable that it belonged 
originally to the Delhi-Mirath pillar. 



1 The position of the pillar is marked on plate 35 (facing p. 13a) of Cunningham's Arch. 
Reports, vol. I. See also the map facing p. 185 of Baedeker's Indien. 

3 EUiot-Dowson's History of India, 3. 353. z Cunningham's Arch. Reports^ 1. 168, 

4 Id,, 5. 144* 5 Cunningham's Inscriptions ofAsoha, p. 37. 

6 Cunningham's Arch. Reports, x. 167. 7 Cunningham's Inscriptions of Asoka, p. 37. 



ici3 



c 



xviii INTRODUCTION 

i- 

III and IV. The Lauriya-Araraj and Lauriya-Nandangarh Pillars 

(Text, pp. 141 and 145). 

The inscriptions on these two pillars were already known to Prinsep when he 
edited the Delhi-Topra pillar-edicts in 1837 (JASB, 6. 566ff.). Both pillars bear the first 
six edicts, the first four on the east face and the last two on the west face. Mr, B* H* 
Hodgson had called them the Radhia and Mathiah pillars- 1 Cunningham ascer- 
tained that the villages of Radhia and Mathiah are 2§ and three miles distant from 
them, and proposed to call them the Lauriya-Araraj and Lauriya- Navandgarh pillars. 3 
His reasons were the following : Each of the two pillars stands near a village named 
Lauriya, the former of which is in the Champaran district, North Bihar, twenty 
miles NW. of Kesariya, while the second is fifteen miles NNW. of Betiya in the same- 
district Both names are derived from the pillars themselves, which were mistaken 
by the people for lingas (Hindi laura). To distinguish the two different villages 
of Lauriya, Cunningham combined with the former Araraj, the name of a neighbouring 
temple of £iva, and with the second Navandgarh, the name of a ruined fort in its 
vicinity. . V. A. Smith (JRAS, 1902. 153, note) added that 'Navandgarh' is a mistake 
for 6 Handangarh, \ 

The Lauriya-Araraj pillar f is a single block of polished sandstone, 36! feet in 
height above the ground.' 3 According to V, A- Smith it was originally surmounted 
by a figure of Gariuja. 4 

The Lauriya-Nandangafh pillar ' is formed of a single block of polished sandstone, 
32 feet g| inches in height.' 

'The capital, which is 6 feet 10 inches in height, is bell-shaped, with a circular 
abacus supporting the statue of a lion facing the north. The abacus is ornamented 
with a row of Brahmani geese pecking their food/ 6 

Besides the A£oka edicts, the pillar bears a record of the emperor Aurangzib 
and a few modern scribblings. It is now worshipped as a symbol of Siva, and its 
erection is ascribed to the Pandava Bhlma. 6 

* 

Biihler edited the inscriptions of the Lauriya-Araraj and Lauriya-Nandangarh 
pillars twice, in ZDMG (vols. 45 and 46) and in EI (2. 245 ff.). His second article was 
accompanied by photo-lithographs of Mr. Garrick's impressions. 



V. The Rampurva Pillar (Text, p. 151}- 

Another copy of the first six edicts is engraved on a lion-pillar of polished sand- 
stone, which was discovered by Mr. Carlleyle at Rampurva in the Champaran district, 
32I miles north of Betiya. 7 The relative positions of Lauriya-Araraj, Lauriya-Nandan- 
garh, and Rampurva are shown on V. A. Smith's sketch map in JRAS, 1902. 162, and 
on plate I of Cunningham's Arch. Reports, vol 16. 



1 See JASB, 3 (1834). 481 ff., where a drawing of the Mathiah pillar and a lithograph of 
its inscription are given (plates 37 and 29). The first lithograph of the Radhia pillar appeared 
in vol 4 (1835), p, 124, plate 7, 

3 InscripHom of Asoka, p. 39 ff. 3 Id., p. 40. 

4 Asoka, sec. ed, 9 p. 147* and ZDMG, 65. 327. 

5 Cunningham's Arch. Reports^ 1. 7 a f. For pictures of the pillar see id., plates 23 and 25; 
vol. 16, plate 27 ; the frontispiece of V. A. Smith's Asoka, sec. ed. ; and plate 3 of his History * 
of Fine Art in India and Ceylon, 

6 Cunningham's Inscriptions of Asoka, p. 41. 7 Cunningham's Arch. Reports, as. 51, 



THE PILLAR-EDICTS x i x 

* The pillar has fallen down, and is now lying partly in water. 1 The upper part 
of the lion is gone, but the lower part of the animal, with the bell capital and 
circular abacus with the well-known geese and conventional flowers, is still in very fair 
condition, The capital was fixed to the shaft by a massive copper bolt/ 3 

Mr, Garrick prepared impressions of that side of the pillar which could then be 
reached. Buhler's transcripts of them (ZDMG, vols, 45 and 46; EI 9 2. 245 ff., with 
photo-lithograph) show that it contained portions of the first four edicts. 

To Sir John Marshall we are indebted for complete impressions of the six edicts 
and for the discovery of the missing lion-capital. 3 The length of the shaft was found to 
be 44 feet gf inches, of which 8 feet 9 inches are left rough-dressed, having originally 
been buried in the ground. As on the two Lauriya pillars, the inscription is divided into 
two columns on opposite faces of the pillar. 

The pillar has now been removed some 200 yards from its former position and lies 
horizontally on a small mound. To protect the inscription from the weather, a small 
brick shed has been erected over the centre of the pillar. 4 

VI. The Allahabad-Kosam Pillar (Text, p. 155). 

This pillar now stands inside the fort at Allahabad. It ' is a single shaft of 
polished sandstone 35 feet in length/ 5 1 Its total length, including the base, is 
forty-two feet seven inches/* 1 

Habent sua fata columnae! The history of the Allahabad pillar is as chequered 
and curious as that of the two Delhi pillars- On examination it is found to contain 
on it four strata of literary records ; 

(1) The original inscriptions of A£oka, viz, : 

(a) the first six edicts of the Delhi-Topra pillar ; , 
{$) the so-called 1 Queen's edict * (to the right of 2) ; 
(c) the so-called ' KauSambi edict * (above 6). 

(2) An inscription of the Maharajadhiraja Samudragupta (below 1). 

(3) An interlineation in Nagarl characters. 

H 

(4) An inscription of the emperor Jahanglr, 

A sketch of the pillar by Captain James Hoare and a rough copy of 
portions of its inscriptions appeared in 1801 in the Asiatic Researches \ vol. 7, 
plates 13 and 14. In 1834 Lieutenant T. S. Burt published, at Prinsep's request, 
drawings of the pillar (JASB, vol 3, plate 3), which was then lying on the 
ground, having been taken down by Colonel Kyd in 1804. 7 'The common legend 
of the natives *, he says, c states the pillar to be the gada or staff of Bhimasena* 
(p. 105). Prinsep added a lithograph of Burt's copies of the A£oka inscriptions and 
a classified table of letters (plates 4 and 5), Although yet unable to read the alphabet, 
he very shrewdly guessed the actual value of post-consonantal a s e, and Anusvara, 



1 See Cunningham's ArcJu Reports, vol. sa, plate 7. 

2 Id., vol, 16, preface, p. viii. See also plate a8. 3 JRAS, 1908. 1086, and plate I, fig. 1. 
4 See Annual Report of the Arch* Survey of India, Eastern Circle^ for 1913-1913, p. 36. 

6 Cunningham's Inscriptions ofAsoka, p. 37, 6 Lieutenant Burt in JASB, 3. 105. 

7 See Lieutenant Kittoe's note in JASB, 4. 137. 

c 2 



xx INTRODUCTION 

Six months later he recognised the consonants % v % s (p. 485), and three years after he 
deciphered the six ASoka edicts, together with those of the Delhi-Topra pillar. 1 

1 The capital of the column was no doubt of the usual bell-shape of ASoka's other 
pillars, but of this there is now no trace- The circular abacus, however, still remains, 
with its graceful scroll of alternate lotus and honeysuckle, resting on a beaded astragalus- 
of Greek origin, This was once surmounted by the statue of a lion ; 3 but the lion must 
have disappeared many centuries ago, as when the pillar was re-erected by Jahanglr in 
a.d. 1605, it was crowned by a globe, surmounted by a cone, as described and sketched 
by Padre Tieffenthaler in the middle of the next century/ 3 

In 1838 the pillar was set up again by Captain Edward Smith and provided with 
a newly designed lion which, according to Cunningham {Arch. Reports, 1. 300), looks 1 not 
unlike a stuffed poodle stuck on the top of an inverted flower pot/ , 

As regards the set of six edicts (i f a), ' the present- confused appearance of it is due 
chiefly to the later inscriptions [3] that have been engraved between the original lines of 
writing. The most serious damage that has been done to it is due to seven entire lines 
and the greater part of the eighth, line 1 6, having been entirely destroyed to make room 
for a circular inscription of Jahanglr [4]/* I A, vol. 13 contains a facsimile of the six 
edicts by Fleet and a Nagarr transcript by Buhler (p. 306 ff.), who reprinted the text 
twice, in ZDMG (vols. 45 and 46) and in EI (2, 245 ff.). 

The Queen's edict (1, b) was already transcribed and translated by Prinsep, 5 while 
the Kaufiambl edict (i f c) was first noticed by Cunningham. 6 Both were edited by 
Senart 7 and, with Fleet's facsimiles, by Buhler (IA, 19. 122 ff.). The KauSambi edict 
was re-edited by A.-3VL Boyer. 8 

The KauSambI edict is addressed to the Mahamatras at KosambI {Kcmsambi in 
Sanskrit)- Cunningham concluded from this that the Allahabad pillar must have been 
originally erected by A£oka at KausambI, 9 which is the modern Kosam on the left bank 
of the Jamna, about twenty-eight miles west by south from Allahabad. 10 He further 
suggested that the removal of the pillar from Kosam to Allahabad was perhaps due to 
Firoz Shah, who is known to have transported the Topra and Mlrath pillars to Delhi. 
But, while Delhi was the capital of Firoz Shah, Allahabad was founded, or rather 
refounded, two centuries after him by Akbar. 11 This ruler may have removed from 
Kosam the Allahabad pillar, on which inscriptions of his favourite Birbal 12 and of his son 
Jahangir are engraved. In this case the pillar would have been still standing at Kosam 
when the inscription of Samudragupta (2) was incised on it. This record was last 
edited by Fleet in his Gupta Inscriptions, No. 1 ; it refers to ' this lofty pillar * {ayamt 
uchchhritah stambhah, 1. 30). 



1 JASB, 6 (1837). 566 ff. See also id., p. 965 f. . 2 Cf. JASB, 4. 137. 

3 Cunningham's Inscriptions of Asoka, p. 37. For Captain Hoare's sketch of the pillar see 
Asiatic Researches , vol. 7, plate 13. * 

4 Fleet in IA, 13. 305. 

5 JASB, 6, 568 £ and 966 f., with a lithograph on plate 56, fig. 1. See also id., vol. 3, 
plate 4, bottom. 

6 Inscriptions of Asoka % p. 38. 7 Inscriptions de Piyadasi, 2. 99 ff,, and IA, 18, 308 f. 
8 J A (xo) a 10. 130 ff. and 141, 9 Inscriptions of Asoka, p. 39. 

10 See Fleet's Gupta Inscriptions, p. % ; also Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India, 
p. 391 ff , and EI, 11. 91 and 141. 

n , Cunningham's Arch. Reports, 1, 398. For coins struck by Akbar at Allahabad see the 
British Museum Catalogue of Moghul Coins, pp. 48 and 53, Whitehead's Catalogue of Coins in the 
Punjab Mnseum,vo\ t II, Introduction, p. xlix, and the Catalogues by Wright {1908) and Brown (1930). 

13 Cunningham's Inscriptions ofAsoka, p. 39, 



■ 



THE PILLAR-EDICTS 



xxi 



The Nagari interlineation (3) of the Allahabad-Kosam pillar * is merely a series of 
unconnected scribblings of various dates, cut in most likely by the attendants on the 
pillar as a pretext for exacting a few rupees from visitors/ 1 

Jahangxr's inscription (4) records the names of his ancestors and is dated in 

A- H- IOI4 Or A.D. I605. 2 , 

+ 

THIRD PART: MINOR PILLAR-INSCRIPTIONS 

I. The Samchi Pillar (Text, p. 160). 

Samchi 3 is an ancient site in the Bhopal State, Central India, 5! miles from 
Bhilsa and about § mile from the Sanchi railway station. The ASoka pillar * is only . 
a fragment of a large polished shaft ; but near it there still lies a beautiful broken 
capital crowned by four lions, which, no doubt, once surmounted it/ 4 It is now lying 
in the jungle f but apparently it stood originally near the south gate of the great 
Samchi Stiipa. 6 

The beginning of the inscription on the pillar is lost, and the first preserved line is 
badly damaged. A facsimile was published by Burgess, in EI, 2. 369. The record was 
edited and translated by Btthler (id., p. 366 f.) and by Boyer (I A (io), 10, 123 if. and 
141), and re-examined by myself (JRAS, 1911. 167 ff., and 1912, 1055 £). 

II. The Sarnath Pillar (Text, p. 161). 

Sarnath, about 3f- miles to the. north of Benares, is believed to be the site of one 
of the most memorable events in the career of the Buddha : it adjoins the Migadaya 
(i. e, 4 deer-park ') at Isipatana in which he preached his first sermon. 6 Here Mr. F. O. 
Oertel discovered a broken pillar of polished sandstone which bears an edict of Asoka, 7 
He found also the former capital of the column, which ' is surmounted by four magni- 
ficent lions standing back to back, and in their middle was a large stone wheel, the 
sacred dharmachakra symbol of which only fragments remain. * The lions stand on 
a drum with four animal figures carved on it, viz. a Hon/ an elephant, a bull, and a 
horse, placed between four wheels. The upper part of the capital is supported by an 
elegantly shaped Persepolitan bell-shaped member/ 

In the opinion of a competent judge 1 it would be difficult to find in any country 
an example of ancient animal sculpture superior or even equal to this beautiful work 
of art, which successfully combines realistic modelling with ideal dignity, and is finished 
in every detail -with perfect accuracy.' 8 

The Chinese traveller, Hiuen Tsiang, saw on the site of the Migadaya a stone pillar 
which stood in front of a Stiipa built by Asokaraja, and which was about 70 feet high. 9 

1 Prinsep in JASB, 6. 967, Cf. Cunningham's Inscriptions of Asoka* p. 38 f. 

2 See Lieutenant Burt in JASB, 3, 108, and Prinsep's foot-note. 

3 Mr. D. R. Bhandarkar informed me that this, and not Sanchi, is the actual pronunciation 
of the name. 

4 Cunningham's Inscriptions of Asoka i p. 43. 

6 See EI, 3. 366, n. a^and JRAS, 190a. 30. ^ 

6 Cunningham's Arch* Reports^ 1. 107 ; SBE, 11. 146, and 13. 90 ; Buddhist Birth Stories, 
1. Ill f. 

7 Arch* Survey of India* Annual Report^ 1904-5, p, 6S 

8 V. A. Smith's History of Fine Art in India and Ceylon^ p. 60. For photographs of the 
capital see id,, plate 13, and Oertel's article, plate 30. 3 Beat's BRWW, 3. 46. 



xxii INTRODUCTION 

As Oertel (op* cit, p, 69) has calculated the actual height of the Sarnath pillar at about 
37 feet above ground, Hiuen Tsiang seems to .have overestimated its height, unless he 
refers to a different pillar. 

Unfortunately the three top lines of the inscription are broken away, and the fourth 
line is badly damaged- But Oertel succeeded in recovering three inscribed fragments 
which, as Professor Vogel has proved, contain the two first aksharas of each of lines 
1-3, and the end of lines 3 and 4 (EI, 8. 166 £). The remainder of the inscription was 
found in situ* underground, and is in a state of nearly perfect preservation. 

The stump of the pillar bears also two short records of a later date : an inscription 
of king A6vagh6slia which is engraved in continuation of the last line of the A£oka 
edict, and a Buddhist inscription in early Gupta characters above the ASvaghosha 
epigraph. These three records were first published, with collotypes, by Vogel in 
EI, 8. 166 ff M and the Aioka edict was re-edited by Boyer (J A (10), 10. 119 ff.), Senart 
(CR, 1907. 25 ff.), and Venis (JPASB, 3, iff.). See also my remarks in JRAS, 191 2. 
1053 ff. 

1 

, III. The Rummindei Pillar (Text, p. 164), 

+ 

In December 1896 Dr. Fuhrer found a pillar bearing an inscription of A3oka about 
thirteen miles south-east of the Nigall Sagar pillar (below, No. IV) in the Nepalese 
TaraT. The pillar stands near the shrine of Rummindei, about a mile to the north of 
the village of Parariya, which is about two miles north of Bhagvanpur,, the head-quarters 
of the Nepalese tahsil of that name, and about five miles to the north-east of Dulha in 
the British district of Bast!. 1 

The new ASoka pillar is a mere stump, but still in situ and surrounded by a brick 
railing. * It is of hard sandstone of the usual yellowish colour, and rises to a height of 
21 feet or so/ 2 The inscription on it was edited, with facsimile, by Biihler in 1898^ and 
records that Asoka visited the spot and erected the pillar 1 because the Buddha Sakya- 
muni was born here \ and that the king exempted the village of Iiiimmini from taxes. 

Both Lummini and the modern name Rummindei must be identical with the 
Lumbini grove, the traditional site of the Buddha's birth * This identification is 
confirmed by Hiuen Tsiang, who mentions a pillar set up by Asokaraja in the Lumbini 
garden, and near the pillar the 'river of oil V which is now called Tilar-nadT, i,e. appar- 
ently ' the telf s or oilman's river \ G He further states that the pillar bore on the top 
the figure of a horse, and that it had been struck by lightning and broken off in the 
middle. This agrees with Mukherji's description of the Rummindei pillar (p. 34). He 
tells us that * its upper portion is gone, and of what remains the top is split into two 
halves, the line of fissure coming down to near the middle height The capital was of 
the usual bell-shaped * form, of which the base, broken into two halves, exists ..... 
The stone horse, which crowned the capital, is gone with the upper portion of the shaft 1 ; 



1 See V. A, Smith in IA, 34, i s and cf. plates 18 and 19 of Babu P. C. Mukherji's Antiquities 
in the Tarai (Calcutta, 1901). 

2 Op. cit., p, 34. For a drawing of the pillar see id., plate 20, fig. 3, and for photographs 
of it, the plate facing p. 37 of Fuhrer's Monograph on Buddha Sakyammtfs Birth-place (Allahabad, 
1897} and the plate facing p. 148 of V. A. Smith's Early History of India. 

a EI, 5. 1 ff. For subsequent articles on the Rummindei inscription see IA, 43$ 17, 
4 See the Introduction to the Jataka> vol. I, pp. 53 and 54. For other forms of the word 
Lumbini see IA, 43. 38. 

6 Seal's BRWW, a. 24 £ * 
0 See V. A. Smith's preface to Jlukherji's Antiquities^ p. 6, 



MINOR PILLAR-INSCRIPTIONS xxiii 

but it seems to be alluded to in the inscription itself. 'Finally, the temple of Rummindel 
contains an ancient sculpture which represents the nativity of the Buddha (op. cit., 
plate 24, a). This is an additional piece of evidence in favour of the identity of the 
locality with the Lwnbiiii-vana % 

IV. The Nigali Sagar Pillar (Text, p. 165)- 

In March 1895 another A£oka pillar, of polished sandstone was discovered by 
Fuhrer in the Nepalese TaraT on the western bank of a large tank called Kigali Sagar, 
about a mile south of Nigliva. This village lies about thirteen miles north-west of 
Rummindel and belongs to the Nepalese tahsil of Tauliva (about seven miles north- 
west of Piprava in the British district of Basti). 1 

The pillar is, now called Nigall or ' the smoking-pipe 3 of Bhlmasena. 2 It is not in 
situ, and only two broken portions of it are preserved. The upper piece is about 
14 feet 9§ inches long and bears a few mediaeval drawings and scribblings. The lower 
portion is about 10 feet long and bears an inscription of ASoka in four lines; some 
letters at the beginning of the two last lines are broken away. 3 

The inscription was first edited by Buhler in VOJ, 9. 175 ff.', and again, with 
facsimile, in EI, 5, 1 if. It records that ASoka ' enlarged the Stupa of the BndcLha 
Konakamana to the double (of its original size) \ and that later on he visited the spot 
in person and erected the pillar. : 

Hiuen Tsiang seems to mention the Nigall Sagar pillar. 4 He states that it stood 
in front of a Stfipa containing relics of Kanakamum Buddha, that it was surmounted by 
a lion, was about 20 feet high (which is less than the length of the two preserved pieces 
combined), bore an inscription, and had been erected by Asokaraja, The Stupa 
referred to by Hiuen Tsiang cannot be traced near the spot where the two portions of 
the pillar have been found.? 

FOURTH PART: MINOR ROCK-INSCRIPTIONS 

I, The Rupnath Rock-Inscription (Text, p. 166). 

Rupnath is an out-of-the-way place of pilgrimage in the Central Provinces, fourteen 
miles west of Sleemanabad railway station 6 on the line from Jabalpur to Katni. 

1 The- Rupnath rock is a single flinty block of dark-red sandstone lying at the foot of 
the Kaimur range of hills, just below the fertile plateau of Bahuriband. 7 Here a small 
* stream breaks over the crest of the Kaimur range, and, after three low falls, forms 
a deep secluded pool at the foot of the scarp. Each of these pools is considered holy, 
the uppermost being named after Rama, the next after Lakshmana, and the lowest 



1 For the relative positions of Nigliva and Rummindel see plate 1 of Mukherji's Antiquities 
in the Tarau 

2 Id., p, 30, and Fuhrer's Mmiograpl^ p. 33. 

3 For photographs of ' the pillar see plates 3, 4, 5 of Fiihrer's Monograph, and for a drawing 
of it, Mukherji's Antiquities^ plate 16, fig. 1. * q 

** Seal's BRWW, 3. 19. . 

5 See V. A. Smith's preface to Mukherji's Antiquities, p. 3 f. 
0 See V- A. Smith's Asoka, sea ed., p. 133, n. 1. 

7 A small town thirty-two miles to the north of Jabalpur ; see Cunningham's Arch. Reports^ 
9- 39- 



xxiv 



INTRODUCTION 



after Sita, The spot, however, is best known by the name of Rupnath, from a lingo, of 
6iva which is placed in a narrow cleft of the rocks on the right/ 1 

* The detached boulder, upon which the edict of Asoka is inscribed, lies just above 
the west margin of the lower pool under a great tree, the inscription being upon its flat 
top and near one edge. The rock is one of many that have fallen at some time or 
another from the cliffs above, and it is possible that it has fallen since the inscription was 
cut upon it/ 2 

' The edict of ASoka is inscribed on the upper surface of the rock, which has been 
worn quite smooth by people sitting upon it for hundreds of years at the annual fairs. 
It is now of a very dark - dirty-red colour, and the inscription might easily escape 
observation. The lines follow the undulations of the rock, and are neither straight nor 
parallel with each other. The inscription is 4| feet long and 1 foot broad, and consists 
of six lines, of which the last has only five letters; 3 

The Rupnath edict was copied in 187 1-2 by Cunningham [Arch. Reports, 7. 59) 
and published with a facsimile in 1877 by Buhler (I A, 6, 149 ff.), who re-edited it twice 
afterwards- 4 Senart's treatment of it is included in his Inscriptions de Piyadasi (2. 165 ff.) 
and in Sir George Griersons translation (I A, 20. 1 54 fF.) . Fresh impressions of the 
inscription were prepared by the late Dr. Bloch. 5 

■ * 

II. The Sahasram Rock- Inscription {Text, p. 169). 

Sahasram is a town and the head-quarters of a subdivision in the Shahabad 
district, South Bihar. f About two miles to the east of the town rises one of the last spurs 
of the Kaimur range of hills called Chandan-Rr, after a Muhammadan saint, who took 
up his abode on the top of the hill.' 0 

The edict of ASoka ' is found in an artificial cave a short distance below, which is 
generally known as the Chiraghdan or 1 lamp * of the saint. The roof of the cave 
is formed by a large projecting mass of rock that has most effectually preserved the 
greater part of the inscription, which is in excellent order, except in three or four places 
where the rock has peeled off. The entrance, which is only 4 feet high, is to the west 
between two built walls- By making an opening in one of these walls, my assistant, 
Mr. Beglar, obtained a good photograph of the inscripdon.' 7 

The Sahasram edict was published three times by Buhler and twice by Senart along 
with the Rupnath one (No. I, above). In editing it the third time (I A, 22. 299), Buhler 
noted that Beglar's photograph still shows a number of letters which have since 
disappeared owing to the disintegration of the rock, and which are already missing 
in Fleets facsimile (loc. cit). To the kindness of Sir John Marshall I owe a copy 
of this valuable photograph, which I have utilized for my transcript of the text. 

III. The Bairat Rock-Inscription (Text, p. 171). 

A much damaged version of the Rupnath-Sahasram edict was discovered in 
1 87 1-2 by Mr. Carlleyle about a mile to the north-east of Bairat, the head-quarters 

1 Cunningham's Inscriptions of Asoka, p. 31. 

2 Mr. Cousens in Progress Report, ASWI, 1903-4, p. 35. 

3 Cunningham's Inscriptions of Asoka, p. %%. 

4 IA, 7. 141 ff., and, with Fleet's facsimile, id., 33. 399 ff. 

5 Annual Report, AS, Eastern Circle, 1907-8, p. 19. 

0 Cunningham's Arch, Reports, 11. 13a f. 7 Cunningham's Inscriptions of Asoka , p, 20 £ 



MINOR ROCK-INSCRIPTIONS xxv 

of a tahsil in the Jaipur State, Rajputana, about forty-two miles north-by-north-east 
of Jaipur City. 

c This edict is engraved on a block lying separately, but immediately below the hill 

locally known as Bhtm-kl-dtt iigri It is inscribed on the eastern face and near the 

lower end of the rock/ 1 

The inscribed block f is 17 feet in height by 24 feet in length from east to west, 
and 15 feet in thickness from north to south.' 3 

The inscription was edited by Buhler and Senart along with the Rupnath and 
Sahasram ones (Nos, I and II, above). No facsimile of it has yet been published 
except Cunningham's eye-copy in his Inscriptions of Asoka, plate 14, No. x.. 

IV. The Calcutta-Bairat Rock-Inscription (Text, p. 172). 

The block which bears this very interesting and valuable record is now preserved 
in Calcutta by the Asiatic Society of Bengal It was discovered in 1 840 by Captain Burt 
' upon a hill lying adjacent to' JBairat, the town .near which some years later Carlleyle 
found the preceding inscription (No. Ill)- Burt reported that he found the inscription 
* on a hard, grey granite block, irregularly shaped, and measuring about two feet in two 
of its dimensions, and a foot and a half in the third' (JASB, 9. 616). His copy of the 
inscription was lithographed by Captain Kittoe, and transcribed and translated by the 
same 1 with the aid of the learned Pandit Kamala K&nta' (id, p. 617 and plate). 

Burt's copy formed the basis of the editions of Burnouf (Lotus, p, 710 ff.), Kern 
(Jaartelling, p. 32 ff.), and Wilson f (J R AS, 16. 357 ff, with lithograph). Senart edited 
the record in his Inscriptzotis de Piyadasi, 2. 197 ff M and published a revised edition of it, 
from an estampage by Burgess, in I A, 20. 165 ff A photograph of Burgess' estampage 
appeared in J A (8), 9. 498. 

As Burt had stated that Bairat was six kos distant from f Bhabra' (JASB, 9. 616), 
the inscription has been styled generally * the Bhabra edict *• But this name implies 
a double mistake : the town from which it is derived is not called 1 Bhabra', but Bhabru, 
and the latter is twelve miles distant from Bairat, the finding-place of the block. 3 
According to Cunningham {Arch. Reports,^ 247), ' the hill on which the inscription was 
found forms a conspicuous object about one mile Xo the south-west of the town [of 
Bairat], It is about 200 feet high, and is still known by the name of Btjak-Pakar or 
"inscription hill"/ It is covered with ruins which Cunningham (id., p. 248) took to be 
the remains of two Buddhist monasteries, 

1 The inscription stone originally lay, J am told, near the shrine of Hanuman below 
the rock known as top or " cannon f \ on the first or lower platform on the summit of 
the hill/ 4 

In order to distinguish this inscription from the preceding one (No. Ill), I propose 
to call it ' the Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription \ 

V. The Maski Rock-Inscription (Text, p. 174). 

Another, damaged, version of the Rupnath, Sahasram, and Bairat edicts was 
discovered on January 27, 191 5, by Mr. C Beadon, a gold-mining engineer, in the 

1 D. R. Bhandarkar, Progress Report, AS, Western Circle, 1909-10, p. 45 f. Cf- Cunningham's 
Arch. Reports, 33. 29. 

2 Cunningham's ArcJu Reports, 6. 98, 

. 3 See D. R. Bhandarkar, Progress Report, AS> Western Circle, 1909-10, p. 45. 
4 D. R. Bhandarkar, loc. cit 

1613 d 



xxvi 



INTRODUCTION 



neighbourhood of Maski, a village in the Lingsugur taluka of the Raichur district of the 
Nizam's Dominions, about forty-six miles west-south-west from Raichur, I am indebted 
to Rao Bahadur H. Krishna Sastri for the subjoined note on Maski : 

c By enquiries made at the place, I gather that the spelling of the village named 
Maski is different with different communities. The masses of illiterate agriculturists 
pronounce it Ma£gi or MaSigi ; the Brahmin classes call it Maski, and the Muham- 
madans MasgL A Chaiukya inscription of the time of Jagadekamalla (£aka 949) calls the 
place Rajadhani piriya-Mosamgi, i.e. " the royal residence of great Mosangi Another 
inscription of the same king in the village refers to that quarter as the Brahmapurt of 
MosamgL A later record of the Yadava king Singhana of the thirteenth century calls 
the place again Rajadhani piriya-Mosamgi. In two other inscriptions of the place 
belonging to the reigns of Achyutaraya and Sada&varaya, its name is mentioned as 
Mosage, the chief town of Mosage-nadtt! 

To these remarks we may add that Mosafigi, the ancient form of the name of 
Maski, suggests its identity with the battle-field of BluSangi, where, according to 
Tamil records, the Chaiukya king Jayasimha II was defeated by Rajendra-Chola I. 1 

A careful transcript and translation of the Maski inscription (with plates) was 
published by H. Krishna Sastri** who describes the site as follows : 

1 The cavern in which the inscribed boulder stands is formed of a huge rock resting 
at various points of its periphery on other smaller ones, some of which are partly buried 

in the gravelly soil below. The boulder, which is a block of crystalline grey granite of 

irregular shape, stands at the southern entrance into the cavern, with the writing facing 

inwards. The surface of the boulder has peeled off at various places, sometimes right 

up to the depth to which the letters were incised, and measures roughly 8 feet 9 inches 

by 5 feet* {p. 2). . - 

In the year 19 16, the third of the great war, Fleet drew attention to the new 

inscription in JRAS, 1916. 572 ; Senart examined it in detail in J A (n), 7. 425 ff. ; 

and I, having received a copy of Krishna Sastri's article from my friend Konow, 

re-published the text in ZDMG, 70, 539 ff. 

The chief interest of the Maski inscription consists in the fact that the king is here 

called not only Devana * priya % but in addition to it Afioka, — a name which was hitherto 

known only from Buddhist literature and from the Puranas* 

VI, VII, VI I L Rock-Inscriptions in the Mysore State (Text, p. 175), 

These three records, which resemble the Rupnath, Sahasram, Bairat, and Maski 
edicts, but add to them a second edict, were discovered and edited with lithographs by 
Mr. B, L. Rice in 1892* 8 They were discussed by Senart, who added a transcript and 
translation of the Brahmagiri version (J A (8), 19. 47 2 ff,), and by Biihler, who corrected 
a few details (VOJ, 7. 29 ff.). In 1894 Buhler re-edited the three inscriptions with 
photo-lithographs prepared from inked estampages (EI, 3. 134 ff-)- Transcripts and 
facsimiles are given also in Rice's Epigraphia Camatica, vol. ii, from which I borrow 
the following careful description of the localities (Introduction, p. 2 f.) : 4 

•The ASoka inscriptions discovered by me were three in number, situated on hills 
on the right and left banks of the Janagi-halla or Chinna Haggari river, where it crosses 



1 See South-Ind. Inscriptions, 1. 95 f, ; EI a 9. 330 ; Fleet in JRAS, 1916. 574. 

2 Hyderabad Archaeological Series, No. I ; The New Asokan Edict of Maski, 1915. 

3 Edicts ofAsoka in Mysore, nine pages of foolscap, dated Bangalore, February 189a. 

4 See also Fleets remarks in JRAS, 1909. 997 f. 



MINOR ROCK-INSCRIPTIONS 



xxvii 



the Molkalmuru taluq [of the Ghitaldroog district of the Mysore State] from west to east 
They are all in the neighbourhood of Siddapura, 1 between 14° 47' and 51' north latitude 
and about 76 0 51' east longitude. The best preserved is the Brahmagiri inscription, 
engraved on the top of a great boulder of gneiss, at the north-west base of the hill of 
that name, at a point called the Ganjigimte-mnle* The boulder was well known 
throughout the neighbourhood as the A kskara-gimdu or " letter-rock and was supposed 
to be endued with medicinal virtues. Accordingly, in various ailments of human beings 
and in diseases of cattle, the stone was washed and the water used for the purpose given 
to the patient to drink. It was the favourite seat for goatherds in the heat of the day 
when the flocks were collected into the shade of the surrounding rocks, and for ryots 
watching the crops in the neighbouring fields. The inscription is cut on the undressed 
horizontal surface of the rock, which slopes down somewhat at the end of the lines. It 
consists of thirteen not very regular lines, covering a space of 15' 6" by ii' 6". Half 
a dozen letters at the beginning of the 6th and 7th lines have "been defaced by lodgment 
of water in a depression in the stone.' 

1 The second inscription is less than a mile to the west of the first, and close to 
Siddapura, on a ledge, facing south, some way up a rocky group of hills called Ymamana 
Timmayyana gundlu or " the buffalo-herd Timmayya s rocks It consists of twenty- 
two lines, covering a space of 1 3' 6" by 8', and is engraved in lines of varying length 
on the sloping and peeling horizontal surface of the rock. A great boulder overhangs 
the inscription on the north, under the eaves of which the lines end, leaving a very 
small space between the inscribed floor and the rock above. Considerable portions 
have been defaced, as the shady ledge on which the inscription is cut formed a favourite 
shelter for goats and cattle. 1 

'The third inscription is on the western summit of the . Jattnga-RameSvara hill, 
which is some three miles or more north by west of Brahmagiri. The inscription 
is cut on a very irregular slanting horizontal surface of rock, facing north-east, which has 
been quarried at some period. Overhanging the inscription on the south is an immense 
boulder, which still shows the marks of the mason's punches used in splitting off 
a considerable portion of its northern face. The floor on which the inscription is 
cut is immediately in front of the stairs leading up to the Jatinga-RameSvara temple. 
Consequently all pilgrims to the shrine used to walk right over the inscription, and 
have no doubt done so for centuries. Moreover, owing to the convenient shadow 
of the overhanging boulder, the site of the inscription was the favourite resort of the 
bangle-sellers at the annual festival. Henqe the rock is called the Bategara-gimdit 
or " bangle-sellers' rock and various holes have been punched in different parts of the 
rock on which the inscription is cut to receive the posts of the booths or tents erected 
by them at the annual fair. For the foregoing reasons it is not surprising that the 
inscription is very greatly defaced, so much so indeed that it is difficult to tell exactly 
where it begins or where it ends. So far as can be made out, it consists of at least 
twenty-eight lines, covering a space of 17' 6" by 6' 6". There is a guiding line 
engraved in the margin to the left, apparently to show the direction of the lines, 
but those above this mark do not seem to have been parallel with those below it.' 

From a foot-note 2 we are glad to learn that 1 erections have now been put up 
over this and the other ASoka inscriptions by the Mysore Government for their 
protection, and the headman of the village has the keys as custodian *. 



1 According to Krishna Sastri, the actual pronunciation of this name is Siddapura. 

2 Ep* CariL % vol, 1 i a Introduction, p. a, n. 2. 

d 2 



xxviii INTRODUCTION 

IX. The Barabar Hill Cave-Inscriptions (Text, p. 181). 

' The Hills called Barabar are isolated rocks of syenitic granite rising abruptly 
from the plain about 1 5 miles north of the city of Gaya 1 in South Bihar. 4 Although 
Barabar is that by which the cluster is commonly known, each hill has a name of 
its own, the highest being called " Barabar * also " SiddheSvar " from a temple to 
Mahadeva that once crowned it' 1 

( All of these possess some Buddhistic remains, but the most interesting are the 
caves of Barabar and Nagarjum, which were hewn out of the solid rock upwards of two 
thousand years ago/ 3 

* There are altogether seven caves in these hills, four of which belong to the 
Barabar or SiddheSvara group, and three to the Nagarjtral group/ 8 Each of the three 
Nagarjum caves contains an inscription of Dashalatha Devanampiya r i.e. ASokas 
grandson DaSaratha, 4 Among the four Barabar caves, three bear an inscription of 
king Devanampiya, and one (the so-called * Lomasa Rishi cave*) a Vaishnava inscription 
of the Maukbari Anantavarinan,, which seems to show that the original name of the 
Barabar Hill was Pravaragiri. 6 

According to the second and third Barabar inscriptions the name of the Barabar 
Hill was then Khalatika. Both the first and second inscriptions of king Devanampiya 
and the three Nagarjum inscriptions of DaSaratha specify as donees the monks of the 
Ajlvika sect. In three cases an attempt has been made to chisel away the word 
AjwikehL This was probably done in the time of the Maukhari Anantavarman, who 
assigned one of the Barabar caves to Krishna, and two of the Nagarjum ones to £iva 
and Parvatl. 0 

The three Barabar inscriptions of king Devanampriya were first lithographed and 
discussed by Captain Kittoe. 7 They were examined by Burnouf {Lotus, p. 779 ff.) 
and edited by Senart 8 and, with Fleet's facsimiles, by Btthler {I A, 20* 361 ff*). 



CHAPTER II. THE AUTHOR OF THE INSCRIPTIONS 

The king at whose orders the rock- and pillar-edicts published in the first and 
second parts of this volume were engraved, gives his name or title in various Prakrit 
forms of which the Sanskrit would be Devdnampriyak PHyadarH raja? This full 



1 Captain Kittoe in JASB, 16 (1847). 40a. 3 Cunningham's Arch. Reports, 1. 40. . 

3 Id., p. 44* For the modern names of the single Barabar caves and for plans of them 
see id., plates 18 and 19. Cf, also Fergusson ? s History of Indian and Eastern Architecture^ 
revised by Burgess and Spiers, r. 130 ff. ; Cane Temples of India, p. 37 ff.; V* A. Smith's 
History of Fine Art in India and Ceylon, p. ao. 

* For the bibliography of these inscriptions see Liiders* List of Brahmi Itiscriptiotts (EI ? 
voi io, Appendix), Nos. 954-6. 

5 See Fleets Gupta Inscriptions, p. aaa, 6 See id,, Nos. 48—50. 

7 JASB, 16- 401 ft, and plate 9, figures 4-6. 

8 Inscriptions de Piyadasi, a- 209 ff. 5 and IA, ao, 168 ff- 

0 In a few cases (Kalsl rock-edict I, A; Shahbazgarfri rock-edict II, A; Delhi-Topra 
pillar-edict VII, O and X) the word raja is omitted, and once (Shahbazgarhi, I, A) the word 
Priyadarit Cf, Fleet, JRAS, 1908. 48a. 



THE AUTHOR OF THE INSCRIPTIONS xxix 

form of his title is shortened into Devanampriyah in section C of the Dhauli and 
Jaugada rock-edict X, in all texts of the rock-edicts XII and XIII after the opening 
section, in which the full style is preserved, and in the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, RR, 
In tiie two separate rock-edicts at Dhauli and Jaugada, in the Queens pillar-edict, and 
in the KausambT pillar-edict, Devanampriyah alone is found- 

Among the records published in the third and fourth parts of this volume, the 
Rummindei and Nigali Sagar pillars exhibit the full form Devanampriyah Priyadarsi 
raja. The Maski rock-inscription opens with the genitive case of Devanampriya 
Afidka. On the Sarnath pillar and in the Rupnath, Sahasram, Bairat, and the three 
Mysore rock-inscriptions we have only Devanampriyah, On the SamchI pillar this 
word is lost ; but the contents of the Samchi and Sarnath pillars are so nearly related to 
those of the KauSambI edict on the Allahabad-Kosam pillar, that they can be safely 
referred to the same royal author- The same applies to the rock-inscriptions at 
Rupnath, &e., which remind us of the rock- and pillar-edicts in many significant 
details. 1 

There remain the Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription and the three Barabar Hill cave- 
inscriptions. In the former the king styles himself PriyadarB raja, and in the three 
others raja PriyadarB. In the Calcutta-Bairat record the king shows a strong interest 
in Buddhism. It would be, therefore, hypercritical not to assign this document to the 
same sovereign who paid visits to Sambodhi (rock-edict VIII, C), to Lummini 
(Rummindei pillar), and to the Stupa of Konakamana (NigalT Sagar pillar). We 
cannot, however, decide with certainty whether the three Barabar Hill inscriptions 
belong to the same king or to another member of his dynasty. In favour of the former 
alternative it may perhaps be urged that two of the caves on the Barabar Hill were 
dedicated to the Ajivikas when the donor had been * anointed twelve years \ For, this 
happens to be the regnal year in which the author of the rockr and pillar-edicts com- 
menced to issue c rescripts on morality 9 ; see the pillar-edict VI, B, and cf. the rock- 
edict IV, K. 

The etymological meaning of the term Devanampriya is f dear to the gods 7 . 
According to Patanjali's Mahabhashya on Panini, II, 4, 56, and V, 3, 14, this word 
was used as an honorific like bhavan y dirghayuh, and ayushman? Panini himself 
does not mention Devanampriya, but states that the termination of the genitive 
case is preserved at the end of the first member of compounds if the meaning is 
abusive (wr ^MK^ , VI, 3, 21). The KaHka commentary adduces the two examples 
, 'the family of a thief, and ^M^^H , ' the family of . a low-caste man'. 3 
Katyayana affixes to Panini's Sutra five Varttikas, the third of which states that the 
compound Devanampriya ought to be added. Neither the Mahabhashya nor the KaHka 
have the word *pf, 'with the meaning of '* fool "\ which the Siddhantakaumudi adds to the 
Varttika* This secondary meaning of Devanampriya was already known to Patanjali's 
commentator Kaiyata, 4 while Katyayana and Patanjali ignore it, although Patanjali on 
Panini, II, 4, 56, seems to have used Devanampriya in an ironical sense. In Bana's 



1 Cf. the foot-notes on the translation of the Rupnath edict, passim, and Biihler, I A, 7. 144 f. 
3 Cf, Weber's hid. Siudien* 13. 337, n. 1. y 

3 Cf. fWH^T. in the Kasika on the next Sutra. It is worth noting that in the drama 

Mudrarahshasa Chanakya uses the term with reference to Chandragupta. 

* Cf. Balamanorama on Panini, VI, 3, 21. Kaiyata's commentary is not accessible to me. 



XXX 



INTRODUCTION 



Harshacharita it is found twice as an honorific. 1 In the same way Devanuppiya is 
employed frequently in Jaina literature. 2 

In the Dlpavamsa, Devanampiya is prefixed to the name of Anoka's contemporary, 
Tissa of Ceylon, and is often used alone to denote him, 3 and in the Nagarjuni Hill 
cave-inscriptions it follows the name of Asoka's grandson Dasaratha. 4 In a few of the 
inscriptions published in this volume it is employed as a synonym of rajaw, ' a king 9 : 
In the Kalsi, Shahbazgarhi, and Mansehra texts of the rock-edict VIII, A, the king's 
predecessors are called Devanampiya and Devanampriya^ while the Girnar and Dhauli 
versions have rajano and lajane ; and the word Devdnampiye in the second separate 
edict at Dhauli (twice in section G and thrice in I) corresponds to laja in the Jaugada 
text of the same edict (sections H and J). 

As stated above (p. xxviii), another epithet of the king to whom the inscriptions 
published in this volume are due was Priyadarsi?i t 'he who glances amiably'* 
Both Piyadassi and Piyadassana t 'of amiable appearance occur repeatedly in the 
Dtpavamsa 5 as equivalents of Asoka, the name of the great Maurya king. 6 In the 
drama Mudrarakshasa} Piadamsana is prefixed to Chandasiri, i.e. Chartdragu.pt a, the 
name of Asokas grandfather. 

Before discussing Prinsep's identification of the king Devanampriya PriyadarHn of 
the inscriptions with the Maurya king A£oka, it will . be advisable to quote from the 
texts a few details which are of leading importance in this connexion. The opening 
section of the Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription informs us that Priyadar&n was a Magadha 
king, L.e. a ruler of Magadha. From the rock-edict V, M, we learn that his capital was 
Pataliputra ; for, the words 1 both in Pataliputra and in the outlying [towns] * at Girnar 
correspond to 1 here and in all the outlying towns ' at KalsT, Shahbazgarhi, Mansehra, 
and Dhauli. In the second and thirteenth rock-edicts the kii^g refers to a number of 
contemporary Yona, i.e. Greek, kings : the rock-edict II, A, mentions *the Tona king 
Antiyoka {Antiyaka at Girnar, Antiyoga at Kalsi and Mansehra) and the kings who are 
the neighbours of this Antiyoka and the rock-edict XIII, O, - the Tona king Antiyoka 
{Antiyoga at Kalsi and Mansehra), and beyond him four kings, viz. Turamaya [Tulamaya 
at Kalsi), Antekina [A ntikini at Shahbazgarhi), Maka (Maga at Girnar), and Alikasu- 
dara (A likyashudala at Kalsi)'. 

The great decipherer of the old BrahmT alphabet, James Prinsep, at first ascribed 
the edicts to Devanampiya Tissa of Ceylon, 8 This is of course impossible because we 
know now that the author of the edicts calls himself a king of Magadha, and that he 
resided at Pataliputra. The discovery of the Nagarjuni Hill cave-inscriptions of 
Dashalatha Devanampiya, whom Prinsep at once identified with Da6aratha f the grandson 
of the Maurya king ASoka (id, p. 676 ft), and the fact that Tumour had found 
Piyadassi or Piyadassana used as a surname of Asoka in the Dtpavamsa, induced 
Prinsep to abandon his original view, and to identify king Devanampriya Priyadarsin 
with A£oka himself (id., p. 790 fif.). A limine, another member of the Maurya dynasty 

■ ■ - ■ ■ * ■ ■ ... — ■■ ■ 1 ■ i.— ^^^^^^^^^m^m^^^^^m^— 1 

1 See Kielhorn in JRAS, 1908, 505. 

3 See Pischel's Grammatik^ § 111. Hoernle and Pischel derived the word from Skt 
deva + anupriya. Hemachandra {Abkidkdnachintdniani^ III, 17) assigns to Devanampriya the 
meaning of 1 fool 

3 See Fleet in JRAS, 1908. 485. * I A, 30. 354 f. * See the Index to Oldenberg's edition. 
t 6 Similarly, in the fourth act of the drama PriyadarHkd, its heroine is called both Priyadar- 
sika and Priyadariana* 

7 Hillebrandts edition, p. 159, lines 1 and 5 ; cf. his article on the Kautiliyasastra (Breslau, 
1908), p. 3°- 

8 JASB, 6 (1837), 47* fv 566 £ 



THE AUTHOR OF THE INSCRIPTIONS 



xxxi 



might be meant as well ; for, as stated above (p. xxx), the eighth rock-edict shows that 
the king's predecessors also bore the title Devanampriya, and the Mttdrarakskasa applies 
the epithet Priyadarfona to Chandragupta. Every such doubt is now set at rest by 
the discovery of the Maski edict, in which the king calls himself Devanampriya 
Asoka, 

In February, 1838, Prinsep published the text and a translation of the second rock- 
edict He found in the Girnar version of it (1. 3) the words Amtiyako Yona-raja, and in 
the Dhauli version (K 1) Amtiyoke noma Yona-laja, and identified the Yona king 
Antiyaka or Antiyoka with Antiochus III of Syria. 1 In March, 1838, he discovered 
in the Girnar edict XIII (1. 8) the names of Turamaya y Amtikoiia? and Maga y whom he 
most ingeniously identified with Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt, Atttigonus Gonatas 
of Macedonia (?), and Magas of Cyrene. At the. same time he modified his earlier 
theory, and now referred the name Antiyoka to Antioclius I or II of Syria, preferably 
the former (id., p. 224 ff.). 

On the Girnar rock the name of a fifth king, who was mentioned after Maga, is lost 
The Shahbazgarhl version calls him Alikamdara, Norris recognised that this name 
corresponds to the Greek *A\i§av8pos t and suggested hesitatingly that Alexander of 
Epirus, the son of Pyrrhus, might be meant by it 3 This identification was endorsed by 
Westergaard, 4 Lassen, 5 and Senart 6 But Professor Beloch now thinks that Alexander 
of Corinth, the son of Craterus,*has a better claim-' 

. As will appear in the sequel, the mention of these five contemporaries in the 
inscriptions of king Devanampriya Priyadarsin confirms in a general way the correct- 
ness of Prinsep's identification of the latter with A£oka, the grandson of Chandragupta 
whose approximate time we know from Greek and Roman records, Antiochus I Soter of 
Syria reigned 280-261 b. a, his son Antiochus II Theos 261-246, Ptolemy II Philadelphia 
of Egypt 285-247, Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia 276-239, Magas of Cyrene c. 300- 
c. 250, Alexander of Epirus 272-c. 255, and Alexander of Corinth 252-0. 244 s The 
rock-edict XIII cannot be placed earlier than twelve years after ASoka's abkisheka, 
when he commenced publishing * rescripts on morality \ D If we assume that the rock- 
edicts are arranged in chronological order, it cannot have been issued earlier than 
thirteen years after the abhisheka, when ASdka appointed 1 Mahamatras of morality * as 
he tells us in edict V, If the Alikasudara of edict XIII is Alexander of Epirus, its date 
would fall between 272 and 255, and if Alexander of Corinth is meant, between 252 and 
250. For fixing the period of A£oka s reign within narrower limits, we are thrown back 
on what information can be gathered from Indian and classical literature concerning 
Afioka's grandfather Chandragupta. 



1 J ASB, 7. 156 ff. 

2 In reality Girnar and Kalsl read Amiekina % and Shahbazgarhl Amtikinu Buhler (ZDMG, 
40. 137) justly remarked that these two forms would rather correspond to Antigenes than to 
Antigonus- But no king named Antigenes is known to us, although it was the name of one 
of the officers of Alexander the Great, who was executed, together with Eumenes, in 316 b. C 3 
being then satrap of Susiana. 

3 JRAS, 8 (3846). 305. 

4 Zwei Abhandlwigeni translated from the Danish into German by Stenzler (Breslau, i86a), 
p. wo f. 1 

6 Ind. Alt., % (and ed.). 353 ff. D IA, so. 343, 

7 Griechische Geschickte> vol- 3, part a, p. 105. 

8 The figures of these reigns are taken from Beloch's GriecL Geschichte^ vpL 3. 

9 See the pillar-edict VI, B, and cf- the rock-edict IV, K, , 



xxxii 



INTRODUCTION 



The historical tradition of India, Ceylon, and Burma is unanimous in naming as the 
founder of the Maurya dynasty Chandragupta, and as his two immediate successors 
Bindusara and Asoka. The pseudo-prophetic account of the Furanas runs thus : 

*KautiIya (or Chanakya) will establish king Chandragupta in the kingdom. 
Chandragupta will be king twenty-four years, Bindusara twenty-five years, and ASoka 
thirty-six years/ 1 

According to the Dtpavamsa, Chandragupta reigned twenty-four years (V, 73, 100), 
and Bindusaras son ASoka thirty-seven years (V, ioi). a 

The Mahavamsa states that the Brahmana Chanakya anointed the Maurya 
Chandragupta (V, 16 £), and that Chandragupta reigned twenty-four years, his son 
Bindusara twenty-eight years (V, 18), and Bindusara's son ASoka (V, 19) thirty-seven 
years (XX, 6). 

Buddhaghosha's Samantapas adika agrees with the Mahavamsa in allotting twenty- 
four years to Chandragupta and twenty-eight years to Bindusara. 8 

The Burmese tradition assigns twenty-four years to Chandragupta and twenty-seven 
years to Bindusara. 4 

It will be seen that all sources agree in fixing the length of Chandragupta's reign 
at twenty-four years. To Bindusara the Ceylonese chronicles allot twenty-eight years, 
Bigandet twenty-seven years, and the Puranas twenty-five years. 

The Ceylonese sources state that ASoka succeeded his father Bindusara 314 years 
after Buddha s Nirvana/ and that his anointment took place four years after his father s 
death, or 218 years after the Nirv£na. c The Burmese tradition confirms the two dates 
214 and 218/ - 

As, according to the Ceylonese sources, Bindusara ruled twenty-eight years and 
Chandragupta twenty-four years, the former would have reigned a. b. 186-214, and the 
latter a.b. i62-i86. s If we deduct the year of Chandragupta's accession to the throne 
(162) from the traditional date of the Nirvana, 544^. a, the result is 382 b. a This 
would be about sixty years earlier than the actual accession of Chandragupta as 
ascertained from Greek sources, For, luckily, the approximate time of king Chandra- 
gupta of Pataliputra has been already settled by one of the great pioneers of Indian 
research, Sir William J ones, B who identified .him with 2av8p&Korro$ of IlaXtpoOpa, the 
contemporary of Seleucus Nikator. 

. Various devices were proposed in order to account for this chronological error, until 
Fleet showed that the Buddha-varsha of 544 B. C. is a comparatively modern fabrication, 
of the twelfth century, and that the difference of about sixty years is the quite natural 



1 See Pargiter's Dynasties of the Kali Age (Oxford, 1913), p. 48. 

2 The length of Bindusara's reign is not specified in the Dipavamsa ; but the period of 
twenty-eight years is deducible from statements made in chapter XI, verses 5, 1 a, 13, about king 
MutasTva of Ceylon, See Fleet in JRAS, 1908. 481, and 1909- 25. 

s Vinaya-pitaka, ed. by Oldenberg, 3. 331. 

4 Bigandet's Life or Legend of Gaudama, 4th ed,, 2. 1*8, 6 Dipavamsa, VI, 20 f. 

9 Dipavamsa, VI, i 3 zi f. ; Mahavamsa^ V, %\ f. ; Saman tapdsddiha, p. 399. 

7 BIgandet's Life of Gaudatna, 2. ia8 f« 

8 According to Bigandet's Life of Gattdama, a. 138, Chandragupta reigned A. B. 153-187, and 
Bindusara 187-314* If, as the Puranas assert, Bindusara reigned only twenty-five years, he would 
have succeeded Chandragupta in A. B. 189. 

9 In his Anniversary Discourse, delivered February 38, 1793, and published in 1795 in the 
Asiatic Researches, vol- 4. The passage is reprinted in his Works (London, 1799), 1. 15$ f., and in 
the Centenary Review of the ASB % part a, f p. 85 f. 



THE AUTHOR OF THE INSCRIPTIONS xxxiii 

result of accumulated mistakes which were made in rounding off the figures of the 
regnal years of the kings of Ceylon. 1 

While thus the alleged date of the Nirvana in 544 B.C., and that of 
Chandragupta's accession in 382 e.g., have no practical value, the traditional interval 
of 218 years between the Nirvana and ASoka's abMsheka might still be considered 
authentic. There are, however, two facts which in my opinion render it somewhat 
suspicious. It includes a period of 100 years between the Nirvaija and the Second 
Council. 2 Such a nice round sum as just 100 years looks very much like a clumsy 
guess and a pure invention. 3 Secondly, the traditional figures of the Northern 
Buddhists are almost totally at variance with those of the Southern Buddhists. 4 

The leading passage concerning Chandragupta's date is found in Justin's Epitoma 
Pompei Tragi, XV, 4 : 6 

i [Seleucus] multa in Oriente post divisionem inter sodos regni Macedonici bella 
gessit. Principio Babyloniam cepit; inde auctis ex victoria viribus Bactrianos expug- 
navit. Transitum deinde in Indiam fecit, quae post mortem Alexandra, veluti a 
cervicibus iugo servitutis excusso, praefectos eius occiderat. Auctof libertatis Sandro- 
cottus fuerat, sed titulum libertatis post victoriam in servitutem verterat ; siquidem 
occupato regno populum, quern ab externa ^ominatione vindicaverat, ipse servitio 
premebat, Fuit hie humili quidem genere natus, sed ad regni potestatem maiestate 
numinis inpulsus. Quippe cum procacitate sua N^ndrum regem offendisset, interfici 
a rege iussus salutem pedum celeritate quaesierat Ex qua fatigatione cum somno 
captus iaceret, leo ingentis formae ad dormientem accessit sudoremque profluentem 
lingua ei detersit expergefactumque blande reliquit Hoc prodigio primum ad spem 
regrii inpulsus contractis latronibus Indos ad novitatem regni sollicitavit. Molienti 
deinde bellum adversus praefectos Alexandri elephantus ferus infinitae magnitudinis 
ultra se obtulit et veluti domita mansuetudine eum tergo excepit duxque belli et 
proeliator insignis fuit Sic adquisito regno Sandrocottus ea tempestate, qua Seleucus 
futurae magnitudinis fundamenta iaciebat, Indiam possidebat, cum quo facta pactione 
Seleucus conpositisque in Oriente rebus in bellum Antigoni descendit* 

■ 

M°Crindle translates this as follows : 6 

r 1 

1 [Seleucus] waged many wars in the East after the partition of Alexander's empire 
among his generals. He first took Babylonia, and then with his forces augmented 
by victory subjugated the Bactrians. He then passed over into India, which after 
Alexander s death, as if the yoke of servitude had been shaken off from its neck, had 
put his prefects to death. Sandrocottus had been the leader who achieved their 
freedom, but after his victory he had forfeited by his tyranny all title to the name 
of liberator ; for, having ascended the throne, he oppressed with servitude the very 
people whom he had emancipated from foreign thraldom. He was born in humble 



* JRAS, 1909. 333, 335. 

2 Vinaya-pitahdi Chullavagga s beginning of last chapter (XII) ; Dlpavmhsa^ IV, 47, and V, 
15 £ ; Mahavmhsa, IV, 8 ; Samantapasddikd, p. 293. 

3 Cf. Rhys Davids and Oldenberg in SEE, 13, xxii : f This is no doubt a round number ; 
and the exact year of the date of the Buddha's death is open to question." 

4 Cf- Geiger's translation of the Mahdvamsa, p. lxf, where the figures of the Northern 
Buddhists are specified, and Westergaard's Zwei Abhandlunge?^ p. 94 ff. 

6 Ruehl's edition (Leipzig, 1886), p. 119 • . 

0 The Invasion of India by Alexander the Great (Westminster, 1893), p. 337 f. 

1013 C 



xxxiv INTRODUCTION 

life, 1 but was prompted to aspire to royalty by an omen significant of an august 
destiny. For when by his insolent behaviour he had offended king Nandrus, 2 and 
was ordered by that king to be put to death, he had sought safety by a speedy 
flight When he lay down overcome with fatigue and had fallen into a deep sleep, 
a lion of enormous size approaching the slumberer licked with its tongue the sweat 
which oozed profusely from his body, and when he awoke quietly took its departure. 
It was this prodigy which first inspired him with the hope of winning the throne, and so, 
having collected a band of robbers, he instigated the Indians to overthrow the existing 
government. When he was thereafter preparing to attack Alexander s prefects, a wild 
elephant of monstrous size approached him, and kneeling submissively like a tame 
elephant received him on to its back and fought vigorously in front of the army. 
Sandrocottus having thus won the throne was reigning over India when Seleucus was 
laying the foundations of his future greatness, Seleucus, having made a treaty with him 
and otherwise settled his affairs in the East, returned home to prosecute the war with 
Antigonus. 1 

The same transactions are referred to in Appian's *P®tiatKd, book $vpiaK7j } 
chapter 55 : 3 

pS&cwos 1 ] tqv 'Iv8bv irepda-a? IwoXifirjaev 'AvSpotcornp (3avi\€i r&v ?repi airhv *Iv8&v, ft^XP 1 
$t\tav avjZ ml ktjSos ovvi&eto. 

* [Seleucus] crossed the Indus and waged war on Androcottus, king of the Indians 
who dwelt about it, Until he made friends and entered into relations of marriage 
with him/* 

According to Strabo, Seleucus ceded to Sandrocottus a tract of land to the west of 
the Indus, entering into a matrimonial alliance with him and receiving in exchange 
five hundred elephants, 5 We know from! various sources that Megastlieiies became the 
ambassador of Seleucus at Chandragupta s court, 6 Strabo adds that Deimaelms was 
sent on an embassy to Chandragupta s son, whom he calls Amitrochades : 7 

'EnijitpBTivav jiku yap etff rh naXtpfiodpa, 5 p&v Meyatrdivijf irpbs Sav8p6KQTTW t 6 8e 
Arjtpaxos irpb? 'AK\iTpoyd8riv 8 rbv kttdvov vibv Kara irpevftdav vTroptv^fiaTa 8k tj/S diroSrifita^ 
KariXarov rotavra* 

1 Megasthenes and Deimachus were sent on an embassy, the former to Sandrocottus 
at Palimbothra, the other to Amitrochades his son ; and they left accounts of their 
sojourn in the country', 0 



1 According to the Mudrdrakshasa, Chandragupta was a Vrishala, i. e. a member of the 
f^udra caste ; see above, p* xxix, n- 3. 

3 This c Nandrus ' must be the^ last king of the Nanda dynasty which, according to Indian 
tradition, was overthrown by Chandragupta ; see A. von 1 Gutschmid, RJmmsches Museum fur 
Philologte y Neue Folge s 1% (1857). %6z+ Instead of the accusative * Nandrum ' the older editions read 
f Alexandrum ' ; cf, Lassen's Ittd. Alt^ a (sec. ed.), p. 307, n. 3. The original reading might have 
been tf Nandum \ . 

3 Mendelssohn's edition (Leipzig, 1879), 1. 4%6. 4 M tf Crindle*s translation, I A, 6. 114. 

fi Lassen, Ind. Alt^ % (sec, ed.)- 317 f . ; V, A. Smith, Early History of India, p. 
Krom, Hermes^ 44, 154 ff. 

fl Schwanbeck, Megasthenis Indica (Bonn, 1846), p. 19; C. Mutter, Fragmenta Historicorum 
Graecorum, 2 (Paris, 1848). 398; M c Crindle, I A, 6, 115. 

7 Geographic^ ed. Miiller et Diibner, II, I, 9 (p. 58 £). 

8 The subsequent quotation from Athenaeus shows that this is a clerical mistake for 
'AfiLTpQX&Sqv or 'AfitTpoxdriiv* 9 M^Crindle's translation, I A, 6. 115. 



THE AUTHOR OF THE INSCRIPTIONS xxxv 

It may be concluded from this interesting notice that Chandragupta's son and 
successor Bindusara had the surname Amitraghata, 1 i. e. * the slayer of enemies \ The 
same king is referred to as a contemporary of Antioclras (I Soter of Syria) in a curious 
anecdote preserved by Athenaeus : a 

- ■ + 

OSrtx) $e §<rav irepunrotiSavTOt iraviv dvdpt&irots at fo^Se? . . , . • <&y Kal 'AftiTpoxdTijv rhv rmv 
y Iv8mv fiatriXia ypdifrai 'Avtiox® d^tovvra^ ifavh *Hyrj<rav8pos 9 ntfvtyai a$T§ yXvK$v Kal «rx«#«? Kat 
<ro<piarf}v dyopd<ravra* Kat rbv 'Avtiqx ov dvnypd^ai* ' i&xaSa? fxkv Kal yXvK&v drrotrreXovfi^v croi, 

■ ■ 

1 Dried figs were so eagerly desired by all men that even Amitrochates, the 

king of the Indians, wrote to Antiochus askinghim, says Hegesander, to purchase and send 
him sweet wine, dried 'figs, and a sophist ; and that Antiochus wrote back : " We shall 
send you dried figs and sweet wine ; but it is not lawful in Greece to sell a sophist" 1 

i 

If this statement of Athenaeus is combined with the preceding one of Strabo, it 
appears that the friendly intercourse which had existed between Seleucus and Chandra- 
gupta, was continued by their respective sons and successors, Antiochus I and 
Bindusara-Amitraghata, and that Megasthenes, the ambassador of Seleucus at the 
court of Chandragupta, was succeeded by Deimachus, the ambassador of Antiochus I 
at the court of Bindusara-Amitraghata. From Pliny 3 we learn that another Greek 
potentate, Ptolemy II Philadelphus of Egypt ,(b.c, 285-247), sent Dionysius as 
ambassador to an unnamed Indian king, who may be supposed to have been either 
Bindusara or A£oka. 4 

I now return to the question of Ghandraguptas date. Seleucus I Nikator of Syria 
(b.c. 312-280) 'arrived in Cappadocia in the autumn of 302 [the year preceding the 
battle of Ipsus]. The march thither from India must have required at least two 
summers. Consequently, the peace with (Chandragupta has to be placed about the 
summer of 304, or at the latest in the next winter/ 6 Thus the coronation of Chandra- 
gupta falls between bx. 323 (Alexanders death) and 304 (the treaty with Seleucus), 
As the consolidation of an empire which, as described by Megasthenes in his 'If^**, 
reached from Patna to the Indus, must have been a matter of many years, I feel 
inclined to shift the date of Chandragupta's accession towards the earlier limit and to 
adopt as a working date the year b. a 330 which Fleet has proposed. 0 With this 
starting-point, and if the length of reigns as given in the Mahavamsa is accepted, 
Chandragupta would have ruled 3 20-296, and Bindusara 296-268. Afidka would have 
been crowned (four years after his father's death) in bx. 264, This date is confirmed 
approximately by Anoka's thirteenth rock-edict, which, as stated above (p. xxxi), cannot 
be placed earlier than twelve or thirteen years after his abhisheka. 264—12/13 
=252/251 would be one or two years before the last possible year (bx. 250) in which 
all the Greek kings mentioned in that edict were still alive. This synchronism would 
prove that the date of Chandragupta's coronation, on which that of Anoka's coronation 
depends, can hardly be placed later than bx. 320. It would follow further that the 
Antiyoka of edict XIII (and probably also of rock-edict II) was not Antiochus I, but 



1 See P. von Bohlen, das atie Indien (Konigsberg, 1830), 1. 93. The word amitraghata 
is mentioned by Patanjali on Panini, III, a, 87 ; cf. JRAS, 1909, 435. 

2 A€tirvo<rotpttrra[ f ed. Kaibel (Leipzig, 1890), XIV, 67 (vol. 3, p. 444)* 

3 Naiuralis historia s ed. Mayhoff, VI, 17 (vol. 1, Leipzig, 1906, p. 454 £). 

4 As stated above (p. xxxi), Ptolemy II is mentioned in Anoka's rock-edicts. 

5 Beloch's Griechische Geschichte t vol 3, part i, p. 146, a. 3/ 6 JRAS, 1906, 985. 

e 2 



xxxvi 



INTRODUCTION 



AntioelniB II (261-246), and that the Alikasudara of edict XIII was not Alexander 
of Epirus, but Alexander of Corinth (2 52-c. 244). But we must remember that the above 
figures rest only on the Ceylonese tradition, while the Purwias assign to Bindusara 
twenty-five instead of twenty-eight years, and that, accordingly, Chandraguptas corona- 
tion might fall about three years later than B.C. 320. Besides, it must be kept in 
mind that the upper limit of Chandragupta's coronation is the death of Alexander the 
Great in b.c. 323, The working date of b.c. 320 has the advantage of being the mean 
of the two outside dates 323 and 317. 

I now append a list of the regnal dates which are incidentally mentioned in Asoka's 
inscriptions, adding in brackets the year b.c. to which each year of his reign maybe 
supposed to correspond, . 

1. Eight years after the coronation (b.c. 256). The king conquered (the country 
of) the Kalingas ; rock-edict XIII. 

2. Ten years after the coronation (bx. 254), He went (on a visit)' to Sambodhi 
(i.e. Bodh-Gaya) ; rock-edict VIIL 

3. Twelve years after the coronation (bx. 252) : 

(1) He ordered his officers to set "out on a complete tour (throughout their 

charges) every five years; rock-edict III. 

(2) He promoted morality by public shows of edifying subjects ; rock-edict IV. 

(3) He published rescripts on morality ; pillar-edict VL 

(4) He gave two caves to the Ajlvikas ; two of the Barabar Hill cave-inscriptions. 

4. Thirteen years after the coronation (b.c. 251). He appointed superintendents 
of morality ; rock-edict V, 

5. Fourteen years after the coronation (b.c. 250). He enlarged the Stupa of 
Konakamana to the double (of its size) ; Nigali Sagar pillar. 

6. Nineteen years after the coronation (b.c. 245). He gave a cave (to the 
Ajlvikas); the third Barabar Hill cave-inscription, 

7. Twenty years after the coronation (b.c. 244), He visited the Buddha's birth- 
place at Lummini and the Stilpa of Konakamana ; Rummindei and Nigali Sagar pillars. 

8. Twenty-six years after the coronation (b.c, 238). He issued the pillar-edicts 
I, IV, V, VI. 

9. Twenty-seven years after the coronation (b. c. 237). He issued the Delhi-Topra 
pillar-edict VI I. 



i- 

■■ 

CHAPTER III. 
ASOKA'S EMPIRE AND ITS ADMINISTRATION 

In the preceding chapter it was shown that the king Devanampriya PriyadarHn of 
the inscriptions can be no other than the Maurya ldng ASoka of Magadha. It will 
appear from the two next chapters (IV and V) that his edicts are not concerned with 
public affairs, but are of an almost purely religious character. In spite of this we may 
glean from them some details of historical importance which are mentioned incidentally. 

The extent of Anoka's empire may be guessed already from the distribution of his 
rock-edicts, which it seems were engraved along the very confines of his territories. In 
the west they are found at Girnar on the Kathiavar peninsula and at Sopara on the 



ASOKA'S EMPIRE vU^*^ xxxvii 

Bombay coast ; In the south in the Raichur district of the Nizam's Dominions and in the 
Chitaldroog district of the Mysore State; and in/ the east at Dhauli and Jaugacja in the 
Purl and Ganjam districts- The north-eastern boundary line is marked by the rock- 
edicts at Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra in the Peshavar and Hazara districts and at 
Kalsi in the Detira Dun district, and it is continued by the Nigali Sagar and Rummindel 
pillars in the Nepalese Tarai and by the Rampurva pillar in the Champaran district. 

The capital of this vast empire was Pataliputra, which, as stated above (p. xxx), 
is mentioned as such in the fifth rock-edict The two syllables Pata 9 which are preserved 
at the beginning of the third line of the Sarnath pillar-inscription, are probably the 
remainder of the same name. Both the Dzpavamsa (V, 25, &c.) and the Mahavamsa 
(V, 22) are aware of the fact that Pataliputra was ASokas capital From the Mudra- 
rakshasa and from classical authors we learn that it had been already the residence 
of his grandfather Chandragupt a. As I have stated before (p. xxxii), we owe to 
Sir William Jones the identification of Pataliputra with the Haktfio&pa or ndXtpfiQ&pa 
of the Greeks. Megasthenes, who represented Seleucus at Chandragupta's court, 
described it as a very large 1 city r 1 ' ■ 

■ 

Kal Aeyet Meya&Bivqs, firjKos fiev hrifttw rrjp ir6XtP tear iicaT&priv rrjv TrXtvptju fvairep 
fiatcpoTarq airy itovnjs qStaorai h oySorjicopTa <FTa8tov$ 3 rb fie wAaro? Iff irevreKaiSeica* rdtppov 5e 
ireptfitfiX'rjv&aL rfj ttoKi rb eSpoy i£a7r\e8pop t rb Sh (3d@os rpi^Kovra Trfytw rrvpyovs fie i^Sofi^KOpra 
Kal irevraKoo-Covs e^uv rb re?x°? TwXas ritrtrapas Kal i^Kopra, 

^ Megasthenes informs us that this city stretched in the inhabited quarters to an 
extreme length on each side of eighty stadia, and that its breadth was fifteen stadia, 
and that a ditch encompassed it all round which was six hundred feet in breadth and 
thirty cubits in depth, and that the* wall was crowned with 570 towers and had four-and- 
sixty gates.' 2 

The identity of Pataliputra with the modern Fatna is well known to the Hindus. 3 
The capital belonged to the ancient province of llagadlia, 4 which is now called South 
Bihar. In accordance with this, ASoka styles himself Magadha, i.e. king of Magadha, 
at the commencement of the Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription. In the rock-edict VIII, C, 
he refers to his visit to another locality which was included in the province of Magadha. 6 
This is Sambddhi, now Bddli-Gaya to the south of Patna. 

The Kau£ambi edict on the All ahab ad-K osam pillar mentions Eosambi {Kaiisambi 
in Sanskrit), which is the modern Kosam (see above, p. xx) to the west of the Magadha 
province. From the fact that ASdka addressed the Kau£ambi edict to his Mahamatras 
at KosambI, it may be concluded that in his time, just as in later times, 6 KauSambi was 
the head-quarters of a province. 

Two other chief towns of provinces are referred to in the Dhauli separate edict I, 
A A and BB, viz., UjjenI ( Ujjayini) and Takkhasila {TakshaHla). ASoka's governor of 
the former was a royal prince (faimara). In Buddhist tradition A6oka himself is stated 
to have held the appointment of viceroy at Ujjayini in the life-time of his father 
Bindusara. 7 Ujjayini, the capital of Avanti, and the 'Offiprj of the Periphts and of 
Ptolemy, is the modern XTjjain in the Gwalior State* Takshasila, the TdgiXa of the 



1 Arriarfs 'IvSticrj, ed. by Eberhard in Arriani Scripia Minora (Leipzig, 1885), X, 6 f. (p. 13). 
3 M c Crindle's translation, IA, 6. 131* 

3 Wilson's Theatre of the Hindus^ 3rd ed., 2. 136. 

4 BR WW, 3, 83 ff. ; Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India 3 p. 45a ff. 

5 BRWW, %. 115. 6 BRWW, 1. 335 ff. ; EI, 11. 141. 
7 Dipavamsa> VI, 15 ; Mahavanisa> V, 39, and XIII, 8, 



xxxviii 



INTRODUCTION 



Greeks, was identified by Cunningham with Shahdhen in the Ravalpindi district, 

Panjab. 1 • 

From the commencement of the Brahmagiri and Siddapura rock-inscriptions we 
learn that the head-quarters of A£5ka s southernmost province was a place of the name 
Smvarnagiri, and that his representative there, just as at Ujjayim, was a royal prince 
{aryaputra). Brahmagiri and &iddapura belonged to the district of Isila, which was 
subordinate to the viceroy at SuvarnagirL Isila may have been the ancient name of 
£iddapura. Suvarnagiri is perhaps identical with its synonym Kanakagiri in the Nizam's 
Dominions, south of Maski where an edict of Asoka has been found, and north of the 
ruins of Vijayanagara in the Bellary district of the Madras Presidency. 2 

At the beginning of the rock-edict XIII, ASoka informs us that, when he had been 
anointed eight years, he conquered the country of Kallnga 3 on the eastern coast. To 
this province we have to allot Dhauli and Jaugada in the Purl and Ganjam districts, 
where copies of the rock-edicts I-X and XIV and of two separate edicts are found. 
The two separate edicts at Dhauli were addressed to the Mahamatras at Tosali, who 
were headed by a royal prince {ktcmara, sep- ed. II, A). The head-quarters of the 
district to which the modern Jaugada belonged was called Samapa, 4 and the Jaugada 
rock had then the name Khepiiigala. fi 

The second and third cave-inscriptions on the Barabar Hill give the ancient name 
of this hill as Khalatika. The Rummindel pillar has preserved the designation of the 
site of Buddha's birth, viz. Lnmmmi, or, as it is called in Buddhist works, Lumbint 

All the geographical names enumerated so far must have been included in A£5kas 
empire. Besides them, the king refers to tribes outside his territories, whom he calls his 
' borderers ' (anta)* Several of these are mentioned by name. According to the rock- 
edict V, J, his western borderers were 'the Yonas, Kambojas, and GandMras, the 
Bathikas (Ristika, which is probably a clerical mistake for Rasttka, at Girnar) and 
Pitinikas (also spelt Pimdka or Petenika)! As I shall show below (p. xxxix), the 
Yonas seem to have formed a small state on the north-west frontier, which was ruled 
over by a Greek prince. The Kambojas have to be placed in Kabul- 7 Gandhara is now 
included in the North-West Frontier Province ; at the time of the Si-ytiM, its capital 
was Furushapura, now Peshavar. 8 The Rathikas or Rastikas ( - Rashtrika in Sanskrit) 
are perhaps the people of Kathiavar, whose governor bore the title of Rashiriya* 
The Pitinikas or Pitenikas 10 have not yet been localized. 

1 Arch. Reports, a. n6, and Ancient Geography* p. in* 2 Cf. Text, p. I77> n * 5> 

3 In a passage which is based on Megasthenes, Pliny (VI, 19) mentions the 'island 1 of 
Modogalinga, i.e. < the three Kalifigas 1 (from Telugu mudu % 1 three Kalinga) ; see IA, 6. 338, and 
Caldwell's Comparative Grammar, Introduction, p. $% f. In another place (VI, 17) he refers 
to the Mactocalingae or Maccocalingae as a tribe of Brahmanas. Maccocalinga is probably a 
corruption of Muhhalinga^ which would be the Tamil form of the Telugu Miidugalinga. For 
instances of the synonymous Sanskrit expression Trikalihga see Kielhorn's List of Northern 
Inscriptions (EI, vol. 5, Appendix), p-117, s. v. The earliest king of Kalinga, of whom inscriptions 
have been preserved, is Kharavela ; see Liiders* List of Brahmi Inscriptions (EI a vol, 10, Appendix), 
p, 160 £ 

4 See the Jaugada separate edict I, B, and II, B. 5 See the Jaugada rock-edict I, A. 
c See Rupnath, Sahasram, and Bairat, H; Brahmagiri and Siddapura, I. 

7 See Text, p. 10, n. 1. 

8 See Seal's BRWW, 1. 97, The Gandharis are mentioned already in the Rigveda, and 
Gandara in the inscriptions of Darius ; c£ Zimmer's Altind. Leben, p. 30 £ 

9 See the Junagayh inscription of Rudradaman, EI, 8- 46, n. 7. For other proposed identifica- 
tions of the word Rasktrika see Text, p, 56, n. 2i« 

10 The identification of Pitenika with Pratishthana is phonetically impossible ; see Buhler, 
ZDMG, 37. S&62. 



ASOKA'S EMPIRE xxxix 

According to the rock-edict XIII, Q, ASoka's borderers to the south were 'the 
Chodas and P&adyas, as far as Tamraparni.' The two former are the two well-known 
principal dynasties of the Tamil country, and Tamraparni is one of the ancient names of 
the island of Ceyloiu 1 The Chodas or Choias (Sola in Tamil) were known to Ptolemy, 2 
the Pandya king (IlavSfav) to the author of the Periplus as well, and Tamraparni 
(TaTrpopdvrj) already to Megasthenes. The rock-edict II, A, inserts between the 
Pandyas and Tamraparni two other borderers, viz. Satiyaputra {Satiyaputa at Kalsi) 
and Keralaputra. The former has not yet been identified successfully, 3 The latter 
is the king of Kerala or Malabar, who is called EypSpoTpos in the Periplus 4 and 
K*ip6f3Q6pQ$ by Ptolemy. 6 

The two sections in which the Chodas, the Pandyas, and Tamraparni are referred 
to (II, A, and XIII, Q), mention, along with them, as Anoka's borderers, the Tona 
king Antiyoka and his four neighbours. 0 The next section of the rock-edict XIII (R) 
distinguishes from them some tribes 'here in the kings territory' (i/ia raja-vishaye), 
viz. ' the Yonas and Kambojas, the Wabhakas and Nabhapanktis {Nabhiti at Shahbaz- 
garhi), the Bhojas and Pitinikas {Pitinikya at Kalsi), the Andhras and Parindas/ The 
words 'here in the king's territory' distinctly keep the Yonas of section R apart from 
the Yona kings of section Q. Both here and in the rock-edict V, J, they are associated 
with the Kambojas and Pitinikas, and in the second place all three of them are stated 
to have belonged to ASoka s western borderers. Consequently, these Yonas seem to 
have formed a small state on the north-west frontier, which was ruled over by a Greek 
prince; 7 and the Bhojas, who are coupled with the Pitinikas in the rock-edict XIII, R, 
will have to be looked for in the west as well. Perhaps they have to be connected with 
those Bhojas whose king {BIwjadhiraja) is mentioned by Kalhana as a contemporary of 
£ankaravarman of Ka£mir. a Andhra is the old name of the Telugu people on the 
eastern coast, and also the designation of an ancient dynasty which ruled over a 
considerable part of the Deccan after the decline of the Maurya empire. 9 Pliny, who 
borrowed his information from Megasthenes, mentions the Andarae, Le. the Andhras, 
as a great and powerful race. 10 As the rock-edict XIII, R, couples the Andhras with 
the Parindas, these too must have been an eastern tribe. 11 The Nabhakas and 
Nabhapanktis may have to be placed at the Nepalese frontier of ASoka s empire. 13 

From the preceding list of geographical names we may derive some information 
about the scheme of A£okas administration. Three of the provinces of his empire were 

1 See Text, p. 3, n. 10. 

a See Caldwell's Comparative Grammar, Introduction, p, 95 f. 

5 See Text, p. 3, n. 7, * ed. Fabricius (Leipzig, 1883), § 54 (p. 94). 

6 See Text, p. 3, n. 8, and cf. Buhler, ZDMG, 37. 99. 0 See above, p. xxx £ 

7 Lassen (Ind. Alt*,* (sec. e&). 356) identified thein with the inhabitants of the tract of 
land to the west of the Indus which Seleucus is reported to have ceded to Anoka's grandfather 
Chandragupta ; see above, p« xxxiv. " - 

8 Rdjataraitgim, V, verse 1 51 ; cf. EI, 1. 155. Sir R. Bhandarkar (Early History of the Dekkan, 
sec, ed., p. 11) compares the title Mahabhoja in the cave-inscriptions. See also Buhler, ZDMG, 
37. 100, and Senart, EI, 7. 50. 

9 See Rapson's Coins of the Andhra Dynasty, &c, Introduction, p. xv ff. 

10 See IA, 5. 339. 

11 The variant at Kalsi, Palada, might be the same as the Sanskrit Parada, but the Faradas 
were probably a people in Gedrosia; see Lassen's Ind. Alt., 1 (sec. ed.). 1038. 

^ 12 According to Fa-hian, the mythical Buddha Krakuchchhanda was believed to have been bom 
at Na-pi-ka near Kapilavastu ; seeBRWW,i.xlviii. ThzBraJimaptirana (Aufrechts Oxford Catalogue, 
p. 19 b) assigns Nabhikapura to the territory of the Uttara-Kurus ; see Buhler, ZDMG, 40. 138. 



xl INTRODUCTION 

entrusted to royal princes {kumara or dryaputra), viz. Ujjayini, Tosali, and Suvarnagiri 
(above, p. xxxvii £). The two Kumdras were probably sons of the king himself, and the 
Aryaputra perhaps some other relative of his. The rock-edict V f M, refers to the 
harems of his brothers, sisters, and other relatives, 1 both in Pataliputra and in all 
the outlying towns J , showing thereby that the tradition according to which he had killed 
all his brothers but one before ascending the throne 1 is opposed to facts. His sons 
and 'other queens 3 sons 9 are mentioned also in the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, DD, 
and his queens in section CC of the same edict- From the Queen s edict on the 
Allahabad-Kosam pillar we learn that his second queen had the name Ealuvaki and 
was the mother of Tlvala, 

Another provincial governor was perhaps the Y&vana king Tushaspha who was 
governing Girn&r in the time of the Haurya A6dka, a JEach provincial governor was 
assisted by a body of high officers named Makwn&ira? or, as they seem to be 
called in one place, PrddeHka* Other Mahamatras were placed in charge of 
the districts which were included in each province- Thus the Mahamatras at 
Isila were subordinate to the prince and the Mahamatras at Suvarnagiri. 5 In 
two places 6 we hear of a council jrf>arisha<£) of the Mahamatras or ' ministers which 
was responsible only to the king and received its orders directly from him. The 
Kau^ambl edict was addressed to the Mahamatras at Kosambi, the Sarnath edict 
perhaps to those at Pataliputra], and the Queen's edict to ' the Mahamatras every- 
where', i.e. to those of all districts. The technical term ahala ( = ahara in Sanskrit), 
'a district*, occurs in the Rupnath edict, h, and in die Sarnath edict, I, where it is 
opposed to the ' territories surrounding forts ' {kotta-vishaya, in section J), i.e., apparently, 
tracts which were not yet fully pacified, but were held by military posts, such as the 
' forests s (atavt) mentioned in the rock-edict XIII, M. The Mahamatras at Tosali and 
Samapa were exercising judicial functions in the city foagara-vyavahdraka or naga- 
raha). 1 At the same time they had the control of the kings borderers who were yet 
unconquered, 8 i.e. they were what is called in the first pillar-edict (section F) Anta-maha- 
mdiras or ( superintendents of the borderers \ A , new class of Mahamatras was created 
by ASoka when he had been anointed thirteen years, viz* the Dharma-mahdmatras or 
' superintendents of morality whom he employed for converting his subjects to his 
moral creed* Other special Mahamatras had to supervise Buddhists, Brahmanas and 
Ajivikas, Nirgranthas, and other sects. 10 Even the control of women was entrusted to 
separate officers {stry-adhyaksha-mahdmdtra t rock-edict XII, M). In Buddhist literature 
the word Mahdmdtra is frequently used in the sense of ' a minister 1 . In Asoka's edicts 
it has evidently a wider meaning. 11 

Another class of high officers were the Rdjukas 12 or Lajilkas. They were e placed 



1 Mahavamsciy V, 19 f., 33 ; Sam aniapasadik d s p. 399. 

2 See the Junagarh rock- inscription of Rudradaman, EI, 8. 47. 

3 See the Dhauli separate edict II, A, and .the Brahmagiri and Siddapura rock-inscriptions, A . 
* See Text, p. 5 and n. 3. 

5 See the Brahmagiri and Siddapura edicts, section A. 

6 See the rock-edict III, E, and VI, R 

7 See the first separate edict at Dhauli, A and Y, and at Jaugada, B and Z. 

8 See the second separate edict at Dhauli, F, and at Jaugada, G. 

9 See the rock-edict V, I, and XII, M ; the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, P, Y, A A* 

10 See the same pillar-edict, Z. 

1 Thomas (JRAS, 1914. 387) suggests the translations * official ' or ' dignitary \ 
12 See the Girnar rock-edict III, C, 



ASOKA'S EMPIRE xli 

in charge of many hundred thousands of men ' * and 1 either rewards or punishments 
were left to their discretion \ 2 Btihler has shown that the two dialectical forms Rajilka 
and Lajilka are derived from *Rajjnka, and that this is an abbreviation of rajju-gahaka, 
'rope-holder', which occurs in the Jataka? The Rajjuka originally 'held the rope* in 
order to measure the fields of the ryots and to assess the land-tax, Thus the word 
became the designation of a revenue settlement officer, just as in British India the chief 
administrative officer of a district is still called * collector \ because his special duty is the 
collection 'of the revenue, 4 

Along with the Rajilka and the Pradeiika, the rock-edict III, C, mentions the 
Yutas or ' secretaries \ who correspond to the Yuktas of the Katttillya? The last 
section (E) of the same edict suggests that they were employed for codifying royal 
orders in the office of the Makamatras or ministers. * 

The rock-edict XIII, S, refers to ■ those to whom the envoys (duta) of Devanam- 
priya do not go'- It may be concluded from this that ASoka maintained ambassadors 
not only in the frontier states enumerated in section R, but at the foreign courts named 
in section Q, viz. those of the five Greek kings, the Chodas and Pandyas, and the 
island of Ceylon, Similarly, Dionysius may have been the ambassador of Ptolemy II 
Philadelphus of Egypt at Anoka's court. 0 

From Indian literature we know that at all times kings used to entertain spies 
{chara or gudlia-ptirtishd)? It seems probable that these are meant by the word 
Purtisha in the pillar-edicts I, IV, and VII, and I have followed V. A. Smith in 
translating it by * agents \ These agents were graded into * high ones, low ones, and 
those of middle rank 9 (I, E), were acquainted with the king's wishes, controlled the 
Lajukas (IV, G), and were ' placed in charge of many people 9 (VII, M), A similar 
class of officers, which was created by A&oka himself, were the * reporters ' [prativedakd), 
who were posted everywhere, as he says, * in order to report to me the affairs of the 
people at any time, while I am eating, in the harem, in the inner apartment, even at the 
cowpen, in the palanquin, and in the parks * J* It is worth noting that this list does 
not include vehicles drawn by horses or bullocks, instead of which palanquins were 
employed in the time of ASoka. Horses are mentioned only in the pillar-edict V 5 K. 
Section I of the same edict refers to the elephant-park (mga-vana) of the king. As 
Biihler (ZDMG, 46- 78) remarked on the authority of Medhatithi, 9 . the taming and the 
sale of elephants used to be a royal monopoly- According to Megasthenes (I A, 6. 239), 



1 See the pillar-edict IV, C, and VII, N. 

2 See the pillar-edict IV, D and J. 3 See ZDMG, 47, 466 ff. 

4 Cf. Hobson-Jobsoui s, v* Collector. Megasthenes (I A, 6. 338) speaks of high officers (dpx^res) 
who * superintend the rivers, measure the land, as is done In Egypt, and inspect the sluices by which 
water is let out from the main canals into their branches, so that every one may have an eqfcal supply 
of it- The same persons have charge also of the huntsmen, and are entrusted with the power 
of rewarding or ptmislmig them according to their deserts. They collect the taxes y and superintend 
the occupations connected with land, as those of the woodcutters, the carpenters, the blacksmiths, 
and the miners/ 

fi See Text, p. 5, n. I- 6 See above, p. xxxv- 

7 These are evidently the i$opoi or kirivKoitoi of Megasthenes (I A, 6. 134). According to 
Arrian (id., p. 237) 'they spy out what goes on in country and town, and report everything to the 
king*, and according to Strabo (loc. cit.) 4 some are entrusted with the inspection of the city, 
and others with that of the army. The former employ as their coadjutors the courtezans of the 
city, and the latter the courtezans of the camp [cf. Magha, V, 27]. The ablest and most trustworthy 
men are appointed to fill these offices/ 

8 See the Gimar rock-edict VI, D. 9 Cf, SEE, 25. 333, note. 

1«8 f 



xlii INTRODUCTION 

r a private person is not allowed to keep either a horse or an elephant These animals 
are held to be the special property of the king, and persons are appointed to take care 
of them/ These officers are the Aivadhyaksha and Hastyadhyakska of the KatUiltya 
(p. 132 ff.). The Godkyaksha of the same work (p. 128 fE) probably corresponds to the 
Vracha-bhnmikas or 'inspectors of cowpens 3 in the rock-edict XII, M. The king's 
cowpen is referred to in the rock-edict VI, D. 

At the end of the set of rock-edicts (XIV, E) ASoka uses the word lipikara, 
' a writer \ the formation of which is taught by Panini (III, 2, 21). The three Mysore 
edicts were drafted by one of this class, who wrote at the end of his signature the 
instrumental case lipikarena in KharoshthI characters, 1 showing thereby that he had 
been transferred from North- Western India, 2 The word lip$ % * a rescript or inscription \ 
occurs six times in the rock-edicts. The commentary on the Unadisutras (IV, 119) 
derives lipi from the root lip 9 'to smear'. This is impossible because the two 
KharoshthI versions use instead of lipi the form dipi, which is found in the 
Achsemenidan inscriptions. 3 Besides, the participles likhita^ lekhita, likhapita are 
replaced at Shahbazgarhi by nipista t nipesita, nipesapita* which cannot be derived 
from the Sanskrit root nisk-pish, 1 to crush \ but must be connected with the Ancient 
Persian ni-pis/i, 'to write'. 5 The words ayi dkrama-dipi nipista, 'this rescript on morality 
has been written \ at Shahbazgarhi, V, O, and XIII, X, remind one most strongly 
of the cuneiform inscriptions. Thus Darius says at Behistan, column 4, section 15 : : — 
\tu)pam ka kya aparam imam dipim vainahy tyam adam niyapi\shatyz, £ O thou who 
shalt see this inscription in the future which I have written*; B and Xerxes says at Van : 
— yanaiy dipim naiy nipisktam akunaush pasava adam niyashtayam imam dipim nipish- 
tanaiy, * where [Darius] did not cause an inscription to be written ; afterwards I com- 
manded to write this inscription \ 7 The conclusion is irresistible that neither dipt nor 
mpisia are genuine Indian words, but that they have been taken over from the Ancient 
Persian language before Paninfs time, when the provinces of Sindhu and Gandhara 
belonged to the Persian empire. 8 The KharoshthI alphabet 0 and the Persepolitan 
capital 10 came to India from the same source. The preamble of many of ASoka's edicts : 
'king Devanampriya Priyadarsin speaks thus', is evidently a reminiscence and 
modification of the Achaemenidan formula: Qdtiy Darayavatish {Xskayarsha, Arta- 
xshaQra) xshaya8iya } 'says Darius (Xerxes, Artaxerxes) the king'. Tushaspha, the name 
of the Yavana king who was AfiSka's governor of GirnSr, 11 seems to be a Persian 
word like Vishtaspa, Keresaspa, &c, and suggests that A&oka enlisted Iranians in his 
service. 



I Brahmagiri, 1. 13 ; Siddapura, I. %% ; Jatinga-Ramedvara, 1. %%* 

3 Biihler, EI, 3. 135. 3 Cf. Westergaard's Zwei Abhandlungen> p. 33 f. 

4 See JRAS, 1913. 654. 6 See id., 1914, 97. 

c See Tolman's Ancient Persian Lexicon (Nashville, 1908), p. 28 f. 7 See id., p. 53 f. 

8 The provinces of Hindu and Gandara are mentioned in the inscriptions of Darius at 
Persepolis and Naqsh-i-Rustam, and Herodotus (VII, 65 f.) names the 'IvSot and TavSdpwi among 
the tribes composing the army of Xerxes. 

B See Biihler's Ind. Pah, § 8, 

10 See the Indices to Fergusson's History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, revised by 
Burgess and Spiers, 3. 5x5, and to V. A. Smith's History of Fine Art in India and Ceylon^ p. 513, 

II See above, p. xl and n, 3. 




CHAPTER IV. ASOKA'S CONVERSION 

From Buddhist literature we learn that ASoka became a convert to and patron of 
Buddhism. The Ka£mlr historian Kalhana also reports that A£oka * adopted the 
religion of Jina (i.e. Buddha)' and built many S tup as} According to the Dipavamsa 
(VI, 55), he became a Buddhist lay- worshipper (upasa&a), and the accounts of the 
Mahavamsa (V, 72) and of the Samantapasadika (p. 303) imply the same fact. His 
conversion took place three full years, L'e. in the fourth year, after his abhisheka* He 
is believed to have built no less than 84,000 Viharas in as many towns, besides the 
Asokarama at Pataliputra, and to have consecrated all these buildings after three years, 
i.e. in the seventh year of his reign. 3 

A£okas inscriptions fully corroborate the tradition that he favoured Buddhism, and 
show that he was intimately acquainted with its tenets, legends, and literature. This 
will be clear from the subjoined references. 

(1) In the Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription the king pays his respects to the 
Samgha or clergy, gives expression to his reverence to and faith in the Buddha, the 
Dharma or doctrine, and the Samgha^ and recommends to monks and nuns, to laymen 
and to laywomen, the study of seven ' expositions of the Dharma 9 selected by himself. 
These seven texts have been actually traced in the Buddhist canon. 4 

(2) In the Kau£ambi, Samchi, and Sarnath pillar-edicts he orders heretical monks 
and nuns to be expelled from the Samgha. This order of the king is known to the 
tradition of the Southern Buddhists. 6 . 

(3) The rock-edict VIII, C, states that when he had been anointed ten years, he 
paid a visit to Sambodhi, i.e. Bodh-Gaya, the place where the Buddha had attained to 
perfect knowledge. According to the Divy&vadana (p. 393), A£oka visited Bodhi in 
the company of the Stkavira Upagupta and distributed there 100,000 (gold pieces). 

(4) The same sum he is said to have spent at Lumbim-vana, the site of Buddha's 
birth (id., p. 389 £). His visit to it is confirmed by the Rummindei pillar, which was 
» erected by him when, having been anointed twenty years, he came himself to the village 
of Lummtni and worshipped the spot where the Buddha 6akyamuni was born. 

(5) The NigalT Sagar pillar records that when he had been anointed fourteen 
years, he enlarged the Stupa of the (mythical) Buddha Konakamana to the double (of 
its original size), and that when he had been anointed [twenty] years, be came himself 
and worshipped that spot 

(6) The Kalsl and Dhauli rocks bear the figure of an elephant with the labels 
( the best elephant ' and 1 the white (elephant) \° On the Girnar rock the elephant has 
been destroyed, but the existing label implies that the missing figure represented the 
Buddha, who is believed to have entered his mothers womb in the shape of a white 



1 Rajatarahgini) I, 103. According to I, 106, and VIII, 3391, A3oka seems to have had 
the surname Santdvasada. 

2 See Dtpavmma % VI, 18, 34; Mahdvantsa^ V, 34 ; Samantapasadika^ p. 300. 

11 According to the Makdvamsa, V, 309, in his sixth year ; but see IA, 30. 333, n. 18. 
* See Text, p. 174, n. i« 6 See Text, p. 160, n. 5. 

0 See Text, p. 50, n. 3, and p. 93, n. 1. 

f 2 



xliv 



INTRODUCTION 



elephant; 1 cf. the Nidanakatha of the Jataka, vol. i, p. 50, and the representation of 
the * descent of the Blessed one 1 on the Bharaut Sffipa* 

These six references raise a strong presumption in favour of the view that ASoka 
had adopted the Buddhist religion in the course of his reign, Further undeniable 
evidence is supplied by the Rupnath, Sahasram, Bairat, Maski, and the three Mysore 
rock-inscriptions, which will have now to be considered at some length. These records, 
or proclamations {iravand) as ASoka calls them himself, were issued 1 two and a half 
years and somewhat more' after he had become a Buddhist {Sakya at Rupnath, 
Buddhar&akya at Maski, section B) or a lay-worshipper {upasaka, Sahasram, &c), and 
'a year and somewhat more" after he had approached the Samgka (Rupnath, &c, 
section D). Section B confirms the statement of the Dlpavamsa that ASoka became 
a Buddhist upasaka (above, p. xliii). In section D the word 'approached' (ypeta) is 
ambiguous. Biihler , who first edited these inscriptions, took it in the sense of 
' entered ' ; and, by adding thirty-two and a half years (which were derived from the 
misreading adhitisani at Rupnath) and one further year to the traditional date of ASokas 
conversion (three years), he arrived at the conclusion that the Rupnath edict was 
issued shortly before his death (IA, 6. 153). After Oldenberg had shown that adhi- 
tisani was a misreading for adhatiyani, f two and a half', 3 . Biihler was obliged 'to give up 
the assumption that the statements of the inscription regarding the time of Anoka's 
conversion to Buddhism agree with those of the Buddhist tradition' (EI, 3. 137). As 
Asoka is known to have reigned thirty-seven years, 4 Fleet, who followed Biihler in 
assigning the Rupnath and cognate edicts to the last years of the king s life, assumed 
that he abdicated before the end of it in order to turn a Buddhist monk. But literary 
tradition knows nothing of such an abdication, unless we can find some reminiscence of 
it in the fact that 'the Divyavadana relates that A£oka died destitute of power and 
possessions, having given everything that he could give to the Buddhist Samgka V 
Moreover, an ex-king could not have issued commands (anapayati, Brahmagiri edict, B) 
to his former officers. Besides, the Rupnath and Sahasram edicts must be considered 
the earliest of all the ASoka inscriptions for two reasons : — (1) they speak of inscrip- 
tions on rocks and pillars as a task which it was intended to carry out, and not as 
a fait accompli ; 6 (2) they, and the three Mysore records, contain the first elements of 
ASoka's Dharma, which we find more fully developed in his rock- and pillar-edicts. 
Biihler (EI, 3. 141) believed that, as the Rupnath edict contrasts the words 'since I 
have approached the Samgka 9 with the words 1 since I am a (Buddhist) lay-worshipper 
the former cannot convey any other meaning but ' that he had entered the Samgka, and 
had become, at least nominally, a monk ; compare the Sanskrit phrases yajnam, vratam, 
or brahmacharyam upa4\ But the only other testimony for such a pabbajja is that of 
the Chinese pilgrim I-tsing, who mentions an image of ASoka dressed in the garb of a 
Buddhist monk \ 7 and the expression samgham upa4 for the precise idea of * entering 
into the monastic order ' is, as Senart (I A, 20. 163) reminds us, * vague and not sanctioned 
by the ordinary terminology, necessarily fixed at an early date in such a matter ; besides, 
this situation of a king, who, while preserving his royal prerogatives and his royal life, 
enters into a religious order, is far removed from the idea which we are accustomed to 



1 See Text, p. 37, n. 2. 

* Cunningham's Stupa of Bharhut, plate 38, and IA, 21. 335, No, 98 : Bhagavaio ukramti 
(read thus instead of okramii and see Biihler's Tnd. PaL y § 16, section C, No. 6). 

3 See Text, p. 167, n. 17. 4 See Dlpavamsa, V, 101 ; Mahavamsa> XX, 6\ 

5 Fleet in JRAS, 1913. 657. 6 See Senart, IA, 2a 7 See Fleet, JRAS, 1908. 495. 



ASOKA'S CONVERSION xlv 

form with regard to Buddhist monachism in the ancient period/ These considerations 
induce me to accept the view of Senart, who takes the word upeta in the sense of 
e visited * and finds in it a reference to a state visit paid by the king to the Samgha. 1 
Anoka's first visit to the Samgha is placed by the Dlpavamsa (VI, 78), Mahavamsa 
(V, 76), and SamaniapasMika (p. 303) in the very year of his conversion to Buddhism. 
Senart compares the visit recorded in the Rupnath and connected edicts with the 
festival of the consecration of Anoka's 84,000 Stupas } which is alleged to have been 
celebrated three years later, and at which the king is stated to have 6 stood in the 
midst of the Samgha \ 2 

As stated above (p. xliv), the Rupnath edict informs us that, when issuing it, 

(1) ASoka had been a Buddhist for more than two and a half years (section B), and 

(2) more than a year had passed after his visit to the Samgha (section D). The word 
sumi, 'I am f , in section B of the Rupnath, Sahasram, and Maski edicts proves that the 
two and a half years of Anoka's updsakaiva did not precede the single year which 
followed his visit to the Samgka, but included the second period. 3 Instead of section C 
of the Rupnath and Sahasram edicts, the Brahmagiri and ^iddapura edicts read: 

* but indeed I had not been very zealous for one year \ This more precise statement 
implies that the period of somewhat more than two and a half years has to be sub- 
divided into one year with, no doubt, a little more, followed by one year with the 
balance of the whole period. During this second year, A£oka, having visited the 
Samgha, showed himself very zealous. 4 In section E of the Sahasram edict he states 
that, in consequence of his zeal, 'men in Jambudvlpa (i.e. in India), being during that 
(i. e. in the preceding) time unmingled with the gods, have (now) been made (by me) 
mingled with the gods \ .This passage has been much discussed and interpreted in 
various ways. I have suggested that the 'gods' (clem) may be compared with the 

* divine figures ' {divyani rupani) of the rock-edict IV, B, where the king claims to have 
exhibited * representations of aerial chariots, representations of elephants, masses of fire, 
and other divine figures evidently in order to induce his subjects to lead moral lives 
and thereby to qualify for heaven. 5 The 'festive meetings 1 (sama/a) which were 
approved of by him in the rock-edict I, E, are probably identical with those religious 
shows instituted by him. 

I now pass to the knottiest problem of all those which the Rupnath and cognate edicts 
propound to posterity, viz, the meaning and application of the word vivasa at the end 
of the Rupnath edict. This substantive may be expected to be derived from the same 
root as, and to be connected in meaning with, the verb vivaseti in a preceding section 
(L). The same verb occurs as vivasayati in section I of the Sarnath edict. As I have 
shown elsewhere, 6 this section adds nothing new to the king's order, but contains further 
provisions for ensuring a still wider circulation to it, and we have to translate vivasayati 
at Sarnath and, along with it, vivaseti at Rupnath by ' causing to leave home, causing to 
start on tour, despatching (messengers) \* Consequently the substantive vivasa seems 
to mean 1 staying away from home, remaining on tour A comparison of the wording 
of section M at Rupnath with section J at Sahasram yields the result that the edict was 



1 See IA 3 %o m 334, and cf. JA (11), 7. 435 ff. 

3 Dtpavamsa^ VII, 3 ; Mahavamsa^ V, 185 ; Samantapasadikd, p, 304, 

3 This point was first recognised by Senart in 1893; see JA (8), 19, 481, and c£ my remarks 
in JRAS, 1910, 144 £ , and Senart in J A (11), 7. 436, 

* See Rupnath, D ; Maski, C ; Brahmagiri and ^iddapura, E. 

6 See JRAS, 1913. 653 £ c See Text, p. 163, n> 10, and JRAS a 1913, 1053 ff. 

7 Cf. Thomas, J A (io), 15. 518. — 



xlvi 



INTRODUCTION 



issued by a person on tour, who can be no other but A£oka himself, 1 when he had spent 
256 nights 2 on tour. It follows that Asoka had started on tour a few months after 
visiting the Samgka % which he had done more than a year before issuing the Rupnath, 
Sahasram, Bairat, Maski, and the three Mysore edicts. 

The Rupnath and cognate edicts do not specify the years of Anoka's reign in which 
his conversion and his visit to the Samgka, took place ; but they furnish a few de ails 
which enable us to fix their time with great probability, viz. : 

(a) ASoka became a Buddhist upasaka. 

(b) He visited the Samgha one year after (#). 

(c) He started on tour, 

(d) He issued the Rupnath edict, &c., more than two and a half years after (0), 

more than one year after (£), and 256 nights after (c). 

On p. xxxvi I gave a conspectus of the regnal dates which ASoka's inscriptions 
contain. Of these I here repeat the following ones in tabular form : 

No, 1 (Rock-edict XIII 18 years after the abhisheka Conquest of Kaliiiga* 

„ VIII jo „ „ „ Visit to Sambodhi 

„ 3 Pillar-edict VI 12 „ if „ Publication of rescripts on morality. 

„ 4 Rock-edict IV „ „ „ „ Institution of public shows of edi- 

fying subjects. 

On p. xliv I gave two pieces of evidence to show that {d) the Rupnath and cognate 
edicts must be considered the earliest of all. No* 3 places them twelve years after ASoka's 
abhisheka,) i.e. in the thirteenth year of his reign. 3 If we suppose that they belong to 
the second half of the thirteenth year, we may combine No. 2 with (a) and assume that 
ASoka's visit to Sambodhi in the eleventh year of his reign was connected with his 
conversion to Buddhism* In this case {b) would fall in his twelfth year and (c) about 
the end of the same year. No, 1 explains the conversion by mentioning the circum- 
stances which occasioned it. The king confesses that the Kalinga war was the turning- 
point in his religious career, and that his grief at the enormous loss of human life made 
him repent of his conquest and aspire henceforth to the c conquest by morality'. 4 
Herewith we may compare the Mahavanzsa, V, 189 : 

1 Before,, he had been known as Chandaioka (i. e. the fierce ASoka) on account of 
his evil deeds ; afterwards he became known as Dharm asoka (i.e. the pious Asoka) on 
account of his virtuous deeds \ 6 

The Mahavainsa places this change of name and character in the seventh year of 
Asoka s reign and his conversion already in the fourth year (above, p. xliii). These 
dates cannot be reconciled with the epigraphical ones and must be erroneous. 0 But 
the fact that the Buddhist chronicles agree with the inscriptions in recording a change 
in Anoka's policy and principles of government about the time of his conversion proves 
that their accounts are not purely imaginary, but are based on contemporaneous tradition. 



1 See Text, p. 169, iu 8. 

2 The discovery of the word IaU f * a night *, which had escaped the attention of scholars for 
thirty-three years, is due to Thomas ; see JA (10), 15. 530. 

3 This view is confirmed by section E of the Rupnath edict, which alludes to the same shows 
as No* 4. ■ 1 

4 See the rock-edict XIII, P and U. 

5 The same statement is made in the Divydvaddna^ p. 383. 
* Cf. Senart's remarks, IA, ao. 535, 



ASOKA'S CONVERSION xlvii 

At the same time they furnish in this manner another piece of evidence in favour of 
the correctness of Prinsep's identification of As oka with the Devanainpriya who issued 
the edicts published in this volume. 

A few words have to be added concerning the 256 nights which the king had spent 
on tour when he published his first religious proclamations. Asoka's tours are referred 
to and their object specified in the rock-edict VIII, in which he states that, after he had 
gone to Sambodhi (i.e. after his conversion to Buddhism), he commenced to undertake 
' tours of morality 3 {dharma-yatra) for £ visiting Brahmanas and £ramanas and making 
gifts (to them), visiting the aged and supporting (them) with gold, visiting the people 
of the country, instructing (them) in morality, and questioning (them) about morality \ 
This edict was probably not issued before the rock-edict V which records the appoint- 
ment of Dharma-mahamatras thirteen years after the abhisheka. As the tour during 
which Agoka issued the Rupnath edict had been undertaken in his twelfth year when he 
commenced to be ' very zealous", it maybe concluded that it was his first dharma-yatra. 
When he issued his proclamation in the second half of his thirteenth year, he had been 
in camp 256 nights. The special reason which induced him to acquaint us with this 
figure is not apparent. Fleet has shown that it does not mark any division or total 
of subdivisions of the year, either lunar or solar j 1 but, as I believe I have shown that 
the Rupnath and other records are not the last, but the earliest of the edicts, I am 
unable to accept his ingenious suggestion that the 256 nights had been spent in worship 
because they corresponded to an equal number of years which had then elapsed since 
Buddha's Nirvana. 3 

It must still tie noted that the Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription or 'letter to the 
Samgka ' seems to be earlier than all the other rock- and pillar-edicts. The references 
to a few Buddhist tracts in this inscription suggest that after his visit to the Samgka, and 
before starting on tour, he was engaged in studying the sacred literature* This would 
place the inscriptiofr-in the twelfth year of his reign. 

The KauSambI, Saihchi, and Sarnath edicts cannot be earlier than the six first 
pillar-edicts, because the first of them is engraved on the Allahabad-Kosam pillar in 
a position which shows it to have been a subsequent addition. 3 



CHAPTER V. ASOKA'S DHARMA 

In the last chapter I trust to have proved that ASoka had already embraced 
Buddhism when he commenced to issue c proclamations on morality 1 {dkarma-fravana) 
or 1 rescripts on morality * {dkarma-lipz) in order to convert his subjects. He tells us 
himself (pillar-edict VII, J-L) : 

* 

1 The following occurred to me : I shall issue proclamations on morality (and) 
shall order instruction in morality (to be given). Hearing this, men will conform to (it), 
will be elevated, and will (be made to) progress considerably by the promotion of 
morality/ 

The date of this propaganda is given in the pillar-edict VI, B : 

'(When I had been) anointed twelve years, rescripts on morality were caused 
to be written by me for the welfare and happiness of the people, (in order that), not 



1 JRAS, 1911. 1097. 2 id,, 1910. 1307 f. 3 See above, p. xfx. 



xlviii INTRODUCTION 

i 

transgressing those (rescripts), they might attain a promotion of morality in various 
respects. 3 

As shown above (p. xliv), A£5ka's first proclamations (fravana) 1 were the Rupnath 
and cognate edicts. When issuing them, he ordered that his views should be made 
public by inscribing them on rocks and pillars. 2 In the same year he directed his 
officers to carry on the propaganda on their quinquennial circuit (rock-edict III, C) : 

* Everywhere in my dominions the Yuktas, the Rajftka, and the Prade&ika shall set 
out on a complete tour (throughout their charges) every five years for this very purpose, 
(viz.) for the following instruction in morality as well as for other business.' 3 

In the next year of his reign he created special * Mahamatras of morality' 
{Dkarma-mah amatra, rock-edict V, I), whom I have mentioned before (p. xl)« A fresh 
set of six edicts was engraved on pillars twenty-six years after the abkisfzeka, and the 
seventh pillar-edict at Delhi-Topra was added in the next year, 

European analogies might lead us to expect that Aioka's conversion to Buddhism 
would have induced him to persecute the votaries of other religions. In reality the 
Hindus have been at all times extremely tolerant to other creeds, and have allowed 
everybody to try to attain salvation in his own fashion. Among the six orthodox 
schools of philosophy they count the pantheistic Vedanta and the atheistic Samkhya, 
and epigraphical and literary records show that Hindu kings considered it their duty to 
build temples and to make grants to other gods and denominations than their own. The 
same tolerance was practised by ASoka. As a pious Hindu he acknowledged the 
f debt* (find) which every king owes to his subjects in return for the revenue 
{skaddhagd) levied from them, and which consists in affording them protection (pa/ana) : 

' Whatever effort I am making, (is made) in order that I may discharge the debt 
(which I owe) to living beings, (that) I may make them happy in this (world), and (that) 
they may attain heaven in the other (world)/ 4 

In the same spirit he says : 

' All men are my children. As on behalf of (my own) children I desire that they 
may be provided by me with complete welfare and happiness in this world and in the 
other world, even so is my desire on behalf of all men.' 6 

This principle is further specified in the pillar-edict VI, C-E : 

1 (Thinking) : (f thus the welfare and happiness of the people (will be secured) " 
I am directing my attention not only to (my) relatives, but to those who are near and 
far, in order that I may lead them to happiness, and I am instructing (them) accor- 
dingly* In the same manner I am directing my attention to all classes. And all the 
sects have been honoured by me with honours of various kinds/ 



1 Rupnath, H 3 M ; Sahasram, H, J ; Brahmagiri and &ddapura, I, K, 

2 Rupnath, J, K ; Sahasram, L, M ; Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, P. 
8 Cf. also the Dhauli separate edict I, Z — CC« 

4 See the rock-edict VI, L, and cf. the second separate edict at Dhauli, H, and at Jaugada, I. 
On the other hand, the king reminds the Mahamatras that they owe him the debt of obedience 
in return for the salary received from him ; see id., L and M t respectively, and the first separate 
edict, Q and R, U and V, respectively. 

6 See the first separate edict at Jaugada, F, G, and the second, E, R 



ASOKA'S DHARMA . xlix 

■ 

Accordingly he directed his Dkarma-makamatras to busy themselves with 
Brahmanas and Ibhyas (I e. Vaisyas, rock-edict V, K), and with ascetics and householders 
(pillar-edict VII, Y), placed special officers in charge of the Buddhist clergy, of the 
Ajivikasj 1 Nirganthas (i.e. Jainas), and other sects (id., Z), and permitted all sects to 
reside in any place they liked (rock-edict VII, A). In the very remarkable rock-edict 
XII, which does him the greatest credit, he gives expression to his impartial con- 
sideration for all sects 3 and entreats them in their own interest to respect each other: 

'For whosoever praises his own sect or blames other sects^all (this) out of 
devotion to his own sect, (i. e.) with the view of glorifying his own sect, — if he is acting 
thus, he rather injures his own sect very severely * {section H). 

■ i 

Hence the king recommends to all sects concord {samavSya, section I) and the 
guarding of speech (vac/io-gyipii, section D). 

There is nothing specifically Buddhistic in those benefactions to which the second 
rock-edict refers, A6dka arranged for medical treatment of men and cattle not only in 
his own dominions, but among his borderers, and caused medicinal herbs, roots, and 
fruits to be cultivated. .Along the roads he had trees planted and wells dug for the 
benefit of cattle and men, 3 The Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, which was issued twenty- 
seven years after the abhisheka, states that he planted banyan-trees and mango-groves 
along the roads, that at intervals of eight Ms he had wells .dug and flights of steps 
(for descending into the water) built, and that he established numerous places for the 
supply of drinking-water to cattle and men ■ (sections R-T). When twenty-six years 
had elapsed after his abhisheka, he had ordered the release of prisoners twenty-five 
times (pillar-edict V, L). This suggests that he used to proclaim an amnesty to 
criminals at almost every anniversary of his coronation. The fourth pillar-edict records 
that the king left rewards and punishments to the discretion of his Lajukas, in order to 
ensure impartiality in judicial proceedings, and that he granted three days 1 respite to 
prisoners on whom the sentence of capital punishment had been passed. The fifth 
rock-edict (L) and the first separate edict (Dhauli, J, K, Y ; Jaugada, K, L, Z) also 
testify to his regard for innocent prisoners. 

All these measures were certainly prompted by his care for his subjects, but they 
do not characterize him as a Buddhist reformer. If we turn to an examination of what 
he tells us about the nature of his Z>karma t it appears that the latter is in thorough 
agreement with the picture of Buddhist morality which is preserved in the beautiful 
anthology entitled Dhammapada, i,e. 'words of morality'- Here we find Buddhism in 
statu nascendi. * From the definitions or descriptions which the king gives us, it follows 
that to him D karma ordinarily implies what we call the sum of moral duties/ 4 * The 
ideas and the language which are brought to light, from a religious point -of view, in our 
inscriptions, cannot be considered as an isolated expression of individual convictions or 
conceptions/ The Dhammapada 1 lays before us an equivalent sufficiently exact to allow 



1 The Barabar Hill inscriptions record a grant of caves to the Ajlvikas, but it is not 
absolutely certain whether the donor was identical with Asoka. . 
a Cf- also the pillar-edict VI, E, and VII, Y. 

3 Megasthenes speaks of officers who 1 construct roads, and at every ten stadia set up a pillar 
to show the by-roads and distances 3 (I A, 6 3 238), and of the * royal road 3 (68bs {latriXuctf = 
raja-patha in Sanskrit) leading from the western frontier to the capital Pataliputra, which c has 
been measured by schoeni (1 vyoivos = 40 stadia), and is in length 10,000 stadia' (id*, p. 136). 

4 Senart, IA, 20. 460. ' 
101s g 



1 



INTRODUCTION 



us to consider that they correspond to a certain state of Buddhism, earlier than that 
which has found expression in the majority of the books which have come down to us/ 1 

The word D karma is first mentioned in the Maski edict (section E)> It is defined 
thus in the second portion of the Brahmagiri record (sections M-Q) : 

e Moreover, Devanantpriya speaks thus : Obedience must be rendered to mother 
and father, likewise to elders ; firmness (of compassion) must be shown towards 
animals ; the truth must be spoken : these same moral virtues {dharnta-gtmcfy must be 
practised. In the same way the pupil must show reverence to the master, and one 
must behave in a suitable manner towards relatives. This is an ancient rule, and this 
conduces to long life. Thus one must act/ . . - 

The rock-edicts repeat or amplify the same injunctions :■ 

* Meritorious is obedience to mother and father. Liberality to friends, acquain- 
tances, and relatives, to Brahmanas and Sramanas (L e. Buddhist monks) is meritorious. 
Abstention from killing animals is meritorious. Moderation in expenditure (and) 
moderation in possessions are meritorious' (III, D). 

' Abstention from killing animals, abstention from hurting living beings, courtesy 
to relatives, courtesy to Brahmanas and Sramanas, obedience to mother (and) father, 
(and) obedience to the aged ' (IV, C). 

1 Proper courtesy to slaves and servants, reverence to elders,- gentleness to animals, 
(and) liberality to Brahmanas and Sramanas - (IX, G), 

' Proper courtesy to slaves and servants, obedience to mother (and) father, liberality 
to friends, acquaintances, and relatives, to Brahmanas and Sramanas, (and) abstention 
from killing animals 9 (XI, C). * " 

' Obedience to those who receive high pay, obedience to mother and father, 
obedience to elders, proper courtesy to friends, acquaintances, companions, and rela- 
tives, to slaves and servants, (and) firm devotion' pCIII, G) 1 . 

Finally, the pillar-edict VII, section HH, speaks of a progress 'in obedience to 
mother and father,- in obedience to elders, in courtesy to the aged, in courtesy to Brah- 
manas and Sramanas, to the poor and distressed, (and) even to slaves and servants \ 

A noteworthy point in the above extracts is the equal respect which the king paid 
to Brahmanas and Sramanas. 2 As Senart (IA, 20. 263) has shown, the Dkammapada, 
though a professedly Buddhist work, does exactly the same. There are, however, two 
edicts in which A£6ka denounces Brahmanical usage. In the ninth rock-edict he 
condemns 1 many and various vulgar (" offensive " at Shahbazgarfil) and useless cere- 
monies * which women are practising ' during illness, at the marriage of a son or a 
daughter, at the birth of a son, and when setting out on a journey and recommends 
in their stead the practice of morality. 3 Secondly, in the first rock-edict, section B, he 
directly prohibits the killing of animals at sacrifices. At the end of the same edict, 
however, he naively confesses that he had not yet been able to carry out fully the 
1 abstention from killing animals' which formed part of his moral code, and that three 
animals were still being killed daily in his kitchen ; but he promises that even this 



1 Senart, IA, 30. 2,6 

2 Megasthenes mentions the Bpayjidvai and Sappdvcu as two kinds of <pt\6(ra<fiai ; see 
IA a 6. 343* 

3 Cf. the Maiigala-sutta {Khudddka-paiha, V; JRAS, 1870. 313 ff.) or Mahamahgala-sutta 
{Suttanipdta, II, 4), in which the Buddha himself declares what he considers 'the highest 
mahgala \ 



ASOKA'S DHARMA 



Ii 



slaughter would be discontinued in future. Along with animal sacrifices he prohibited 
festive meetings (satnafa, sections C, D), perhaps because some of them, like the 
Spanish bull-fights, consisted of contests of animals, 1 and substituted another kind 
of festive meetings (section E), viz. the edifying shows alluded to in the fourth rock-edict 
and in the Rupnath and cognate edicts (above, p. xlv). 

Among Anoka's 'good deeds* the second pillar-edict (E) gives prominence to 
various benefits conferred on animals. This statement is explained by the fifth pillar- 
edict, which contains a detailed list of animals that were declared inviolable either 
permanently or on certain days, among them the well-known fast-days {j>osathd)} From 
the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII it appears that this limitation of the general principle 
of ahimsa was a concession which A£oka, though a convinced JBuddhist, was obliged to 
make to the majority of his subjects : 

* Now this progress of morality among men has been promoted .(by me) only in two 
ways, (viz.) by moral restrictions and by instruction. 3 But among these (two), those 
moral restrictions are of little consequence-; by instruction, however, (morality is 
promoted) more considerably. Now moral restrictions indeed are these, that I have 
ordered this, (that) certain animals are inviolable - . ,> . By instruction, however, the 
progress of morality among men has ^been promoted more considerably, (because it 
leads) to abstention from hurting living beings^(and)-to abstention from killing animals ' 
(sections JJ-NN). 

One of the items in the lists of ^virtues which constituted A£oka*s D karma was 
liberality or charity {d&na). He not only practised it on 'his 1 tours of morality ' (above, 
p. xlvii), but organized the distribution of his own gifts and of those of his relatives 
through his officers ; see the Delhi- Jopra pillar-edict VII, sections CC, DD : 

1 Both these and many other chief s (officers) are occupied with the delivery of the 
gifts of myself as well as of the queens, and among my whole harem [they are reporting] 
in divers ways different worthy recipients of charity 'both here and in the provinces. 
And others were ^ordered by me to busy themselves also with the delivery of the gifts 
of (my) sons and of other queens' sons, in order N (to promote) noble deeds of morality 
(and) the practice of morality/ 

According to the next section :(EE) * noble deeds of morality and the practice of 
morality (consist in) this, that ((morality), viz. compassion, liberality, truthfulness, purity, 
gentleness, and goodness, will thus be promoted among men ' ; while the pillar- 
edict II (B, C) says : — ' What does morality include ? (It includes) few sins, many 
virtuous deeds, compassion, liberality, truthfulness, (and) purity/ These two lists 
remind us of verse 524 of the Dhammafada^ where it is stated that the practice of 
truthfulness, absence of anger, and charity leads to the gods : : 

Sachcham bhane na kujjheyya dajja appasmi yachitoi 
etehi tlni thanehi gachchhe devana santikeji 

With the words f few sins, many virtuous deeds* in the pillar-edict II, C, Senart 
(I A, 20- 262) compares verse 183 of the Dhammapada ; 

Sabbapapass* akaranam kusalass* upasampada 1 
sach i 1 1 apar y o dapanam etaih Buddhana sasanam it 

1 See Thomas, JRAS, 1914- 39a ff. 

a Cf, Kern's Manual of Indian Buddhism t p. 99 f., and Vinaya Texts, part 1 (SEE, 13), p. x- 
The Buddhist fast-days are mentioned also in the Sarnath pillar-edict, H. 

3 This, and not 'conversion', seems to be the actual meaning of nijhati* C£ Suiianipdia^ 
II, 8, verses 5 and 7. 

g 2 



lii INTRODUCTION 

In the fourth rock-edict A£oka remarks that ' the practice of morality is not 
(possible) for (a person) devoid of good conduct* (aillasya, section H) s and exhorts his 
descendants to be * abiding by morality (and) by good conduct 9 (dharme Hie Hshthaniah, 
F). In the Dhammapada we read in verse 217 : 

■ 

Sll a-dass ana-s ampann am dhammatthaih sachchavadinam 1 
and in verse 84 : 

sa silava pannava dhammiko siya n 

A 

Anoka's remark : sukaram hipapam^ 'for sin is easily committed ' (Girnar edict V, G), 
reminds us of sukaram asadhmii in verse 163 of the Dhammapada, and the words : 
dupativekhe cfm kho esa> s now this (evil deed of mine)* is indeed difficult to recognise ' 
(pillar-edict III, D), of verse 252 : 

Sudassam vajjam amies am attano pana duddasaih 1 

and of verse 50: 

Na paresaih vilomani na pares aril katakatam | 
attano va avekkheyya katani akatani cha 11 

The lists of evil passions (asm ava-gam tnt, pillar-edict III, F) and dispositions 
(jatani) 1 do not tally with the asavas and kilesas of the Buddhists- 2 To counteract these 
dispositions, ASoka recommends f the absence of anger and the avoidance of hurry ' 3 
and continues : 

1 Whoever is fatigued in the administration (of justice), will [not] move and rise ; but 
one ought to move, to walk, and to advance in the administration (of justice) 1 (Jaugada, O). 

■ 

- 

This maxim reminds one of verse 168 of the DJiammapada : 

Uttitthe nappamajjeyya dhammam sucharitarh chare \ 

Already Anoka's earliest proclamations have zeal (pardkrama or prakrama) for 
their subject.* He returns to it in the sixth rock-edict, which dwells on the necessity 
of exertion (utthaua, sections H, J) or zeal (parakra?na > N) in conducting public business. 
Similarly, the Dhammapada recommends utthana (verses 24, 25, 280), parakkama 
(verses 23, 383), and appantada (verses 21-32), In two of his sermons on 'zeal' 
ASoka appeals to all his subjects, not only to those in high positions, but to those in 
humble life as well ; see the Rupnath edict, sections G, H : 

* And this cannot be reached by (persons of) high rank (alone), (but) even a lowly 
(person) is able to attain even the great heaven if he is zealous. And for the following 
purpose has (this) proclamation been issued, (that) both the lowly and the exalted may 
be zealous/ 

1 

Compare with this the rock-edict X, sections E, F : 

1 But it is indeed difficult either for a lowly person or for a high one to accomplish 
this without great zeal (and without) laying aside every (other aim). But among these 
(two) it is indeed (more) difficult to accomplish for a high (person).' 



1 See the first separate edict at Dhauli, M, and at Jaugada, N. 

2 See Childers' Pali Dictionary. 

3 See the first separate edict at Dhauli, O, and at Jaugada, P, 

4 Rupnath, Sahasram, and Bairat, F-H ; Brahmagiri and Siddapura, G-I. 



ASOKA'S DHARMA Mii 
A similar sentiment occurs in the seventh rock-edict, section R: 

* But even one who (practises) great liberality, (but) does not possess self-control, 
purity of mind, gratitude, and firm devotion, is very mean/ 

The eleventh rock-edict (R) and the ninth (J) state that 'there is no such gift 
as the gift of morality* {dharma-Mna)* Senart (I A, 20. 62) compares verse 354 
of the Dhammapada 

Sabbadanam dhammadanaih jinatL 

Spiritual insight {chakkhu), which A£5ka claims to have spread in many ways, 1 
is alluded to in the Dhammapada, verse 273 ; 

virago settho dhammanarh dipadanaih cha chakkhuma u 

According to the thirteenth rock-edict (L) 1 Devanampriya thinks that even (to 
one) who should wrong (him), what can be forgiven is to be forgiven \* 
This remark reminds us of the noble verse 223 of the Dhammapada : 3 

Akkodhena jine kodham asadhum sadhuna jine 1 
jine kadaryam . danena sacchen&likavadinam \\ 

The thirteenth rock-edict (sections M-O) continues thus ; 

* And even (the inhabitants of) the forests which are (included) in the dominions 
of Devanampriya, even those he pacifies (and) instructs, 4 And they are told of the 
power (to punish them) which Devanampriya (possesses) in spite of (his) repentance, 
in order that they may be ashamed (of their crimes) and may not be killed. For 
Devanampriya desires towards all beings abstention from hurting, self-control, (and) 
impartiality in (case of) violence/ 

This is the * conquest by morality 1 {dharma-vijayd) which A£oka substitutes for the 
conquest by arms, and which he claims to have won even among his neighbours 
(sections P-U). He requests his descendants that they ' should not think that a fresh 
conquest ought to be made, (that) if a conquest does please them they should take 
pleasure in mercy and light punishments, and (that) they should regard the conquest by 
morality as the only (true) conquest * (section X). 

In one important point ASoka's inscriptions differ from, and reflect an earlier stage 
in the development of Buddhist theology or metaphysics than, the Dhammapada : they 
do not yet know anything of the doctrine of Nirvana, but presuppose the general 
Hindu belief that the rewards of the practice of Dharma are happiness in this world 
and merit in the other world. See the rock-edict IX, M, N (Kalsi) ; X, C; XI, E ; 
XIII, W, Y, AA ; the Dhauli separate edict I, F ; II, E, G, K; the pillar-edict I, C ; 
III, H ; IV, E, M, N ; VII, PP. Ci the Dhammapada, verse 219 £ : 

Chirappavasim purisam durato sotthim agatarh 1 
fiatimitta suhajja cha abhinandanti agatarh 11 
Tath' eva katapunnarii pi asma loka param gataih 1 
punnani patiganhanti piyam natlva agatam II 



1 See the pillar-edict II, D, 2 Cf. the Dhauli separate edict II, G. 

8 The same verse occurs both in the Jdiaka and in the Mahabharata ; see Rhys Davids, 
Buddhist Birth Stories, p. xxvii, and Franke, VOJ, so, 300 ff. * See above, p. li, n. 3. 



liv INTRODUCTION 

Instead of c merit in the other world' A£oka often uses the term e heaven* {svargd). 
See Rupnath, Sahasram, and Bairat, G ; Brahmagiri and Siddapura, H ; the rock- 
edict VI, L; IX, K, L (Girnar); the Dhauli separate edict I, S, U ; II, L. The 
Dhammapada (verse 1 26), however, distinguishes Nirvaiuz from Svarga : 

saggam sugatino yanti parinibbant 3 anasava it 

# # - * # 

At the end of this* survey of the contents of ASoka s inscriptions we have still to 
consider the fourteenth rock-edict, in which the author of the preceding edicts states 
that he caused them to be written * either in an abridged (form), or of middle (size), or 
at full length. For the whole was not suitable everywhere \ The words 'at full 
length 4 must apply to the complete sets of fourteen edicts at Girnar, Kalsl, Shahbaz- 
garhi, and Mansehra. These four versions are practically identical, with the exception 
of the end of edict IX, where the three last of them (Kalsi, &c.) differ, for reasons which 
are not apparent, from Girnar, Dhauli, and Jaugada, 1 The words ' in an abridged 
(form) 9 may refer to the Rupnath and cognate edicts, and the words * of middle (size) ' 
to Dhauli and Jaugada, where two separate edicts were substituted for the rock-edicts 
XI-XIIL These, or at least the third of them, were c not suitable' here because 
Dhauli and Jaugada formed part of the newly conquered country of Kalinga and 
required different treatment and special orders to the administrative officers. It can 
be shown that the two separate edicts at Dhauli and Jaugada were contemporaneous 
with the thirteenth rock-edict of the other versions : The words ' that Devanampriya 
will forgive them (viz. his unconquered borderers) what can be forgiven ; that they may 
(be induced) by me (to) practise morality ; (and) that they may attain (happiness in) this 
world and (in) the other world 1 in section G of the Dhauli separate edict 1 1 correspond 
to sections L and M of the thirteenth rock-edict at ShahbazgarhT : 

' And Devanampriya thinks that even (to one) who should wrong (him), what 
can be forgiven is to be forgiven- And even (the inhabitants of) the forests which are 
(included) in the dominions of Devanampriya, even those he pacifies (and) instructs/ 2 

Another point of contact exists between the first separate edict and the third 
rock-edict, which A£oka issued twelve years after his abhisheka ) and in which he ordered 
the officers of all districts of h\s empire to undertake quinquennial tours for inspection 
and propaganda purposes. The first separate edict at Dhauli must have been drafted 
in the same year because in its sections Z and GC the king speaks of the quinquennial 
circuit of the Maliamatras as a measure which he was about to introduce. At the same 
time triennial tours were instituted in the provinces of Ujjayinl and TakshaSila ; see 
sections A A, BB of the same edict 

I now add a classified list of all the A£oka inscriptions. 

I* Buddhist Inscriptions. 

(1) Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription. 
t (2) Rummindei and Nigall Sagar pillars. 

(3) KauSambI, Sariichi, and Sirnath pillar-edicts- 

II. Proclamations or 'rescripts on morality 

(1) Early edicts. 

(a) Rupnath, Sahasram, Bairat, and Maski. 

(6) Brahmagiri, Siddapura, and Jatinga-RameSvara. 



1 See Text, p. 39, n. 1 



2 See above, p. llii and n. 4. 



ASOKA'S D HARM A 

(2) Rock-edicts. 

(a) Edicts I-XIV at Girnar, KalsT, Shahbazgarhl, and Mansehra. 
{b) Edicts I-X, XIV, and two separate edicts at Dhauli and Jaugad 

(3) Pillar-edicts. 

(a) Edicts I~VI at Delhi-Mlrath, &c. 
(6) Edicts I-VII at Delhi-Topra. 

III. Donative inscriptions. 

{1) Barabar Hill cave-inscriptions. 
(2) Queen's pillar-edict. 



Ivi 



. INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER VI. 

+ J ■ 

GRAMMAR OF THE GIRNAR ROCK-EDICTS 

■ 

A.— PHONETICS 
I. Vowels. 

The vowel a is replaced by u in astidha (=Skt. aushadha^ II, 5). This change is due to the 
influence of the 0 in the preceding syllable; cf. ndupdna=S 1 kt. ndqp&na in the Magadha dialect. 1 

The e of eta (=%Vra?) seems to be developed from an original i; see Johansson, SAM/16. , § ai. 

As in Pali, Skt u is represented by a in gam (XIII, 6), while the form guru occurs three times. 
The a may have been introduced from the comparative garlyas and the superlative garishiha ; see 
Michelson, IF, £3. 2,60, n> 1. In Mo (=Skt khaln) the a is lost by syncope, the / is assimilated to 
the preceding kh> and Skt, u is represented by 0* The form is used also In Pali, while the literary 
Prakrits have Mm (for ^khlu, an enclitic form of khalu) instead of It? 

In the foreign name Amtiyaka^Avrtoxps, 8 is expressed by^. In [A]7ht[ek]ina='AvTLyovQs, 
e and i correspond to i and and in Tttramdya = IlroAe/ialby, u and a too and £ 

The Girnar dialect has lost one of the Sanskrit vowels, viz- ri 9 which became i (after the stress 
accent) in etdrisa, tdrisa, yarisa (—Skt. etddrisa y &c), and u (after labials) in paripuchhd and swte 
(= vritia> X, 3), but generally a x—dnaihna (—aurinyq), hacha {—krityd) y kata 9 dadha, bhata^ bhataha^ 
maga t magavyd, mata {—mrita, XIII, 1), vistaia^ vydpata, suhadaya 3 (IX, 7), v\a\dhi {^vriddhi, 
IV, 11). In vadhi (—vrzddfii, XII, 8, 9) and mata 4 the n, which became a, has caused the 
lingualizattorij of the following dental- In vrachha {^vriksha^ II, 8) the vowel H is represented by 
the syllable ra, and in srtmdru (XII, 7) by ru through the influence of other forms of the root snu 

Of diphthongs, ai is found only in thaira, iraidasa^ and samac/iaira, the genesis of which will 
be explained below (p, lvii f.), and an is always changed to 0 : — dvo^ paralokika> potra, prapotra } 
osud/ia, -opaga and -opaya. 

Short vowels are lengthened in dnaihtamm* (=5kt. anantaram, VI, 8), achdyi\ke\ G (=diyayu 
kam i VI, 7), mddhuratd {^madhuratd^ XIV, 4)1 iidtlsu (IV, l), abhikara {=*abhiMra> V, 7), 
abhimmaka (VIII, 3), paftvesiya (=* prativesya, XI, 3), (XIII, 4), sampraiipati {— Skt. 

sampraiipatti % IV, 3; also spelt sampraiipati and $aihpatipati\ vlvdha 7 {—vivdha, IX, a), pyzrytf 
(XIII, 10 ; also vijaya), bahuhi {—bakubkih, IV, 4), and at the end of words in fotfra (XIII, i), 
paratra (VI, is), sarvaira (II, 6), etamht (IX, ^pamihesu (II, 8). 

Initial £ is shortened in aropitam, and final £ in Ari&z {=tathd 9 XII, 6), \Yo\fia^rqfa (XIII, 8) 
= Yona-rajd (II, 3), and in the enclitic which is far more frequent than its original form va* The 
three forms dradho* dradhl (i.e. *araddhi) % and aparadha are perhaps to be derived from the root ratt 



1 I use the term c Magadha^dialect ' for designating the language of the province to which 
Asoka's capital belonged* It must not be confused with the Magadhl of the Prakrit grammarians ; 
cf Michelson, AJP, 30. 384. » 

2 S- Fischers Grammaiik y \ 148, and cf. Michelson, IF, 33. 369 f. 

3 This word Is used in the sense of Skt- suhrid, ' a friend \ Cf- suliajja in the Dhammapada. 

4 This participle corresponds in form to Skt utsrzta, but its meaning agrees with that of 
Prakrit ussiya (Pischefs Grammatik, §64)= Skt. nchchhrita* In other words, the Girnar form 
seems to be due to a false popular etymology of uchchhrita from the root sri instead of sri 

6 The length of the initial a may be due to the fact that the word is a translation of the 
Magadha dnmhtaliyam ; see the Dhauli and Jaugada versions, VI> 4. 

6 KalsT, Dhauli, and Jaugada have atiydyike> Pali both achchdyika and achcheka (i. e. *achchayika)* 

7 Cf. Bohtlingk's Worterbucl^ s.v* vlvdha, and Pan. VI, 3, izz. 

* Cf draddha-chitta In the Dlghanikdya y translated by Franke, p. 144, n. % % 



GIRNAR GRAMMAR 



lvii 



used in the same sense as radk. The short a oi etarisam (= ftddrisam), etarisani (= efddritdnt), 
dana (= ddnam) is probably, due to clerical mistakes. Final I is shortened in the nom. sing, of 
masculine bases in -in : — Priyadasiy hasti* 

The initial a of the enclitic apt is dropped everywhere except in evmmafi (II, a)- The 
initial i of iti is generally preserved, but it is dropped m -nisrito H (V, 8) and in the compound 
kimti or hitu 

II. Simple Consonants, 

Greek x and y are expressed by k in AmHyaka = *j4vrtox off an ^ [Ayk^e&lma = 'Avriyovo?* 
In -qffegu and -tf/aj/tf we seem to have a change of ^ into 7 ; cf. Franke, VOJ, 9. 345 ff. Skt. gk has 
become h in lahuka* 

In zuv&z (VI, 3; XII, 9), rifc corresponds to the / of Skt* <vraja\ cf. vrac^amd = Skt 
vrajanti at Shahbazgarhi. 

Skt. « is preserved in kalana (= kalydna), ganand t charana^ praharana and pakarana, prdna 
and vinikhamana (from vinish^kram\ sramana and samana (~ sramana). In terminations, 
however, dental 0 is not, as in Sanskrit, lingualizedi after r and sh : — agena ( = agrena), parakra- fow^KcvltVel 

putrena and puiena, mitrena % abklramakdni^ rftpani } sahasratti, Gaihdharanam } giirunam , 
ihairanmh, mamtsanam and manusanam (= manushanam). On the other hand, lingual j# is newly ? u^eir^oX 
developed after r in prdpunati (from Skt. prapndti)^ darsmia and dasana (~ dar&ana) y samtirana 
(from Urayati) y and without apparent reason in Fi?«0 (V, 5), while Fiwa: (with dental 0) occurs 

four times. rx4dUcJtCceQ\ 

As, stated above (p. lvi), dentals are lingualized after the vowel in w^/a: and vadh% and 
becomes r before an original ri in etdrisa, &c. Similarly, rfA has turned to dh through the influence 
of the preceding sh in osudha (= Skt. aushadha), and t becomes ,t after r in the preposition 
(ten times), while the original form prati occurs four times in pratipati and sampratipatu In lipi 
(== dSjtf in Ancient Persian; see above, p. xlii) d has become /. In idha the Girnar dialect has 
preserved the ancient form of Skt iha ; cf. Pischel's Grammatik y § .366. 

■ The labial aspirate M has become h in thejnstrumentals bahuhi (= baktibhiJj) % tehi (= Vedic 
tebhift), pafivesiyehi^ satehi, and in some for iris of the root viz. Iwti {= bhavati) y aho (= ab&avat), 
and ahumsu, while M is preserved in bhavati, bkave, bkitta. 

The semivowel y is developed , out of i in AmHyaka ~ * Aptioxos, and U7oA€/£arps becomes 
Turamayo. Initial is lost in A — Skt. yd (II, a) and — Skt. yavaU In the dative aiha 
(XII, 9) = Skt. ar ill ay a the whole syllable ^jeems to be dropped. In causatives the characteristic 
affixes aya and ayi sometimes remain unchanged. More frequently both are changed to at {aya by 
Samprasarana, and ayi by the elision of y) and contracted to e. Thus Skt. praiivedayaia becomes 
paHvedetha, while e.g. pujayati remains unaltered, and Skt. .hdpayishyati t aradhayitnvi> rochayitavya^ 
a-rochayiivd are converted to hdpesati $ aradhetu, fachetavya % \a\-Iochetpa 9 while ayi remains in 
dasayitpa = Skt. darsayitvd* Similarly, Skt. mayura becomes first *maiira and then mora 
(1, 11). In two instances an original aya is not represented by e 7 but by at: *trayadasa (= Skt. 
trayodaia) becomes traidasa (V, 4), and Skt. ^-sama-charya^ having passed through the intermediate 
stages *samachariya and ^samacharia i becomes samachaira (XIII, 7) through metathesis. 1 

Lingual d corresponds to Sanskrit / in ma&idd, and to Tamil / in Choda* The / of lochetavya 
and \a\4ochttpd) which corresponds to Skt. r a is due to the influence of the Magadha dialect ; see 
Text, p. 8, n. 3. Greek A is represented by r in Turamdyo nroXepatos. This word proves that 
the Girnar and Shahbazgarhi versions are translations from the Magadha dialect, where the A of 
the Greek original is preserved {TnlamayA at Kalsi). 2 Another instance in which r corresponds to 
/ is *drab&ate, 1 to kill = Skt. alabhate ; see below, p. Ixvi. 

The semivowel v is developed out of u in vnta ( = Skt. ukta^ IX, 6 ; XIV, 4). As aya to at 
and e i ava is changed by Samprasarana to ail and a* In this way bhavati^ abhavat^ avarodhana* 
*avavadiiavya become hoii* aJto^ orodhana, ovdditavya* The contracted form hoti and its original, 



1 Cf, Geiger's § ay, and puma (XI, 4), which goes back to Skt. punya and presupposes 
the intermediate forms *puniya and *puinya* 

2 If my explanation of stipaddlaye at Kalsi, Dhauli, and Jaugada (Text, p. 33, n. 3) is right, 
supadarave at Mansehra would be another wrong translation from the Magadha dialect. 

1813 h 



Iviii INTRODUCTION 

■ 

bkavati, are about equally frequent in the Girnar text. In thaira ^ Skt. $thavira % v is elided and 
at contracted to au 

As in most Prakrits, the two sibilants s and sh have become s throughout : e. g. pasu = Skt* 
paht % dosa =; ddsha* 

As in all other Prakrits, final consonants are dropped. Hence the ablative singular of 
masculines and neuters in -a ends in -a (= -at) ; Skt. tat, etat, yat f and ydvat become ta, eta, ya, 
and ava\ Skt. bliavit, abliavat^ vasiytlk become bliave } ako t vaseyu ; and the nom. plur. of 
masculines in -a and of feminines in -a ends in -a (= -alt)* But a is shortened in the dative- 
genitive imdya dhammannsastiya (III, 3), in the nom, plur, fern- chihlchha (II, 4), and in the 
3. sing- optative tisieya (for *tishtheydt). Final as generally becomes 0 (e.g. yaso — Skt. yatafa 
ratio = rdjiiah, iisfamto = tishfhantah, Devanampriyo = Ddvdndmpriyali) ; but in some instances 
the corresponding Magadha form in is improperly used (e.g. Devanampiye, XII, 1), and in others 
we have -<z {Magd, XII, 8 ; j5 = Skt. att/*, XIII, 10; «s£*=s eshah 1 ) or -0 ([k4]/«*[*£]z«<z, XIII, 8, 
bhuya = bhuyah, VIII, 5, and osa). Final ir becomes i in apachiti, rati, hint, but * in &c. 

While thus all final consonants are dropped, a word may end not only in a simple vowel* but 
in a nasalized vowel, i.e. in a vowel + Anusvara, and Sanskrit words ending in m and n substitute 
Anusvara for these two nasals ; e.g.- Skt. ddnam becomes ddnam y and ianmt (XII, 4) is formed 
from Skt. hardti on the analogy of Skt. knrvan. Just as in modem Hindi) Anusvara is, however, 
omitted frequently in writing ; see ida (XI, $) f katavya (= Skt. kaftayyam, IX, 6), dana (— ddnam, 
IX, *j),p/iala t mata (— matam, XIII, 3, and =mritam, XIII, 1), mddava, vinikhamana, saka 
(=Sakyam) 9 ki (IX, 9), kiti and klii (= hzrtim), chhaii (= fakantim), v\a]dhi {—vriddhim), 
susmhsera (~ hisrusheraii)> karu (for karuvi), dradfietu (=dradftayitttm) y eva (= evam, IX, i). 2 

A long nasalized vowel is generally shortened (e.g. ganandyam, bhuianam % yesam t nattnam, 
gttrunaniy amtvataram) ; but it is preserved in bhuianmh (XIII, 7), ptljam.yatam, anuvidJiiyatanu 
Anusvara is omitted in pu\ja\ (= Skt. pujam f XII, %), m&hathavah\a\ sttsru[m]sa, susrusata* 
The long vowel is shortened and Anusvara is omitted at the same time in tesa (= tesham, XIII, 4) 
and samtiranaya (loc. sing, of samttrand, VI, 9), unless the latter is a genitive used in the sense 
of the locative. 

IK. Sandh*. 

In the last paragraphs it was shown 1 that at the end of words consonants are as a rule dropped 
and nasals converted into Anusvara. In tad-opayd (VIII, 5) and tad-amnatha (XII, 5) the final 
consonant of the base tad is preserved in composition, 8 and final m remains before an initial vowel 
in evamtapi (II, 3) and katavyaimeva (IX,- 3:). Similarly, hiatus is prevented by nasalizing 
the first of two vowels in \a\nam-ainiiasa (— Skt. aiiyonyasya, XII, 7) and bkatam-ayesu {— bhrita- 
ryesku, V, 5 ; cf. Text, p. io, n. 4). 

In the majority of cases, a + a are, as in Sanskrit, contracted into a; e.g. ndsii, dhammanusa- 
sanaih) pranaraihbho. But the first a is elided before a in dhamm-avayo (XIII, i), dham-anugaho 
(IX, 7), dhdm-adhistandya (V, 4), efrayam {=Htra+ayanh VII I a 3); before e in etayava 
(III, 3), clueva (IV, 7; XIV, 3), cluesd (XIII, 4), ta\t*e\ta (= tairattat, IX, 4), temesd 
(VIII, 3) ; before o in m\a\nus^opagdn^t\ (II, 5), and « before 0 in pa$-o\pd\gani (II, 6). The 
result of t + a is £ in ithljhakha (— stry-adhyaksha, XI I, 9). 

■ 

IV. Groups of Consonants. 

The Girnar dialect has preserved a number of combined consonants which would have been 
assimilated in the later Prakrits. As remarked by Biihler {Ind. PaL, § 16, last section), there are 
among them some ligatures in which the second consonant is placed first for the sake of con* 
venience in writing. As this point is of importance because it affects the transcription of the 
Girnar alphabet, I subjoin a list of such combinations of consonants. 

(a) tp (written pt) in drab/iitpd, dasayitpd, \a\-lochetpd> -hitatpd^ iaddtp anoxic) ^ chatpdro^ dtpa-. 

(b) vy (written yv) in vyamjanatO) vyasauam, vydpatd^ apa~vyayatd t divydni, magavyd) 

katavya t vatavyam % prajuhiiavyam> ovdditavyam, vijetavymh^ lochetavyd y pat\i\vedeta\v\yatit. 

. ^ . . 

1 Cf. Text, p. 15, n. 7, 

* It deserves to be noted that in the Rigveda eva is used nearly throughout in the sense of event. 
3 Cfc Pischel's Grammatik^ § 341. 



GIRNAR GRAMMAR lix 

(c) st (written ts) in anusasti, seste, Ustamto, tisteya, sfita, -adhistdndya, mtdna, nistdndya* 
Although in the words given under [a) tp is written as pt, their Sanskrit prototypes suggest 
that we have to pronounce and transcribe tp. Michelson (J AOS, 31. 335 f.) supports this view by ^ £>2h Q cfcaj J fy*A\ 
referring to dbddasa — Skt. dvddasa (III, 1 ; IV, 12) : c There is no question but that dh represents . ^ * 

the correct order of the letters. Now if Indie dv becomes. then Indie So surely should become r r ^ 1 f * f v 

Hence gerunds in (Skt -toz) are to be read as such. This settles the reading Stpar ' t Yf " 
(Skt. oftna.) without further arguments/ ' lCx , c ^ . ' ( P***" 

The same holds good for (fi) 5^ which is .written^. Dr. Michelson writes to me:— *It is ™^e>i hrf g.|*fi J z_ 
inconsistent to transcribe divydni, vyasanaih, but -tayva t as the same symbol is used in all cases- *t f ^ fci* ? ? J=C 
yvasanam would be unpronounceable. Buhler's argument from Pali that yv is correct from the 
analogy of yk from Skt. hy is useless, as vy does not become yv but W (or remains) in Pali/ 
See also J AOS, 31. 335. 

On the same analogy (c) ts has been transcribed by st, although Franke {Gurnpnjakaumudt^ 
p. 36, note) thinks that ts represents the actual pronunciation. 

The fact that the Gimar alphabet marks the letter r in combination with several consonants 
was discovered independently by Senart {Inscriptions 4e Piyadasi^ 1. 35 f.) and by Pandit 
Bhagvanlal Indraji.(IA f 10. 106 and note).. Although ther is generally placed at the top of the 
other consonant, nobody has ever doubted that it was in most .cases pronounced after it, and that 
we must transcribe kr, tr y pr % fir, and not rjk % rt 9 rp t rb. The symbol rs t however, does duty for 
both sr and rs } and rv for vr and f r ( v. The former must certainly be read sr in sakasra^ smndru^ 
bahu-srutd^ susrusd, sravdpakam, -sramandnaih % -nisrito, c$J}a\-parisrave % but it cannot be meant for 
anything but rs in vimdna-darsana (IV, 3) and dasa-varsdbhisito (YIII, a). Likewise the symbol 
rv may be read vr in vrachhd (II, 8), but must be intended for rv in sarva and sarvata or 
sarvaira. The spelling bhuta-pruva (V, 4 ; VI, %) would fee, .in ,the opinion of Michelson (J AOS, 
31. 338), the result of an erroneous translation of the Magadha form -puluva which the writer found 
in the original draft of the edicts. I consider it more likely that the writer wanted us to pronounce 
-purva, but committed the mistake pf connecting the r with the p instead of inserting it before 
the v ; cf. the same spelling in the Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra versions* 

A large number of combined consonants are not preserved unchanged, but have been 
assimilated. In later Prakrit inscriptions, as in the British Museum plates of CharudevI and in 
the plates of Vijaya-Bevavarman (EI, §. 144, and 9. 57), the double consonant which is the result 
of such an assimilation is written in full. The inscriptions of ASoka and of the Andhra kings, 
however, express every double .consonant by a single letter ; e,g. aggi s= Skt. agni is written agz, 
attha s= ariha becomes atha, laddha — ilabdha becomes ladka, gabbha ~ garbha becomes gab/ia, 
and nijjhatti = *nidhyapti is spelt nijhatu In double nasals both ways of spelling are in use ; 
e,g. dhamma and dhama — dharma % aihiia and ana = anya. 

At the beginning of words an assimilated group is simplified in all Prakrits; e.g, ndti — 
Skt. JSdtij it — tri, pdna — prdna y bhdtrd — bhrdtrd, xhhtida (i.e. chlmddd) = ksJmdra. Also in 
the interior of words an assimilated group may be simplified and the preceding vowel lengthened ; 
see kdsati (also hasati^ i.e. kassati) *karsfiyati, dhama (also dftamma) — dhanna^ vdsa (also 
varsa) =5 varsha^ chikichha — ckikitsd y rajuka (from rajju or rajfju; see Text, p. 5, n. a). 

In a few cases a long vowel preceding a group of consonants is shortened ; see anusasii = 
Skt. anusdsti, ayesu (i. e. ayyesu) = dryesku, kiti (i.e. Mitt) = kirti, digha (i.e. diggha) = dzrg/ia, 
puva (Le.puvva) —pnrva. Even a long vowel preceding a simple consonant may be shortened 
and the consonant itself doubled ; cf. Pischel's Grammatik^ § 90 f. Thus the short vowel in bhuya 
(= Skt. bfifiyafi), anuvidhiyare and anuvzdMyatdfh (from Skt. anuvidhiyaie) suggests that these 
words have to be read b/iuyya, anuvidhiyyare and anuvidhiyyatdth^ and that consequently iisteya 
(VI, 13) may be meant for tistfyya with doubled^ and short e> as in the corresponding Pali form of 
the 3- sing, opt, act. 1 But, as a rule, a long vowel preceding a group remains unchanged ; see 
asamdt[a]m (= Skt. asamdptam), dckdyi\ke[ ( = dtyayikam), dnapaydmi (= djhapaydmi)^ dtpa- 
(= atma-) % taddtpano[ne) 9 ndsti, pardkrama, brd\fn\hana and bdmhana (also bramhana and bamhand)^ 
bhdtrd % mahdmata and mahdmdtra, mddava (= mdrdava) 9 mahdlhdvaha (= mahdrthdvaha)^ rand 

Y 

m 

1 Similarly nichd may represent *nickcha 9 into which nichd has been changed on the analogy 
oiuchchd\ see SPAW, 1914. 844. 

h 2 



lx 



INTRODUCTION 



(=rafna) t Ri(Ra)stika ( = Rashirikd), supdthdya ( = sfipdrthdya), ithtjhahha (= stry-adhyaksha)> kiti 
(= hirti) % i^v\o (— tivrah), samip[ai?i\ sdmipyavi)* 

A long nasalized vowel is shortened before consonants, as it is frequently at the end of words 
(see above, p, lviii), in Tambapamnl (= Skt TmnraparnT) and Devdnampriya^ while Anusvara is 
suppressed after a long vowel in aiikrata and atikata (= atikrauta), \d\pardid (— dpardntdh), 
chhaii (= kshanti), [n]iyd£u (= niydntu) 9 Padd ( = Pdndyalj), bhdda (= bhdndd), karoie (for 
*karmhte> IX, 3), karoio (for ^karomto), pdti (read hotU for *homti)> In <2Z/£4&« (IV, 6) % has taken the 
place of the im of vihimsd (IV, 1)* Conversely in susumsd, susumsera the short nasalized 

vowel mh is substituted for the u of susrusd (III, 4), and in susnisd and susrusata the Anusvara of 
«7/z is omitted. 1 There are several other instances in which Anusvara is omitted after a short 
vowel : — magala (IX, 3) =z mangala, the two 3. pers. plur. ichhati (VII, 2) and prdpunaii (XIII, 4), 
sambadha (XI, 1) = sambandha, sastuta (twice) = samstuta, sachhdya (XIV, 5) = samksdya, pdsada 
(twice) ^pashanda* sayama = samyama^ savata (also samvata) — samvaria, kicl^t\ (also kimchi) 
= hhhchit, kiti (also jb'iftft) = Aw/zzrf. In the first six of them the omission of Anusvara may be 
due either to clerical mistakes or to the faint articulation of the nasal sound. The form panada 
(= Skt. par shaded) is a recognised variant of pdsamda (passim); cf. prasha^a and prashamda at 
Shahbazgarhi. In sayama^ which occurs four times, and in savata the nasal may have been 
assimilated to the following semi-vowel ; c£ Panini, VIII, 4, 59* The forms kichi and kiti occur again 
in other A£oka inscriptions and are perhaps defective spellings for ktehchi and hitti = *kid+chid 
and *kid+iti; see Johansson, Shahb^ § 90. 

So far we have seen that the Girnar dialect either preserves groups of consonants or assimilates 
them* A third mode of disposing of them is the development of an auxiliary vowel (svarabhakti) 
between two consonants. This vowel is a in garahati and gar aha (= Skt* garhati and gar ha), 
i in pailvenya {— praiivesyd), puina (for *puniya — Skt. pnnya), samachaira (for *samachariya s= Skt. 
*sama-charya\ and u after a labial in prdpunaii (3. plur. ind. pres. act. of Skt. prapnoti). Similarly, 
an auxiliary i is prefixed to an initial group in ith% (i. e. itthl^ — Skt. strt)* 

I now subjoin an alphabetical list of Sanskrit groups with their Girnar equivalents. 
hi becomes t (i. e. tt) in abhisita % bhati, yuta, vatavyam^ vittam % 

ky becomes k (ue. kk) in saka. , 

kr remains in atikrai[a\?h (VI, 1), pardiramdmi, parakrammia> but becomes k in atikatam 
pari{ra)k\a\mate (X, 3). 

ki becomes chh in sachhdya (XI V, 5) ; see Burner, ZDMG, 40. 14a. 

becomes M in ithffhakha, samkhit\e\na ; chh in chhanati^ achhaiiih } chhamitave^ chhdtz, 
chhudam, chhudakeiia^ vrachtta. 

khl becomes kh in hho — Skt. Main ; see abovfe, p. lvi and n. 2. 

git becomes ^-in agu 

gr becomes^ in agenda -anugaho* 

jit becomes mil or n in kaiamiiatd^ rdnd } ratio, aiiapaydmi, dnapayisati y dnapiiam, ndti, iidtika. 
dy becomes d in Padd (= Skt. Pdndydh). 

ny becomes mn in dnamnam, hiravma; mn or ii in apmimam and puinant? 
tm becomes tp in dtpa-. Cf. tp — tv, below. 

ty becomes c'h in \a\packaih) dchayi\ke\ ilokaehasa, ehacha^ kacham f parichqfitpd, prachamtesu* 
Other instances of palatalization are j — dy % jh ~ dfty, chh — ts, ks, ksh. 

ir remains or becomes t\ see e.g. tri and tl y taira and tata % atiatra and aiiata, sarvatra and 
sarvaia r putra and puta> miira and mita* mahdmdtra and mafidmdta* 

tv becomes tp in chatpdro, afabhitpd, \€^4ochetpd,dasayiipd y parichajitpd t Mdatpano{m),-hitatpd* 
Cf. db — dv in db&dasa* 

ts becomes chh in chikicJUid ; s in usafena? 
\ isih becomes si in ustdna for *uusihana* while the corresponding Sanskrit word is uttkdna* 

dy becomes j in aja, patipajetha ; in uydnestt* 



1 Perhaps sttsrtisd is meant for susrussd s as Mtgu for bhuyya ; see above, p. lix. Cf. also 
Geiger's Pali, § 6. 

2 For the epenthesis of * see above, p. Ivii, n. 1. s See above, p* lvx 5 n. 4. . 
4 Cf. ^^fa == Skt. sikana in Pischel's Grammatik, § 309. 



GIRNAR GRAMMAR Ixi 

dr becomes d in ckhudath, chhudahena. 
dv remains in dvo, dve^ but becomes db in dbadascu 
dhy becomes jh in iihzjhakha, nijhatl, majhamena* 
dhr remains in dhruvo^ [A*]mdhra, 

ny becomes mii or it in mhfia and ana s mamnate and manate y nay dsn. CfL apumna — Skt. 
apunya. 

pt becomes t in gutz 7 nijhatt^ asaiudt{a\ih, samkhH\€\na^ Turamdyo (= nroXefiaTos). 
pn becomes^;/ in prdpunati (from Skt. prdpnati). 
py becomes p in sdmtp\ani\ 

pr remains or becomes/; see e.g* prakarana and paharana (IX, 8), prima and pana (IX, 5), 
Devanampriya and Devdnampiya y Priyadasi and Piyadasi, praiipati and patipajetha (XIV, 4), 
sampratipatl and sampatipail (IV, 6). 
becomes in ladhesu. 

br remains in jro[i»]&twa (IV, a) and bramhana (IV, 6), but becomes b in bamhana and 
bamhana (IX, 5). 

My becomes £A in the passive forms drabhare^ arabhisit y drabhisare. 
bhr becomes bh in bhdtra or 
my remains in samya- . 

mr becomes mb (through the intermediate stage *mbr ) in Tambapamnl, 

rg becomes g in svaga. 

rgh becomes gh in dig/idya. 

rn becomes mn in Tambapamnl. 

rt becomes t m kaiavya, kiti or ktti y anuv\a\tare\ anuvataram^ anuvatisare; t in samvata 
or savata* 

r/A becomes th in 

rrf becomes d in mddava* 

rdh becomes dh in (IV, 9) ; in vadhayati (XII, 4), vadhayisati (IV, 7) 5 

vadhiia. Cf. £ for in samvata^ 

rbh becomes #A in gabhdgdramhu 

rm becomes mm or m in kamma (= Skt. karman) y dhamma and dhama. 

ry becomes in ayesuj- but is represented by nj/ in samachairam 7 which presupposes the form 
*samachariyam (= Skt. ^sama-charyam) ; see above, p. lvii.- 

remains or becomes v in sarva or jam Instead of Skt. purva we have in IV, 5, 
while pruva, which is probably meant for purva, occurs in two places ; see above, p. lix, 

rs becomes rs in vimdna-darsand, but s in fiasti-da\sd\na, das am ^ dasayitpd, Priyadasi \ 
daspanam (VIII, 4) is probably a clerical mistake for darsanam. 

rsh becomes rs in varsa (VIII, a), but s in vdsa (= Skt. varsha). 
l^jrs/iy becomes s in kdsati, kdsamti^ kasa\?}i\tu 
. becomes «A in garahati^ garaha* 
lp becomes in &^ft 
becomes / in kaldna. 

vy remains in vyantjanaio^ <-vyayatd> vyasanam, vydpatd, divyd7ii > magavyd^ and in the affix 
-tavya (seven instances), but becomes^ in pnjetaya (XII, 4). 

vr becomes v in ii\y\o t \fd^)ajitaiii^ vacka (VI, 3 ; XII,- 9) ~ Skt vraja* 

sch becomes chh in paclt/id. Other instances in which a sibilant causes aspiration are hh — sk 9 
sfi&r, ksh ■ chh = /j, ; /A = sir, 

Jy becomes s mpasaii^ but sty in paMvesiyehi (XI, 3), 

ir becomes jr in sramana, sttsrusa, sitsru[m]sd s susrusd, susrusaid Y bahn~srutd % srdvdpahmh^ 
nisrito > but jjxi samana, susumsa, sttsumsera^ sesfe (= Skt. sreshiham). 
$*v becomes sv in sveto. 
shk becomes h in [du\kaiaih 9 duharam* 
f^shkr becomes hh in vinikhamana. 



1 The 3. plur. imper. act. [ii\iydtu (III, 3) need not be derived from nir-yd } but may stand 
for niydntu ; cf* iiaydsu (VIII, 1) from 72z'-^ used in the sense of nir-yd* 



Ixii 



INTRODUCTION 



ishtr becomes st in Ri(Rd)stika. 

shth loses its aspiration and becomes st in seste, tisteya, tistamto, nisianaya^ -adhisianaya. Cf. 
the Magadhi forms iustu = Skt. sushthu and kostdgalam — koshthagaravi (Hemachandra, IV, 290, 
and Pischel's GrammaHk, § 303), and at Girnar siita = Skt st/iita, ustana — *ut-sthdna 3 Ri{Rd)stika — 
Rdshtrika, anusasti = anusdsti. 

becomes j in manusa, dnapayisati, and in other futures. 

j£ becomes in agi-kh\a\mdhdni. 

st remains in asti> ndsti, hasti, samstuta, vistafa \ it becomes st in anusasti. 
l_ sir becomes ^ in 

^/A becomes tk in t/taira, st in gharastani} and in j/to, 
j?» becomes in the locatives in -amhk 

sy becomes s in the genitives in -asa } and in the optatives asa, asu of root as. 
sr remains in sahasra and a[pa\ -farisrave i but becomes s in partsave (X, 3). 
^ remains in svaga* svamikena* svayam y but becomes s in sarasake (XIII, 11). 
km becomes mft 3 as in Prakrit, in bamkana and other equivalents of the Sanskrit and Pali word 
brdhmana. 

a 

B. — DECLENSION 
I. Bases in -a. 



(1) Masculines and neuters in -a* 



m s &c. J 



neut. dduam, &c. 



Singular. 

Nom. masc. jano, 
Acc, mascjanam, 
Instr. jamna % &c. 
Dat atfidya, &c. 
AbL kapd, -hitaipd, pachhd. 
Gen. janasa % &c. . 
Loc. (a) atJutmhi) &c.; (b) &c. 



Plural 

Masc. ?;«?ra, Sec; neut phalanx, &c 
Mzscyute, atke; neut divydni, rupdnu 
fativesiyeki) satehi. 



thairdnaih^ &c* 
thairesU) &c. 



Nom. sing. — In a few neuters the final Anusvara is missing, viz. pftala, ma fa, mddava (ace), 
vinikhamana. In many instances the Magadha termination -e is used ; (a) masculines \— partsave* 
a\j>d\-parisrave, Devdnampiye (XII, 1), prddesike, bhd\g\e, rdjuke, sakale, sayame ; (b) neuters : — 
dchdyi\ke\ hamme> -char ane, tdrise, dasam, dam, -puve t bahuvidhe, mamgale, -mate, ma/i\d]-pfta/e 9 
mahdlake, mule, y arise ^ vadhiie, vip[uf\e t seste. The wrong form -patividhdno (VIII, 4) is probably 
due to the fact that the clerk who drafted the Girnar version thoughtlessly replaced the -e of the 
Magadha neuter patividhdne by -<?, as in the masculine jatw t &c. = Magadha jane, &c. The foreign 
name \A\mt\ek~\ffia (XIII, 8) has no termination, while Magd lengthens its final a. 

Dat sing. — The form at/id (XII, 9) for athdya is found also in the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict 
VII \ cf. Text, p. 33, n, 3, and Michelson, J AOS, 31. 340. 

Loc. sing, — In pravdsammhi (IX, a) the m is doubled- The termination -e occurs also in 
pdkarane^prakarane, Pdtalipute, vijaye, vijite, sarasake ; tadaipano is a mistake for taddtpane? 

The acc. plur. masc. uses the termination -did, which, as shown by Liiders (SPAW, 1913. 
993 ff.), is peculiar to the Ardhamagadhl dialect, in four instances : — agi-kh\d\mdhdni (IV, 4) and 
sava-pdsamdani cha \jpd\vajitani cha gAarastdni cha pujayati (XII, 1). 

The acc. plur. neut. has the termination -d instead of -am in vimdna-darsand cha hasti- 
da\sd\nd cha (IV, 3). 

Gen. plur. — The long vowel is preserved before Anusvara in bhuianam (XIII, 7). 

Loc, plur. — The final u is lengthened mpamihesn (II, 8). 



1 In accordance with Vararuchi, IV, 33, and Hemachandra, II, 144, Skt griha is replaced 
byghara. 

2 The corresponding Pali word parissaya is not a neuter, as Childers thought, but a masculine ; 
see Luders, SPAW, 1913. 1004 and n. 5. 

3 Cf. -patividhdno for -patividhatie in the nom. sing* 



GIRNAR GRAMMAR lxiii 



(a) Feminines in -a. 



Singular. 
Norn, ichhd, &c. 
Acc. pnjdm, ydtdm. 
Instr. pujdya, &c. 
Loc. ganandyam, parisdyanu 



FIuraL 

(a) haia (II, 4) ; (b) makiddyo. 



Acc. sing.— The final Anusvara is omitted in pu[jd] {XII, a), mahdthdvaJi\a\ (X, 1), 
susru\iit\sa (X, %), 

Loc, sing. — In samtiranaya (VI, 9) the final Anusvara is omitted, or it may be a genitive 
used in the sense of the locative. 

Norn, plur.— In chikichha (11,4) the long a of the first of the two different terminations is 
shortened. The second termination is identical with -ao in the Prakrits ; see Fischers Grammaiik 
§ 376. 

II. Bases in 

(1) Masculines in -£ 

Nom. plur. fri, tu 
Gen, plur. naiinam* 
Loc- plur. iiatisu. 

The nom, plur. in -i is common in Prakrit ; see Pischel's Grammaiik, p, 380. 

(s) Feminines in -1 and -i. 

Singular. Plural 
Nom, lipl, &c. ataviyo* 
Acc* Sambod/mh, &c. 
Instr. -amisastiyd, bhatiya, 
Dat -anusastiya (with final a shortened). 

Nom. sing. — The final i remains short in apachiii, rath hlnu 

Acc, sing. — The final Anusvara is omitted in kiti (X, a), hiii (X, 1), chhdti (XIII, u), 
v[a]dfn (IV, ji). 

III. Bases in 

Besides the gen. plur, masc. gurfmam we have three forms of the neuter base balm, viz* nom. 
sing, bahu, nom. and acc. plur, baknni, and instr. plun bahfthi. The nom. sing, sddhu is the same 
in all three genders. 

IV. Bases in -rz. 

Instr. sing, masc. piia (for piird), bhatrd or bfids[a\. 
Loc, sing, pitari, mdtari and mdir\{\. 

V. Bases in Consonants. 

- 

As in other Prakrits, bases ending in consonants have a tendency to follow the analogy of the 
tf-deelension. Thus the feminine base parishad becomes parisa (III, 6) and forms the loc. sing. 
parisdyam (VI, 7). The present participle sat forms the nom. sing. masc. samto. Of bases in -an, 
panthan forms the loc. plur, pamthesU, and the neuter karman the Magadha nom. sing, kamme and 
the dat. sing. kammdy\a\. 

The original consonantal declension survives in the subjoined incomplete paradigms. 

(1) Present participles in -at 

Nom. sing. masc. karmh or karu, 
Nom. plur. masc. tisfamto* 

The nom. sing, karmh is derived from the Sanskrit verb harotu In karu the Anusvara is 
omitted. Two other forms of the same case, haroto (for *karomio) and samto (from root as) follow 
the analogy of the ^-declension. 



Ixiv 



INTRODUCTION 



(2) Masculines and neuters in -an. 



Plural. 
rajdno* 



■ — 1 _ 



Singular, 

Nom* masc. raja. 
Acc. neut. nama* 
Instr, rafid. 
Gen* ratio. 

In the nom. sing- masc* [ Yo]ua-raja (XIII, 8) the final a is shortened, while II, 3 has 
Yona-raja. 

■ 

(3) Masculines in -in. 

Nom. sing. Priyadasi, hasiL 
Instr. sing. Priyadasina* 
Gen, sing, Priyadasino. 

(4) Neuters in -as. 

_ F 

Acc. Sing. jp^Wj ( = Skt. bhuyah)* 



Singular. 
Nom. masc, so 



C— PRONOUNS 

(1) Pronoun of the first person. 

Nom, sing, ahaiiu 
Instr- sing, maya. 
Gen. sing. mama y me* 

(%} Base ta* 



Acc. 

Instr. Una, 
Dat. /^a. 
Gen. toar. 
Loc. tamhi. 



i 



neut to. 



Plural. 



Masc. te. 



tehu 

te\sd\m t iesa. 



Nom. sing, fern- se. 

In plti-raso sa (XIII, 10) the nom. sing. masc. ends in -a. The neuter ta (= Skt. tat) occurs 
twice (X, 3 ; XIII, 2) as pronoun and frequently as conjunction, Its Magadha equivalent se is 
taken over unchanged in I 3 10. 

(3) Base na. 
Acc. plur. masc. m ; neut. nanu 
For this pronoun see Hemachandra, III, 70, 77. 



Masc. ete. 



(4) Base eta. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. masc. esa (X, 3),* esa\ neut. eta 3 etam, esa* 
Acc. neut. eta (XI t 3). 
Dat, etaya, etakaya* 
Gen. tftovz. 
Loc* etamhu 

Nom. sing. fern. £re (VIII, 3). 

With the nom. sing, masc, esa (VIII, 5 ; 2 XIII, 4) cf. .ra (= Skt. ttzA, XIII, 10) and Maga 
(XIII, 8), The neuter eta (= Skt etat) occurs twice, and eiam once (X, 4), while the masculine 



1 Cf. above, p. lxii, n. 2. 



2 See Text, p. 15, n. 7. 



GIRNAR GRAMMAR lxv 

■ 

form esa is employed three times as neuter and was known as such to Hemachandra (III, 85), who 
quotes esa siram (= Skt* Uacfachhiratt). Cf. the Magadha nom. sing, se t which is used both as 

■ 

masculine and as neuter (= Skt. sah and tat), and see Pischel's Grammatik^ p. 399. 



(5) Demonstrative idam* 



Plural. 

Masc- ime. 



Singular. 

Nom- masc, aya?h ; neut. idam 9 ayanu 
Acc. neut. idam. 
Instr. imina. 
Gen. imasa. 
Loc. imamhL 

Nom. sing, fern, iyam, ayam* 
Dat. sing. fern, zmaya* 

The Anusvara of the neuter idam is omitted in ida (XI, 3), The masculine ayam is employed 
instead of it three times, and instead of the feminine iyam (I, 1) five times. In Pali only ayam 15 
used as feminine. 

(6) Interrogative Pronoun. 

The nom, sing, neut- hi (for Mm) occurs in IX, 9, and &am s used as an indefinite in XIV, 3. 
Of the indefinite base hhhchid we have the nom- sing, masc. hochi (XII, 5) and the neuter Mmchi 
or kich\i\ (X, 3). The compound kimti or kiti (XII, 3) is used in the sense of * that, in order that \ 

(7) Relative Pronoun. 



Singular. 

Nom. masc. 70; neut. ya. 
Acc. neut, ya f ya\4i\. 
Gen. yasa. 



Plural. 
Masc. ye ; neut yanu 



yesam* 
Nom. plur. fern. yd. 

The acc. sing. neut. ya\iii\ is found only in X, 3, while ya (= Skt. yat) occurs ten times. 

(8) Base any a. 

Plural. 



Masc. a\pi\h\e\ ane\ . 



Acc. 



Singular. 

Nom. masc. aihne ; neut. ait\a\ ane. 
Acc. 

Dat. andya. 
Gen. \a\namamnasa~ 
Loc. anamhL 

The nom. sing. masc. and neut amiie (VIII, 5) and one (IV, 7) are Magadha forms, 1 while 
an\a\ (IX, 5) is the regular equivalent of Skt. anyat. 



(9) Base sarva. 

Singular. 

Nom. and acc. sing. neut. sarvath, savam. 
Loa sarve, s\_d\ve m 



Plural. 



Masc. save. 
\sa\vesu* 



(10) Base ekatara* 
Loc- sing, ehataramhu 

(11) Base *ekatya. 
Nom. plur. masc. ekacha? 



1 Cf. above, p. lxii. 

2 The corresponding Pali form is ekachcke\ see Childers, s.v,, and Geiger's Pali, § 113. 

1013 1 



Ixvi INTRODUCTION 

D.— NUMERALS 

One. 

Nom, sing, masc* eko* 
Two. 

Nom, masc. dvo ; fern. dve. 
These two are the only dual forms preserved in the Girnar dialect- 
Three. 
Nom. masc, tri^ tin 

Four. 
Nom. masc. chatparo* 

Five. 
Loc« pamchasu* 

Ten, twelve, thirteen. 
dasa, dbadasa, iraidasa. 

Hundred. 
Acc. plur. satani\ instr. satehu 

Hundred thousand. 
Nom. plur. sata-sahasranu 

■E.— CONJUGATION 

I. Present, 
(i) Bases. 
First Sanskrit class. 

Root kram : parahramdmi, pari(ra$k\a\mate» The active form kramati occurs also in the 
epics, while classical Sanskrit has kramati in the active and kramaie in the middle- 
Root gam : gachheyaih. 
Root gar A: garaliaiu 

Root drU : pasati (i* e. fassaU — Skt. pasyaii). 
Root bhu : bkavati and IwtL 

Root labh. The absolutive arabhitpa and the passive forms arabhare^ arabhisUj arabhisare 
presuppose the present *avabhate> c to kill ' (5= Skt. aldbhaie)* 
Root vas 1 vaseyit. 
Root vfU : anuv\a\tare. 
'R.ootsthdx tisteya. 

Second Sanskrit class. 

Rootdtf: asti. 
Root^z: \ii\iyaiu. 

Root han follows the analogy of the ninth class : upahanatu 

Third Sanskrit class. 

The gerundive prajukiiavyam presupposes the present *juhati = Pali juvhati (for *jnhvati) ; 
see Pischel, GGA, 188 1. 1324. 

Fourth Sanskrit class. 

H w 

Root pad: patipajetha (= Skt. pratipadygta). 
Root man : manmate (= Skt. manyate)* 



GIRNAR GRAMMAR lxvii 

> 

Fifth Sanskrit class. 
Root dp follows the ninth class : prdpunaii (for °namti)> 

Root sru follows the ninth class and forms the 3. plur. imperative active srtmaru. 

Sixth Sanskrit class. 

Root ish : icMiaiu 

m 4 

Seventh Sanskrit class. 
Both blmj {bhuihj\a\mdnasa> VI, 3) and yuj ijujamtu, IV, 1 1) follow the ^-conjugation. 

Eighth Sanskrit class* 

Root kri : karotu 

Root kshau follows the ^-conjugation: ckhanatu 

Tenth Sanskrit class and causatives. 

(a) With aya : pujayati, dasayitpd, dtpayema, drddhayamtu, vadhayad. The character aya is 
contracted into <? in pativedetha, pai\^vedeta[v^am, pfyetaya, drddketu, lochetavyd^ \a\-locketpd. 

(b) With paya : hdpesati and the derivative dapaka. The long vowel of the root jfia is 
shortened, as it is optionally in Sanskrit, before paya in aiiapayaml With this agrees the Prakrit 
miavedi, while Pali has dndpeH with long a ; cf. Pischefs Grammatik^ § 8. 

(c) With dpaya : UkMp&yisam 9 sttkMpaydmi (which is, properly speaking, a denominative of 
stikka), and the derivatives khdndpita, Uhhapiia, harapita, srdvdpdka* In lekhapiia the vowel i 
of the root likh is strengthened by Gutja, while in Kkhdpayisafh it remains unchanged. 

(d) With papaya : ropdpita, 

(2) Moods. 
(a) Indicative. 
Active, 

1. sing* pard&ramdmi, karomi, dnapaydmu 

3. sing, garahatit pasati, bhavati and hoti f asii, upahandti, iehhati, barott f chhanati, pujayaii^ 
vadhayatu 

3. plur. pdti (read hoii, XIII, 6), ichhati (VII, 3), prdpunaii (XIII, 4), In these three forms we 
would have expected the termination -mii instead of -tu \ 

Middle- 

3. sing. paH{ra)k\a\mate l mamnaie or manate y karote, which follows the analogy of the active 
karoti, while Sanskrit has the weak form kwrute* 

3. plur, karote (IX, 3) for *haromte* The termination is -re in wmv\a\tare (XIII, 9), in the 
future anuvatisare, in the two passives anumdhiyare and drabhare, and in the future passive 
arabhisare. The same termination is known from Vedic Sanskrit, Prakrit, and Pali ; see PischeTs 
Grammaiik) § 458. 

(b) Subjunctive. 
Active. 

1, sing, sukhdpaydmi (VI, 12) t which has the termination of the indicative, but must be 
explained as a subjunctive because it is co-ordinated with the optative gachheyam and the 
imperative arddkayamtu, 

3. sing, mamnd (XIII, 11) from mamnaie. Ctpaiydt and many other Vedic forms. 

(c) Optative. 

■ 

Active. 

1. sing, gachheyam. 

3. sing, asa (= Pali assa for *asydt from root as), bhave t iisteya* Pali, too, has both the 
terminations -e and -eyya* 
1. plur. dipayema. 

3, plur. am (= Pali assu for *asyufi)i vaseyu* 



1 Cf. the Ardhamagadhi form pmmanii in Pischel's Grammatik, § 504, 

1 2 



Ixviii INTRODUCTION 

Middle, 

3. sing, paHpajetha (XIV, 4)* The termination -tha (= Skt. ~ta) is the same in Pali ; see 
Geiger's Pali, § 129. 

3, plur. susuvisera (desiderative of sru) with the termination -ra for Pali -ram = Skt. -ran. 

(d) Imperative. 
Active. 

2. plur. paHvedetha (VI, 5)* As in Prakrit and Pali, the termination of the corresponding 
person of the indicative is transferred to the imperative. 

3* plur. yujamtU) drddhayamiu^ \ii\iydiu (with -iu for srundru (XII, 7) from *srundti 

Skt. srindiu With the termination -ru cf. the middle termination -re in the Indicative, the optative 
sasuviserdi and the imperative anuvataram. 

Middle. 

3. sing, anuvidhiyatdm (passive) and susrttsata (desiderative). 

3. plur. anuvataram (VI, 14). Pischel (GGA, 1883:. 1331) compared the Vedic imperative 
duhrdnu The middle termination -ram (for rmm) corresponds to Skt. -niam, as the active 
termination -ru to Skt. -ntu, and as the indicative middle termination -re to Skt. -nte* In the 
optative middle the Sanskrit termination -ran agrees with Girnar.and Pali. 

(e) Imperfect. 

3. sing. act. aha for *abhot = Skt. abltavat\ see Johansson, Sfidftb. t § 30, last section. 

II. AORIET. . 

3. plur. act. naydsu (VIII, 1) = Skt *nyaydstth from root yd with the preposition ni in the 
sense of nis\ cf. Michelson; JAOS, 31- 345. The form ahtmisti (VIII, a) seems to be based on 
the 3. sing, ahu (= Skt. abhut), as Pali dswtsu on arc (= Skt. In drabhisu (I, 9), which must 

be connected with the passive drabhare (I, 11) = Skt. dlabhyante % the M is a defective spelling 
for 

III. Perfect, 

3. sing. act. aha* The form tfj/tfytf (VIII, a) has been generally explained as an imperfect of 
toot yd. It may be as well a perfect of root = Skt. iyaya, but with modified reduplication, 

'IV. Future. 
Active. 

1. sing, Ukhdpayisam (XIV, 3) has the same termination as in Prakrit and Pali. 
3. sing, dflapayisaii, vadhayisati, hapesati, kdsaii Pali kdhatt) from *karshyati. 
3. plur. {pra^\vadhayisamti t amtsdsisamti y kdsamti and kasa])}i\ti from root kru 

Middle. 

3. plur. anuvatisare (V, a). In the passive drahhisare (I, 1a) the &4 is a defective spelling for 
££A ; cf. the remark on the aorist drab/iisti, above, section IL 

V. Passive. 

The forms which occur in the Girnar text are all derived from the two Sanskrit passives 
dlabhyate and anuvidMyate : 

3. plur. indicative drabhare % anuvidhiyare are defective spellings for drabbhare 9 anuvidhiyyare ; 
see above, p. lix. - ■ 

3. sing, imperative anuvidhiyatdm* 

3. plur. aorist drabhisu. 

3. plur. future drahhisare* 

VI. Desiderative.. 

The 3* plur. optative siiswhsera (XII, 7) and the 3. sing, imperative susrusatd (X, a) are 
derived from Skt. hUrushate. 



GIRNAR GRAMMAR bdx 

VIL Participles, 
(i) Present participle* 
Active* 

- 

RootJ/A«: nom, plur. masc, iistamto* 

Root as : nom. sing, masc, samio. 

Root kri : nom. sing, masc. karoto, karum f kariu 

Middle. 

Root bhuj : bkmhj[a[mdna, 

(a) Past passive participle. 

(a) In -tai mate (= Skt. mate, XIII, a, and =mriia, XIII, i),kata {— kritd), vyapaia 
(= vyaprita), instate (= vistritd), usata (= utsrita), nisriia (= *nisrita), stita (= sihitd), atikrata 
(VI, i) or aiikata (= atikfdntd)^ mda (~ ukta), samata (= samapte), samkhita (= samkshipta) ) 
ladha (= labdhd), anapiia, &c- The participles wySto and mrffti (VI, 4) are used as substantives. 

(b) The only participle in -#0 i&prasamna* 

(3) Future passive participle. 

(a) In -tavyai kaiavya (— Skt. kariavyd)* vatavya (*= vaktavyd)^ prajuhitevya (from *jukaii 
= Pali juvhatt), ovdditavya (from Pali ovadaii\ vijetavya (from vi-ji) y .pujeiaya (= pujayitauya)^ 
locheiavya (= rdchayitavya)>pat\^ve€leta\y'\ya* 

(b) In : (= Skt. kritya } IX, 8), jd&z (= iakyd). 

VIII. Infinitive. 

(a) Accusative : arddhetu (= Skt. drddhayitum). 

(b) Dative : chhamiteve from root hsham ; cf. Vedic forms like thoriteve^ and ganfave, &c„ 
in Pali. 

IX. ABSOLUTIVE. 

(a) In (= Skt. -ftflS) : arabhttpa, parichajitpa (from root #4/), dasayitpd (from causative of 

(b) The only absolutive in is sackJiaya from sam~kia (= smh^hhya). 

F. — SUFFIXES 

Under this heading I note a few remarkable formations which differ from Sanskrit. 

(1) JTriV suffixes. 

(a) : samtzrand from Skt. ttrayaiu 

(b) nijhati = *nidhyapti> anusaiti = Skt. anusdsti (Bohtlingk's Worterbuch t 3. 991), while 
Pali amisitthi agrees with Skt. amdishtu 

(c) Ato* (IV, 11) from root A£ on the analogy of the participle htna. 

The first member of the compound vachi-giiti (XII, 3) is not a fossilized locative, as Michelson 
(J AOS, 31. 230) thinks, but must be connected with Ardhamagadhi vat or vat — *vdchl\ see 
Pischel's Grammatih) § 413. 

(3) Taddhite suffixes. 

(a) -kai rdjuka (from rajju\ see Text, p. 5, n. 2), and often pleonastic: etaka, y\d\vaia\&\a, 
tdvaiakU) sarasaka, ndtika* 

(b) -dlakax mahdlaka (from Skt. mahai) = Prakrit mahdlaya and mahattaya (Pischel's 
Grammatik) pp. 40a, 404). 

(c) 4ka : ilohika and pdrahhika (XIII, 1 a). 

(d) -tya : ilohacha (XI, 4), ehacha (I, 6). The first component of ilokacha and ihkiha is the 
pronominal base /, from which Skt, iiara, Has, and (for id/ia) are derived ; see Franke in GN, 

1895- 535- 

(e) -tarO) added to participles and substantives: bd4hataram s katavyataram, kavmtataram 
from Skt. karman, 

(f) -ivana : taddtpano{ne) ; see Text, p. i8 3 n. 8. 



hoc INTRODUCTION 

SYNTAX 

Here also I do not aim at completeness but note only a few particular constructions. 

To denote time, several cases are used : the accusative in atikdtam amiaram, 1 in times past 1 
(IV, i \ V, 3 ; VI, i ; VIII, i), the instrumental in bahuhi v[dsd]-sate/ri, * for many hundreds of 
years ' (IV, 4), the dative in dighaya, 1 in the distant (future) ' (X, i), and the locative in pamckasu 
painchasn vdsestt, 6 every five years ' (III, a), sarve kale, 1 at any time * (VI, 3, 8), and taddtpano{ne), 
c at the present time* (X, 1), 

The nominative absolute occurs in XI, 4: — so t\d\tha karu, 'if one is acting thus 1 , and the 
genitive absolute in VI, 3 :— blmihj[a\mattasa me, 'while I am eating 

The genitive is employed in connexion with bhavati (IV, 10) and nasti (VII, 3), and instead 
of the instrumental with kata (— krita, II, 4), sddhu-matd (I, 6f.), and katavya-mate (VI, 9). 

The 3. sing, asti is the predicate of a nominative plural in I, 6, and nasti in three places 
(II, 6, 7 ; XIII, 5) ; cf. Pischel's Grammaiik, p. 350. In XIV, 1 t, asti is used as a particle in the 
sense of vd. In IX, 1, it opens a sentence, as frequently in the Panchatantra\ cf. Speyer's Sanskrit 
Syntax (Leyden, 1886), p. 234, n. a. For instances from Prakrit literature see Pischel, op, eit, p. 294, 

CHAPTER VII. 
GRAMMAR OF THE KALSI ROCK-EDICTS 

A,— PHONETICS 
L Vowels, 

The vowel a becomes i through the influence of a neighbouring y in majhima (= madhyama)^ 
vadhiyati (= vardhayati), vadhiyisati, and u after a labial in muta} munisa (= manushyd), ticha* 
vucha* In gih\f\tha { — grihastha, XIII, 37) and ud\tt\pdna (= ttdapand) the vowel of the second 
syllable is assimilated to the first. In Alikyashudale (XIII, 8) the u is perhaps due to a popular 
etymology deriving the foreign name l/tXegavSpos from alika, 'the forehead and sundara, 
1 beautiful \ 

The e of heia or heta (= *itra) perhaps goes back to an original i ; see above, p. lvi. 
In edisa and hedisa the vowel e corresponds to the % of Skt. idrisa? 

The a of galu corresponds to Skt. u\ cf. above, p. Ivi. In munisa (II, 6) the u of Skt. 
mamtshya has become i through the influence of the palatal y in the next syllable ; cf. the form 
manusa (i.e. mantissa) at Shahbazgarhl and Mansehra, in which the y has palatalized the preceding 
sk? In kho (= Skt. khalu) Skt. u is represented by o ; see above, p. lvi and n. 2. 

As in other Prakrits, the Skt. vowel ri is lost, It becomes a in \a\naniya ( = Skt. dnrinya\ 
\ti\shata, kata, dukata^ gahatha {=grihastha, XII, 31), dakhati, bfiata, 5 bhataka, mate, vatam 
(= vrittam, X, 37), vadhi and vadhi (= vriddhi), vithaia, viydpata ; i in edisa and h edisa, tddisa, 
\a\disa {— yadrisa) y kitandt[a\ (= kritajnata), gik\f[tha, didha, pandtikya (= *pranaptrika), piHsu, 
bhatind, mige, migaviyd \ u in ushuta? shune[y\u? and after a labial in a[gab/iu]t[{\, palipuchhd, 
ni\y\uii (— nirvriiti), vutaih (= vrittam, XIII, 11), vudha (= vriddhd). It will be observed that 
in some of these words the original ri has caused the lingualization of the following dentals, and in 
kedisa^Skt tdrisa it has lingualized the preceding d. In \lti\kha (II, 6) the syllable In corresponds 
to the syllable vri of Skt. vriksha ; cf, Greek Kvico? = Skt, vrika, and see Wackernagel's Altind* 



1 The same form occurs in Pali ; see Geiger, § 18. 

2 Pali has edisa and erisa, Prakrit zdisa and erisa ; see Pischel's Grammatih, § 131. 

3 Michelson (AJP, 3a. 441) thinks that the vocalization of munisa may have followed the 
analogy of Magadha pultsa = Skt. purusha* But the apparent resemblance of the two words 
is due chiefly to the defective spelling of munisa, which stands for mwiissa. 

4 Cf* Skt. vikata (for vikrita), uikaia, sathkata. 

5 This Prakrit word is used also in Sanskrit. 

6 Cf. the assimilation of the second vowel to the first in ud[ii]pdna — Skt. udapdna* 

7 Here the u Is due to the analogy of other forms of the root $ru* 



KALSI GRAMMAR 



lxxi 



Grammatik, vol. i, § 184, b). The Girnar equivalent wachha disproves the etymology 
advocated by Pischel {Grammatik, § 330), who derived Prakrit rukkha from Skt rtiksha (Rigveda, 

VI, 3, 7), to which Roth {Vllih Oriental Congress, Aryan Section, p. 3) had assigned the meaning 
* a tree \ although the traditional meaning ( bright ' gives a satisfactory sense. 

The diphthongs at and an are both lost. The former becomes e in m\che\ (perhaps = Skt. 
nuhaih, VII, aa) and in the feminine case-termination -e ; the second becomes o in papotd (XIII, 
r 5)> pa\ld\loMkya or palalokiya^ ~opaga and -opa\yd\. 

Short a is lengthened in a\tiyayike\ (— Skt. afyayikain), uyama (= udyama), laii (= rati, 
VIII, 33), and at tie end of a few bases in -a, viz. uchavucha- (VII, 21), kitand- (= kritajna^ 

VII, aa), v\t\yd- (= zjy^, III, 8), or sh\d]ld- (— sdra), shava- (= sarva t XII, 31), saviand- 
( = iramana^ XI, 29)- The lengthening of # is very frequent at the end of words ; e. g. aja 
(= adya), aid (= and yatra), anata (= anyatra), asa (~ yasya), aha, evd or vd 3 cM } janasa, 
iasd (— tasya), tend % ddnend, nd s nama, nikhamith& } Piyadasisd, mama s hidd (— 

{= *ztra). 

Long 2 and & are nowhere distinguished in writing from the corresponding short vowels 
except in osadhm\i\ (II, 5), Pt[yd\dast (I, a), (IV, ia), \chfi\ (I, 4), ^^«/[«] (I, 4)7 

Similarly, £ is often represented by a. Although in some cases this defective spelling is 
perhaps due to the negligence of the writer, the subjoined list will not be considered superfluous. 

(1) At the beginning: akdla{le)na l anam[td\l\t\yeiid 7 \a\naniyam, apalamtd, 1 ayaiiye, alam- 
bkiyistty alabhi[yai}{\ti y aldbhi\y\isa\pt\ti^ av\ahci\si^ a/id 2 (= Skt. d/ia t V, 13)* 

(a) In the interior. of words; adisha (—yddrisam^ XI, 59), anathesn (= andthesu at Dhauli), 
apavahe (= Skk apavd/tafi), ava { — ydvat, IX, 25), ava\td\ke, kala (VI, 17), Devanampiyem (X, 28), 
pa\ld\lohikya or palalokiya {—pdlalokika in the two separate edicts at Dhauli and Jaugada), 
pasada (= Skt. pdshanda, XII, 31), badham (XII, 3a), madhnliydye^ laja, lajane, lajind, vijina- 
mane y [wz], vimana-^ viyapatd (V 3 15), vividh\aye\ shav\f\bhage* 

(3) At the end : a (= Skt. a, XIII, 6), anatka (— anyatha)^ abaka- (— ambikd\ \e\sh\a] (XIII, 
37), via (XIII 3 16), maha-phala (XIII, 14), mdta-pitisu (III, 8), (IV, n), wz (twice ~ 
hi\dd\lokika (XIII, 18). 

Initial a is dropped in pi (= d^i) and hakam (for ahakam = ahavi) ; i in (= zVf), also 
in (only XII, 33) and kiti ; e in va (only IX, 26) and vd % besides which the full forms eva 

and evd are also employed. 3 

II, Simple Consonants- 

The Kalsl dialect agrees with the Magadha one in replacing the semivowel r by /, and the 
two nasals 11 and n by dental n> throughout. 

The two gutturals h and g were often palatalized through the influence of the preceding 
vowel i. This pronunciation is expressed in writing by the groups ky and gy } of which the latter 
occurs three times in the word Kaligya {— Skt. Kalinga), and the former in (XII, 34), 

Alikyashudale (XIII, 8), and in the affixes -ka and -ika of akdliky\e\ -thiiihyd and -thiiikydi 
natikya, pandtikya^ pdlamtikya f Pitinikye\sti\u> -b&[ti\mikyd, s/t[a\(sfm)vam[i']kyma 3 sa\ih]sayi£ye, 
hidalokikya and pa\ld\lokikya (XIII, 18). Instead of the two last words we find also the forms ki\dd\- 
lokika and palalokiya (XIII, 17 £), which suggest that 4ka became -iya through the intermediate stage 
-ikya. In the same way Franke (VOJ, 9. 347, n. a) explains nUathiya % which corresponds at Kalsl 
(IX, 34) to nirailia at Girnar. 4 Another instance of the change of k to y after i would be diyadha 
(XIII, 35), which Pischel {Grammatik* § 230) derived from *dvikdrdha* To this may be added 
the affix -dlaka or -dlaya in mahdlaka and supaddlaya (V, 14) ; see below, p. Ixxxiv. 5 The Kalsl 

1 Dhauli reads apalaihtd^ and Girnar \d\paraid. Cf. the adjective Apardntaka in the 
Kautiliya, p, 81, L 5. 

2 This may be an unreduplicated perfect, as in the pillar-edicts ; see Michelson, IF, 23. $44- 

3 Instead of no at XIII, 16, we have perhaps to read yo, as at Shahbazgarhi. For yo = 
Prakrit yeva see below, p. lxxxv. 

* Cf. also ata-patiya in the pillar-edict IV, and atha-bhdgiya on the Rummindel pillar, 

6 In Turkish the guttural ii5 {kyaf) is liable to a similar palatalization and change to y \ thus 

from {kyopek), ' a dog is formed (pronounced fcyopeyi), e his dog \ 



Ixxii INTRODUCTION 

dialect, like the Girnar dialect, furnishes an instance of the development of / from g in -opaga (II, 5) 
and -opa[yd] (VIII, 123). From the form Kaligya y which, as stated on p/lxxi, occurs three times 
at Kalsl, it may be inferred that the intermediate stage was *-opqgya. Greek y is expressed by 
k in Amieki\iii\ and Maka, and x by g in Amtiyoga* Skt gh has become k in lahu and lahuka* 

Of palatals, ch has been aspirated in kechha (— Skt. hecha y XII, 32) and kichhi (= *hid+chid). 
In vacha (VI, 18 ; XII, 34) ch corresponds to the / of Skt. vrqfa. The letter / has become d in 
paliHdittt (X, s8) 3 the absolutive of Skt- parityajaiu Cf- Kuhn {Pali-Grammatik, p. 36), who 
quotes from Dhammapada, p* 144 [1. 13], the aorist parichckadi ; E. Mailer's Pali Grammar 
p. 25 ; Pischel's Grammatik^ § 

Dentals are Iingualized in duvddasa ; before rz in hedisa ; after pi in and ushuia, kata, 

dukata y kitanat\a\i bhata, bhataka s mate s mthata^ viyapata\ after ra in the preposition pati (= Skt- 
prati). Dental t is palatalized in ckithit]ti\ (IV, 13), the absolutive of Prakrit chittkadi x (= Skt. 
tishthati). It is replaced by in (VI, 19) and hida-sukhaye (V, 15). 2 In tatopa\j/a\ (= tadopayd 
at Girnar and Dhauli) it looks as if t had taken the place of d. But the first member of the 
compound might be, not tad, but tata (= Skt. taird) ; cf. Senart's Inscription de Piyadasi, 1- 194. 
In hida (= idha at Girnar) the apparently corresponds to an original dh ; but Johansson (Shahb n 
§ 57) may be right in connecting hida with Vedic idd, 6 now '. 

The labial aspirate bh has become h in the instrumental and dative plural in -hi, in ^tf, 
alio, huveyu, huszi> and in the participle huia (= Skt. bhuta), while is used as substantive. 

The semivowel y has become /in majfda (= Skt- mayura, 1, 4) ; v in visava. (= vishaya, XIII, 9) 
and ™w[V]ra (= vaseyuJpt .VII, 31) ; A m^&wft] (VI, 20). 3 Initial j/ is lost in am (== Skt- /a/), «ja 
( — yasya), e (= yah, yat, yi), ai\a\ (^yatra), ath&-(= yathd), [d]disa (=yadrisa) f dva. (=yavat), 
ava\td\ke (XIII, 39). In apavudha {— apodhd) v was developed out of «♦ 

The syllable^ becomes * in palitiditu^th^ absolutive of Skt. parity ajati, and in \a\pa-v\t\ydtd 
^— apa-vyayata at Girnar), and vd becomes u in j the absolutives in -tu (= Skt. -tvd). 

In t[e\dasa (= *trayadasa) aya is contracted to e* The causative affixes aiytf and ayi either 
remain unchanged (in dasayiiu, &c.) or are contracted (in pujeti^ pujetav\%\ya y &c.) ; in vadhiyati 
and vadhiyisati the second # is changed to i through the influence of the palatal which follows it* 
In the 3. sing, optative nivatey\a\ (= Skt, nirvartayet) the * corresponds to an original aj* * For 
/zra we have 0 in olodhana, hoii, hotu^aho* 

Cases of Cockneyism are /titfe (= Skt i6a) t he$sa {—tdriia), heta (— *itra), hevam, and 
perhaps the conjunction hamche (IX, 26), which is identical in meaning with Pali sache, 'if. 
Johansson (Shdkb., 1. 66) derives it from Pali yamcJte (Childers, .Pa/i Dictionary, p. 603, 0) through 
the intermediate form *amche, while Senart (IA, m. 88) traces it directly to sache. 

In the edicts I-IX the KalsT dialect agrees with the Girnar one in replacing^the two sibilants 
s and sh by sP From edict X the writer employs, besides s % the signs for £ and sh. In a few 
cases, sh is used where Sanskrit would require it \ see esfte, \vd\sha (— varsha, XIII, 35), 
pdshamda, manu\shdnd\m y tesham % yesham Y aieshu, (— anteshu), Kambojeshu, Kati[m]geshu, 
ndtikesim, Nabhapamtishu, Pitinikye[s/i\u, piiishu^Y\o\nesh[u'\, ladhe$ha{shu) $ manisku. But in the 
majority of instances both sh and i are phonetically and etymologically impossible ; see e.g. taia 
and tasha (= Skt. tasya), data and dosha (= ddsa), Samthuta and shamthuta savistuta) % 
s\_d\va and shava (= sarva), said- and sh\d\ld- (— sdra), ByaU and shiydti (~ sydt), \£\e and ^/^, 
and shahasha (= sahasra). To explain this state of matters, we have to suppose that 
the writer spoke a dialect which knew no sibilant besides, s, and that he used the letters s and sh 
indiscriminately for expressing the same sibilant, 0 In other words, the letters / and sh at Kalsi are 
purely graphical, and in the sequel it is tacitly assumed that every s and sh is a vicarious symbol 
expressing dental s. 

As in the Girnar dialect, all final consonants are dropped. The preceding vowel is sometimes 
lengthened ; see s[d]myd- or shamyd- (= Skt. samyah^ Pali sammd) 9 palisd {— Skt. parishad), puna 

1 Cf. Singhalese sitinu or hitinu, * to stand in Geiger's Litteratur und Sprache der Singhalese^ 

p. 47, 1. 3 f. 

2 Cf. below, p. lxxxv and n. 4. 

3 For similar forms of the 1. sing* optative see below, p. lxxxii. 

4 For similar contracted forms see below, p. Ixxxii. 

5 But s occurs twice in edict IV, L 13 {vasa — Skt. varsha, and Piyadasina), 

a Cf. Senart's Imcriptions de Piyadasi, 1. 37, and Biihler's hid. PaL 9 § 14, last section. 



KALSI GRAMMAR Ixxiii 

and puna (— punar), ava f ava, ava {—ydvat). It is nasalized in avaih (XIII, 8). The termination 
-as generally becomes -a (e.g. put a), but the a is shortened in a few cases ; see below, p. lxxvi. 
Final -as becomes -e; e.g. jane (nom. sing-), naidle (= Skt naptdralt), lajine (gen. sing.), lajane 
(nom* plur.), bfi[ti\ye (= bhuyah), ne {— na&) 9 se (= sah), ye or <?, amne % eke, \p\ule (= Pali pure, 
Skt. pumh)> viyamjanat\e\ But o is found instead of e, as at Girnar, in Sdtiyaputo, 

Ke\lald\pntOijani[y&\ ld\j]dno^ yaso or yas/io, tato\ a in Makd ; a in vadha (XIII, 36), hidalokikya 
(XIII, 17), (XIII, 38), (XII, 31). 

Sanskrit words ending in m and ?i substitute Anusvara for these two nasals ; e* g. dhaihmam, 
ddnam, and the two present participles samtaih and kalamtam (XII, 33), which correspond to 
Skt. san and kurvan. The Anusvara is, however, frequently omitted ; see kala[mta] (XI, 30) and 
kalata (XII, 3a) for kalamiam, anata (XI, 30) for anamtam, adisha (= Skt. yadrisam, XI, 39), 
pashamda, pdshada, and pdsada, bddha (XIII, 36), madava (= mdrdavam, XIII, 4), s$fly[*] and 
vijayataviya (XIII, 16), [s-Aofvw (= sarvam, X, 28), ^mz (= XII, 33), and the accusatives 

feminine (XIII, la), khaihii> vadhi, Sambodhi, sudhi, Ainu In other instances the 

Anusvara is dropped and preceding a lengthened ; see \a\disa (= Skt. yddrisavt, IV, io), kam- 
\ind\iala (= *karmataram, VI, ao), (= hshndram, IX, 34), diwtf (I, 3), nilathiya (IX, 554), 

pdsada (XII, %%),pund (thrice = punyain) } bahuk\a\ (I, 3), maha-phala (— maha-phalam, XIII, 14). 
As a rule, the nom. sing, of neuters in follows the analogy of the nom. sing, masculine and ends 
in -e ; see se, she 9 ese, eshe> ye, e, amne, save, s&ave> i\td\U M Jane, &c. The acc. sing. neut. has the 
same termination in darn (XII, 31), bddhaiale (XII, 33), and in the particles e (XIII, 38), se, she. 

Words ending in long nasalized vowels are treated in three different ways. Long a is 
generally shortened; e.g. pdndnam, tanam (XIII, 38), iesham (XIII, 37), n&ti\nam] (IV, 10), 
bka\iind\m (V, 16). In other instances the Anusvara is dropped ; see the genitives plural \bd\mbha- 
nana (XI, 29), natina (IV, 9), bh\agz\ni[na\ (V, 16), guhmd (IX, 35), and the accusatives singular 
puja (XII, 31), -damdaia (XIII, 17), disha (XIV, 33), \ind\hathava (X, 27), which is perhaps a 
clerical mistake for mahathavaha (=Skt mahartftavahdm). Thirdly, the Anusvara may be 
dropped and the long vowel shortened at the same time; see pajdva (= Skt. prajdvdn,'V ', 15), 
pdsaddna (XII, 31), m[a]nus/idn[a] (XIII, 39), i[d]dm (= idanlm, I, 3), 



IJI- Sandhi. 

Final m is preserved before the particle eva in tam-eva, t\a[nam-ev\a\, \e\vam*eva, 
palamiikyam*eve{vd)* Hiatus is prevented by nasalizing the first of two vowels in the two 
compounds amnam-anashd (== Skt anymyasya, XII, 33) and bhaiam-ayesu (V, 15). 

a + a are contracted into a in etdydthdye (XII, 34), \katdbhikd\le, kuvapi (= Skt. kvdpi) y gabhd- 
gdla^ -vasdbkisita, dham7ndnusa\tlt\i (XIII, 13) or dhammamtshaihi (twice), &c, but into short a in 
dhammamisathi (thrice), d/iamma\ydy\e (XIII, 35), H[p]ikalapalddfiena (XIV, 33), and before an 
original group of consonants in a\id\id (twice — Skt. yatra yatra), apalamta (= dpardutdh, V, 15), 
tenatd (= iendtra, VIII, 23), diyadha (— *dvikardha, XIII, 35), nathi (— supaihdy\e\ 
(= suparthdya, I, 3). 

« 4- « becomes a in pd\iia\Ia?hbhe (IV, 9) and [waJ&zM^^ (= Skt. mahdriha 4 ava ham (?), 
X, 37). 

£ + # becomes ^ before an original group in \ind\hatha (= maM + ariha, X, 37). 
d+ti becomes 0 in pajopaddne{ye), on which see below, p. Ixxv, n. 1, 

a is elided before i, e, 0 in bambhan-ibhesu (V, 15), cfeeva> manus-opagdni (II, 5), 1 and before 
u in ^//?/, f but which corresponds to cho (= c/^+«) in Buddhist gdihds? 
i+a are contracted into * in ithidhiyakha (= stry-adkydksJia, XII, 34). 
& is elided before in pas-opagdni (II, 5). 

^ is dropped after e in e*yam (V, 15), td[y£*t/i]d[ye] (VI, 19), (VI, 30). 



1 For taiopayd see above, p. lxxii. 

3 Michelson (IF, $3. 161) considers dm a contamination of tu and 

3 See Kern's translation of the Saddkarmapundartka (SBE, vol. i5i), Introduction, p« xvii. 
wis k 



lxxiv INTRODUCTION 



IV* Groups of Consonants. 

Combined consonants are either assimilated, or an auxiliary vowel is developed between them. 
The only groups which occasionally remain unchanged are tv } dhr, my % vy % sv. For the two groups 
ky and gy see above, p. Ixxi. 

Long a preceding a group of consonants is generally shortened j see ata- (— Skt. atman), 
a\tiyayike\ (= dtyayikavi)} anap\a\yisaihii (III, 8), anusathi (= anusdsti)^ asamati (— asamdpti) r 
ayesu (— dryeshu), aladhe (= *drdddham), gadhd (= *gaddka) y tadatvaye, palakamdmi, palakamalit, 
palakamend, pasavati (=prasdvyate) s ma[g]a (= marga, II, 6), madava (= mdrdava y XIII, 4), 
mahamata (= mahdmdird). But the length is preserved in anapayite and mahamata. Long £ 
preceding a simple consonant is shortened and the consonant itself doubled in timni (= trtni, I, 3). 
Similarly, bh\ti\ye^ vedaniya % mmmdhiymha (read *yamti) may be meant for bhuyye* vedantyya, 
anwuidhiyyamti\ cf. above, p. lix. Short a preceding a group is lengthened in dnata (=* any air a, 
XIII, 38), pandtikya (= *pranaptrika, IV, n), and shdvd- (— sarva-, XII, 31). In pdlamtikya 
(twice = pdratrika) the short a preceding the group ir has been nasalized. 2 

A long nasalized vowel is shortened before consonants, as it is often at the end of words (see 
above, p. Ixxiii), hi atikam£am(= atikrdntaiifykhamii {—kshdntii XIII, 16), Tambapmhni{=> Tamra- 
parni),Pamdiyd ( = Pdndyah), bambhana (= brdhmana), \bhd\m\dd\ (= blidnda, III, 8), sa\tti\sayikye 
(= sdntsayikanty IX, 36). In (XIII, 37), Devdndpiye (twice), and in the third persons 

plural pdpundta{ii)> palakamdtn* locheiu (XIII, 17), [pati*]vedetu (VI, 18), the Anusvara is 
dropped. 

As at the end of words (see above, p. lxxiii), there are many cases in the interior of words 
where the Anusvara is omitted after a short vowel; see Atiyoge (XIll,6)>ateshu (= anteshu),dnaia 
(= anantd), annbadk\a\ {— anubandhdt), abaka- (= ambikd), alabhi{yaih~\H (cf. the aorist alambhi- 
yzsu 3 I, 3), Alikyashudale (= jiAegavSpos), Kaligya (— Kalihga), pdiada and pashada (— pdshanda)* 
magala (= mangala), vihisd (= vihimsd), shambadh\e\ ( — sambcmdhal^ shav\i~\bhage (= samvi- 
bMgah), sayama and samya?na (IX, 35), vashati (— vasanti), and manaiu (3. plur. imperative of 
root man). 

While most groups of consonants are assimilated, others are avoided by developing an auxiliary 
vowel in the middle of them. This vowel is a in ga\ld\kati (= Skt. gar fiati),galahd, Alikyashudale 
(— *A\£gav8pos) ; u before or after labials in kuvdpi, duve, duvddasa, puluva (= purva), suvdmika^ 
pdpunata{ti)\ and frequently i\ see lajind {—rdjnd), lajim (—rajiiah), the future passive participles 
in -taviya, ~adhiyakha (= ad/iyaksha), \d\naniya ( = durirtya), apatiye^ alabhi^yam]^ \e]katiyd> 
Pamdiyd) pativesiya, madhuliya (= madhurya), viyamjana, viyapata (= vydprita), \shamachd\liya 
(= ^sama-charya)) shine he (= snehalj), siyd (= jj^). Similarly, an auxiliary * is prefixed to the 
group j/r in «7/» (= j/jtz). 

It is unnecessary to quote examples of the groups kr> gr, tr> dr, pr, br> bhr, ir, sr> which have 
become &>g> t, d r p, b> bh, s 3 s throughout. The remaining groups and their equivalents are given in 
the subjoined list. 

kt becomes t in Ndbhapamt% &c. 

kv becomes kuv in kuvdpu 

ksh becomes kh in -ad/nyakfta, hhamti (= Skt. hshdntt)^ hhuda (= kshttdr^ dakhaiif \lu\kha 
(= vrikshd)) mok/ta, su{$aih)khita (= samks/tipta) ; chk in chhanatu 
khy becomes kh in shamkheye (read samkhdyd). 
khl becomes kh in = Skt. khalu \ see above, p. lvi and n. 3. 
becomes^ in 

/w becomes n in ^eVa;/^[«] (= Skt. kritajnatd), ndti, anapayite, but Jin in lajind (= rdjna) 
and /^bV/* (= rdfiiah). 



1 atiydyika presupposes an intermediate form ^aiydyika, in which the initial £ was shortened 
before the group iy m 

2 Cf, vaihka = Skt. vakra^ stimka = Skt. iwi&tf, &c, in Pischel's Grammattk t § 74. 
0 For these two forms see below, p. IxxxiiT""" 

4 The form pashada may be derived from Skt. pdrshada \ see above, p. Ix, 

5 Pischel (Grammatik, § 554) derives this form from *drikshati) which is preserved in 
Idriksha^ iddriksha^ &c. 



KALSI GRAMMAR 



lxxv 



^ dy becomes diy in Pamdiyd. 

^becomes mn or n in hilamna^pund (thrice = Skt- p?myam), but niy in \a\naniya {=anrinya). 

tp becomes f in pajopadane{ye)} 

tm becomes t in ata- {= Skt. atmati). 
^JyJ^^fozs iiyX^apatiyei aliiydyike], \e\katiyd* hy in nikymh. 

iv remains In iadatuaye (X, 27), where the a of tada has been shortened before the double 
consonant of the affix -tva \ but tv is assimilated in chatali (= Skt, chatvari, XIII, 7), 

is becomes s (or sh) in chikisa, chtkisaka y \ii\$hate\izd\ and ttshutena. 

tsth becomes ih in tithana : cf. ustana at Girnar. 

rf^ becomes / in aja, patipajeyd ; y in \tC\^anast\^ nydma. 
. ife becomes in diyadha, but d»w in duvddasa. 

dhy becomes jh in n{i}j&qti 9 majhimena y but dhiy in -adhiyakliQ* 

dhr remains in dhruve (I, 4) ; but it seems to be assimilated in \Adhd\ (= Andhra, XIII, 10). 
#y becomes or n in amna and mariznat[t] and manati. 

pt becomes / in ^wtf, n\t]jhati> asamati, su(sa?h)khitend 7 natale (— Skt. naptdrah)) panatikya* 
Tulamaye (= IlToXefiatos). 

pn becomes pun in pdpundia(ti). 
bdh becomes dh in ladha. 

bhy becomes bh in -tfAfto^but in alabhi\yarit\t% alaihbhiyist^ aldbhi[y\isa\iji\tL 
my remains in s[a]myd- or skamya- (= Skt. samyak)* 
jttir becomesjwi in Tambapamnu 
rg becomes g in m[d}ge[s]u, vagend, svagavu 
rn becomes rim in Tavtbapamnu 

rt becomes t in kitij anwuatamii t \a\nuva$ l a\fu l nivateti; t in kataviya, anuvatisa\iii\ti f 
7ii\vcft\ieii % nivatey\a\* 

rth becomes ih in atha \ th in atha and nilathiyd; see above, p. lxxi and n. 4. 
rd becomes d in madava {— Skt- mardava), 

rdh becomes dk in vadhite, vadhiyisati\ <£h in vadhiie^ vadhiyati, \^pa]v\d\dhayisaiht\i\ 
diyadha, 

rbh becomes bh in gabhdgalas[i~\. 

rm becomes mm or m in haihma (— Skt, karman), dhafhma and dhama* 

ry becomes in ayesu (= Skt- aryeshu), but /?K in (= dnantarya), madhuliya 

(— viadhurya), \shamacha\liya (= *sama-charyd). 

rv becomes v in raste, nivateti } niv\ti\tiyd, hutjuv in piduva* 

rs becomes «y in dasana, dasayztu, Piyadasi (also spelt Piyadashi and Piyadasi). 

rsh becomes j in raw* (also spelt [yd]sha and z/a&z). 
becomes lak in galaha. 

Ip becomes p in -dp<z, kapariu 0 
becomes in kaydna* \ 

vy remains in divydni (IV, 10) ; but it is assimilated in pasawti (= Skt. prasavyate, IX, 37), 
and it becomes in viyamjana, viyashanatii, viydpata y migaviya 3 and in the affix -iaviya> 

vr becomes v in tim^pavXaljitd]?^ vacha (VI, 18 ; XII, 34) = Skt. vraja. 

sch becomes chh in \pa\chhd. 

sy becomes siy in faiivesiyend* 

shk becomes k in dukata, dukala. 

slikr becomes kh in nikham\arii\tu^ nikhamist^ nikhamithd, viniklmmane. 
sht becomes th in atha (XIII, 35) ; ih in nikhamithd. 
shth becomes th in seihe, chiikit\tt\ ; th in adhiihd[ndye]. 

shy becomes s (or sh) in manusa and mannsha^ anap\d\yisamti and other futures. 
j£ becomes £ in agi-karitdh\a\ni* while Girnar has agi-kh\a\mdhdni (with 
■tf becomes jfA in ^^/«', nathi, \hd\thini, saritthnia, vithatend, annsathu 



1 Dhauli and Jaugada read °ddye, Mansehra °daye, but Shahbazgarhl pajupadane, which might 
correspond to Skt. prajotpadane* At Kalsi the locative of utpddana is excluded, because it would 
end in -asl For ttpada — Skt. *utpad see Buhler, ZDMG, 37, 431 f. 

k 2 



lxxvi INTRODUCTION 

str becomes th in tiki (= Skt. strz), 

sth becomes th in gahaihani, gih\i\tha> chi\ld\-ihiiikyd (V, 17), but th in chila-thiiihyd (VI, 30). 
sn becomes shin in shinehe, 

sm becomes s in the locatives in -asz 9 but ph in \td\pha (= Skt. iasmat % XIII, 35). 

sy becomes sty (siy or shiy) in izj<z, siydti^ shiydti (— Skt. j^*), but j in <z[.f«] (3. plur. 
optative of root as) and in the genitives in -asa. 

sv remains in svagam (VI, 20) ; but it is assimilated in shay oka (XIII, 16*), which seems to be 
derived from Skt. svayam} and it becomes suv in mvamika (IX, 25). 

becomes *»M in bambhana. The form bamhmmta (XIII, 39) is intermediate between 
*bahmana (— Skt. brdkmana) and *bamhana (bamhaqa at Girnar, IX, 5). 



B —DECLENSION 
I. Bases in 

(1) Masculines and neuters in -0. 



Singular. 

Norn, mzscjane, &c. ; neut dane % &c 

* masc. dhammaih) &c. ; neut. danam 9 &c. 
Instr. ddnena or ddnena, &c. 
Dat. athdye f &c. 
Abl. amibadk\a\i [pdjchhd. 
Gen. jana\sd\ (IV, 10) or janasa, &c. 
Loc dhammasi, &c. 



Plural. 

Masc./ff^, &c; neut. phaldni % &c 
Masc* yuidniy &c. ; neut. divydm\ lupdnu 
\sd\tehu 
vtakamat{e\hu 

pdndnathi &c. 
vasesu, &c. 



Norn, sing, masc— There are two forms in -0 {Sdtiyaputo and Ke[lald\puto, II, 4), two in 
a {vadha, XIII, 36, and hidalokikya> XIII, 17), and one in (Mafcd, XIII, 7). 

Nom. sing. neut. — In four instances the termination is (anamtam, IX, 25, 37, -anusdsanam 
and kaihm\a$H\ f IV, is). It is in adisha (XI, 39), and -0 in [£]<fosw (IV, 10), kam\fnd\tald 
(VI, 20), pzmd (thrice = Skt puny am). 

Acc. sing. masc. — The Anusvara is omitted in -paiada (four times, XII, 33), -pdshada and 
-pdshamda (XII, 33), [>Atfj/07;zflf| (XIII, 4), vijay\a\ and vijayataviya (XIII, 16). The termination 

is replaced by ~£ in ata-pdsadd (XII, 33), and dosd (I, a). 

Acc. sing. neut. — The termination is -0 in madava (XIII, 4);; -a in maha-phald (XIII, 14), 
and nilaihiyd (IX, 34); -e in */<z«* (XII, 31) and bddhdtah (XII, 33). 

Nom. plur. masc— The final a is shortened in -\11d\tikya (XIII, 38), pdsamda (XIII, 37), 
-pdshamda (XII, 34), -[^osa]///^ (VII, 31), -pultiva (V, i4),^#Vta2/p]^d! (XII, 3a). 

Nom. plur. neut. — In hdldpitd chd lopdpiid oka (II, B and C), the termination is *d instead of 
-dnu The Sanskrit masculine vriksha is used as neuter : \lti\khdni (II, 6)? 

The remaining instances of the acc. plur. masc. in -dni are ~kamdh\d\ni (IV, 10), Kaligydni 
(XIII, 36), -pdsham\daii\% pav\d\jitd[ii\ij gahaihdni (XII, 31). 

Acc plur. neut. — The termination is -a in vimana-dasan\ci\ (IV, 9). 

Gen. plur.— The Anusvara is omitted in -pdsaddna (XII, 31) and m\a\mishdn\a\ (XIII, 
The termination is -a in -\bd\mbhandnd (XI, 39). 

- 

(Qt) Feminines in -d. 

■ 

Singular. 

Nom. ichhd $ &c 
Acc pttjd, &c_ 
Instr, puj\d\ye. 
Gen. or loc. samtit[a\ndye, 

Nom. sing. — In ki\dd\lokika (XIII, iS) the final a is shortened. 

> 

1 See Text, p. 49, n, 3. 2 Cf. rucMiani at Mansehra, II, 8. 



KALSI GRAMMAR Ixxvii 

■ ■ 

Acc. sing. — In [-yataih] (VIII, %%) the nasal of the original termination -am seems to be 
preserved, and the a to be shortened before it 

Instr. sing.— In vividh\aye\ (XII, 31) the penultimate a seems to be shortened. 

II. Bases in -u 
(1) Masculines , and neuters in 4. 

Norn. sing. neut. asamati. 

Norn. plur. neut. osadhtn\t\? tint, iimnu 

Gen. plur. ndt?{itm\i^ natina. 

Log. plur. Ndbkqpamtishu, 



jani[yo]^ 



(a) Feminines in -i and -u 

Singular, 

Nom. Upi> &c. 
Acc, Sambodhi) &c. 
Instr. bhatiyd^ -anusathiye* 
Dat. -amtsathiydi vad/riya, 
Abl. ni\v\utiya> Tambapamniya. 
Gen, 

Loc. ayatiye. 



Plural 



bh\agt\ni[nd\. 



Ill, Bases in 

The nom* sing, sddhu or shddhu is the same in all three genders. 

Nom. and acc. sing. neut. bahu* 
Nom. and acc. plur. neut. bahuni* 
Instr. plur. &z[//j«[Ai], 
Gen. plur. guhma. 

IV. Masculines in -ri. 

1 1 ■ 

Nom. plur. natdle (= Skt. naptdraJj). 
Gen. plur. bha\tina\m (= bhrairinani). 
Loc. plur. pitisu or pitishu (= pitrishu). 

The instr. sing, follows the ^-declension : pitind > bhatina. 

• * 

V. Bases in Consonants. 

(1) Present participles In -at. 

The nom. sing. masc. has a very curious form ; it affixes the termination -am, which is 
evidently derived from Skt. -an, to the strong form of the base : samtam from root as, kalmhtam 
{kala\fnta\ kalata) from root kru 

(a) Bases in -vat. 

Nom, sing, masc, pajava (= Skt. prajavdn). 
Instr. sing, hetuvata? 

With the nom. sing. cf. Pali gunava ~ Skt. gtmavaiu 

* The Kalsi dialect has mixed up osadhi (= Skt. dshadhiy fern.) with osadha (= Skt. aushadha^ 
neut). 

2 From Vedic Jam, 1 a wife". 

3 In Sanskrit the corresponding base is not hetuvat, but hetumai\ cf. Panini, VIII, 3, 9, and 
Pischel's Grammatik, § 601. 



lxxviii INTRODUCTION 

(3) Masculines and neuters in -an. 
Singular. Plural. 
Nom. masc. laja, laja, laja* la\j\ano, lajane. 

Acc. neut. nama, nama. 
Instr. lajindy lajina* 
Gen. lajine. 

The neuter base harvian follows the ^-declension : nom. sing. k\aiit\me or kamm\am\ dat- 
kaimnaye* 

(4) Masculines in 

Nom. sing. Pi[ya]dast (I, a), Piyadasi y Piyadashi. 
Instr. sing. Piyadasina, PiyadaBna. 
Gen. sing. Piyadasine, Piyadas/wie, Piyadasisa* 
Acc. plur. \hd\ikini{= hathini at Dhauli, IV, a). 

The gen. sing. Piyadasisa follows the analogy of the ^-declension. 

With the acc. plur. masc. \Jid\thini (i.e. hathini), ctyuiani, &c., in the ^-declension (above, 
p. lxxvi). 

(5) Neuters in -as. 
Acc. sing, yaso or yasfw, bh\ti\ye. 
The base va\chd[- (XII, 31) corresponds to Skt. vachas. 

(6) Other bases in consonants. 
The feminine base dis (or disa) forms the acc. sing, disha (for disdm). The two feminine bases 
*uipad and parishad also follow the ^-declension : loc. sing. pajopadane{ye) (see above, p. Ixxv, 
n, i) t palis\&\ye\ nom. plur. palisa* 

C— PRONOUNS 

(1) Pronoun of the first person. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. hakmu 
Instr. mamdya^ me (III, 7). 

Gen. [mama], mama> me* \ n e (V, 16). 

The nom. sing, hdkam must be derived ixomahdkam {—ahaam in Maharashtrl); see Pan. V, 3, 
71, and Pischel's Grammattk^ § 417. 

The instr. sing, mamaya for Skt. maya is due to the influence of the genitive mama. Cf. 
mamae, Hemachandra, III, log, 

(a) Base ta* 

Singular, Plural. 

Nom. masc. se 3 [/]e f she ; neut. ta, se s [sh]e* Masc. te. 

Acc, masc. tarn ; neut. se> she. 
Instr. tena^ tena* 
Dat ta[ye], 
Abl. 

Gen. tafa, tasha> tasa, tashd* 
Loc. taff. 

Nom sing. fern, ska. 

As noted by Biihler (ZDMG, 37. 592), the abl. sing, goes back to tamha (— Skt. 

tasmdt)\ cf. tf/^* and ta^A* (— Prakrit and iumhe) in the separate edicts at Dhauli and 

Jaugada. The abl. is used as conjunction (V, 13) ; cf. Pischel's Grapivtaiik, § 435. 



tehu 
te\fiz\. 

teshaiih ianam* 



KALSI GRAMMAR 



Ixxix 



Neut. e[t\ani. 



(3) Base eta. 

Singular. 

Norn, masc. [e]se (VIII, 33),* \e\she (X, 38)/* e sh[a] 

(XIII, 38) ; neut. ese 9 eshe. 
Instr. etaketia* 

Dat. etaya (XII, 34), etaye, dha{e)ia\^\aye. 
Gen. elisha* 

Norn. sing. fern. [*].s£|/z] (XIII, 37). 

With the gen* sing, etisha cf. etisa at Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra. 



Plural 



Masc. ime. 



(4) Demonstrative idmiu 
Singular. Plural. 

+ 

Nom. masc. ayam> iymh % neut. iyath. 
Acc. neut. imam* 
Gen. imas\a\ 

Nom. sing. fem. iyam* 
Dat sing. fem. zmaya. 

The nom. masc. ayam is taken from V, 15, where eyam perhaps stands for e + ayam (= Skt. 
y&yam). The form iymh is used as masculine in V, 16; elsewhere as feminine and neuter, 

(5) Interrogative pronoun. 

The acc. plur, neut. \kd\ni is used as a demonstrative ; see Text, p. 35, n. 13. The indefinite 
pronoun is formed with chha ~ Skt, cha (nom. sing, masc. kechha) or cMi — Skt. chid (nom. and 
acc. sing. neut. kichhi). As at Girnar, the compounds himti (XII, 33) and kiii are used in the sense 
of 1 that \ 



(6) Relative pronoun 

Singular. 

Nom. masc.^ e ; neut.j^, e 9 a 9 am* 
Acc* neut. yam, am, e (XIII, 38). 
Instr. yena* 
Gen. asd. 
hoc. 



Plural. 



Masc. ye, e. 



yesltam. 
yesu* 



(7) Base any a. 



Singular. 

Nom. masc. and neut. amne. 
Acc, 

Dat. aihnaye* 

Gen, anmamanasha. 



Plural. 



Masc, amne. ane\\ 

V neut. 



amnani* 



(8) Base sarva* 

Singular. 

Nom, neut. save, shave, \shd\va. 
Acc. masc. savam \ neut, savam, shava\iii\, 
Loc. 



Plural. 



Masc, \sd\ve. 



s\d\ves\ji\, shaveshu. 
Nom. sing: fem. shava. 

(9) 

Nom. sing, neut i[(a]le, while classical Sanskrit has itarat. 



1 Cf. above, p. lxiv s n. a. 



2 Cf. id., n. 1. 



Ixxx INTRODUCTION 

(10) Base ubhaya. 
Gen. plur. ub/iaye\sd]m* 

(n) Base ekatara* 
Loc* sing- ekatatash\f\* 

(is) Base *ekatya> 
Nom. plur. masc. \e\katiya* 



D. — NUMERALS 

r 

One. 

Nom. sing, masc, eke. 

- 

Two. 
Nom. masc, duve. 

This form may be used for all genders in all Prakrits \ see PischePs Grammatik^ § 437. 

Three. 

Nom. neut tint, ihhnu 
Cf. Prakrit thmi\ Pischel's Grammatik, §§ 91, 438. 

Four. 

1 

The nom. neut. chatdli is used with a masculine substantive (XIII, 7). The same irregularity- 
is frequent in Prakrit ; see Pischel's Grammatik^ § 439. 

Five, six. 

Loc. pamckastt) shashu {= Prakrit chliastt). 

Eight, ten, twelve, thirteen. 
atha % das\a\, duvadasa (with lingual d), 1 t[e]dasa. 

Hundred. 

Acc, plur. satam; instr. \sd\iehi \ loc, shateshu. 
The ordinal is shaia (=Skt. saiatamm) ; see XIII, 39. 

Thousand. 

The ordinal is shah\a\sha {=5 Skt. sahasratama) ; see XIII, 39. 

Hundred thousand. 

Nom. sing. shat\a\-shaha[f[e. 
Nom. plur. [sa^ta-saAasmi. 



1 The d has been further changed to r in Prakrit bavasa and baraha. 



KALSI GRAMMAR 



E.— CONJUGATION 
I. Present. 

(i) Bases. 

First Sanskrit class. 

Root kram : palahavidmi, nikham\am\ttu 
Root garh : gc^ld\katu 

Root jii the participle vijinamaiie and the absoluSve vijin\t\iu (XIII, 36) show that this 
root first followed the ninth class (Prakrit jinadi) and subsequently the ^-conjugation (Prakrit 
jiHadt). 1 

Rootdr&J dakhati? 

Root bkn 1 ftoti* kttveyu (sixth class). 

Root vas : vaskati, vas[e]vu. 

Root vriti anuvatamli* 

m 

Root site. The absohithre c7ut/iit[u] (IV, 1$) presupposes the Prakrit present chitihadu 

Second Sanskrit class. 

Root ad follows the ^-conjugation : adamana. 

Root as : aihu 

Root « or yd: yamtL 

Root : ye\fiaiii\ ; see below, p. lxxxii. 

Root haiix ttp\a\hamt\t\. 

Third Sanskrit class. 

The gerundive pajohiiaviye (1, 1) is derived from the present *johati % in which the u of *juhaii 
(see above, p. lxvi) is strengthened by Guna. 

Fourth Sanskrit class. 

Root pad x pafipqfeyd. 

Root man : marimat[t] and manaiu 

Fifth Sanskrit class. 

Root dp follows the ninth class : papunata{ti) t 
Root &u follows the ^-conjugation : shune\_y\^ 

- 

Sixth Sanskrit class. 

Root ish : ichltatu 

Seventh Sanskrit class. 
Root yuj follows the ^-conjugation : yttjamttu 

Eighth Sanskrit class. 

Root fyi The 3. sing, kaleti follows the analogy of the tenth class, but the 3. plur. ha\ld\mH 
the ^-conjugation. Cf. Pischel J s Grammatik, § 509. 
Root kshan follows the ^-conjugation : chlianali. 

Tenth Sanskrit class. 

(a) With aya : dasayitt^ \d\ipayema, dladhayi{yam)iu, a-lochayitu, afochayist$ y lpa]v[a]d/ia- 
yisamt\i\ The character aya is changed to iya in vadhiyati (XII, 3%) and vadhiyisati (IV, 
11) and is contracted to e in pujeti.pujetav^ya^ hcftefa, nivateii and ni\y^\Ut% [pa$*]vedetu. 



1613 



^ -"- " ■■ ■ _ ' 

1 See Pischel's Grammaiik, § 473. * See above, p. lxxiv, n. 5. 

1 



lxxxii 



INTRODUCTION 



(b) With dya : sitkhayami (VI, so), 

(c) Wrihpaya: Mpa[y]i[sat\i, \anapaya\mi % anap\a]yisamti, dnapayite r lopita* 

(d) With apaya : kkhdpesdmi 7 likhapita (without Guna of the radical vowel), khdndpita, 
halapita* 

(e) With papaya i lopdpita. 

{%) Moods. 

The terminations of the middle are replaced by those of the active, with the exception of the 
3> sing, aorist nihhamitha and the two participles present adamana and vijinamana. 

(a) Indicative* 

i. sing, palakamdni, ]anapaya\mt* 

3. sing. \fi€^\takamati^ ga\ld\hati % dahhati^ hoti % atAi, up\a\hamt\i\ mamnat\t\ and manati % 
ichJtati t kaleii, chkanat% pujeti^ nivateti and m[va*]teti, vadhiyatu 

3. plur. anuvaiamiiy vasltati (= Skt vasanti), yamti, iehhamli> ka[ld\mtu In papunata{li) the 
termination -ti (for -nti) is affixed to the strong base of the ninth class {papund-) ; cf. the 3. sing. 
pdpundti and the 3. plur. pdpundt/ia in the first separate edict at Dhauli and Jaugada. 

(b) Subjunctive. 

1. sing, mkhdydmi (with indicative termination). 

3. sing. stisusJidtn (desiderative, with imperative termination). 

3. plur. palahamdtn (with -tu for -ntu). 

(c) Optative. 

1, sing, ye[ftam] (for *yeyam) from toot yd (VI, 20). Cf. \jrd\ii[j>aday\elmm (or patipdtayeham) 
and dlabhekam in the separate edicts at Dhauli and Jaugada. Senart has noted similar forms in the 
Mahavasttt (vol, 1 of his edition of this work, p. 403) : Hshtheltam^ abhisambtidhyeham^ gachclilieham. 

3. sing. nivaiey\d\ patipajeyd, siyd y £iyd % Mydti, shiydtl The two last forms (— Skt. sydt) have 
the termination of the indicative ; cf. Text, p. 71, n. 14. With the contracted form nivatey\a\ 
(5= Skt. nirvartayety IX, 36) Senart {Inscriptions de Piyadasi, 1. 415) compares Pali nibbatteyyam 
(for nibbattayeyyam) in the commentary on the Dhammapada* p. 143 [1. 4]. Cf. also choreyya for 
clwrayeyya in E. Miiller's Grammar \ p. no, rffttf = Skt dapayeh and padigdhe — Skt. 
grdhayek in Pischel's Grammatik, § 460. 

3. plur. \d\jpapema. 

3. plur. (cf. above, p. lxvii), fiuveyU) 1 sfm?ie[y]u 3 shusfaisheyu (desiderative). The 7 of the 
optative is replaced by v in va$\e\vu (VII, »i). 

(d) Imperative. 

3. sing. \a\miva\td\tu. 

3. plur. nikham\ant\tU) manatu y yujamtti 9 dlddfiayi(yam)tu, lochetu (— Skt. rdckayantt^ \pati**\- 
vedetUj anuvi\d/i\tya[myu (passive). 

(e) Imperfect. 

3. sing. (from root b&u). 

II. Aorist. 

3. sing, middle nikhamitha (from nish-hram^ VIII, 2a). In Pali and Ardhamagadhi the termina- 
tion is -itthaaxi& -iitkd ; see E. Miller's jp*ff Grammar^ p. 115, and Pischel's GrammaUk f § 517. 

3. plur. active nikhamim^ hum (= almmstt at Gimar). The two forms manishn (XIII, 16) and 
alochayisu a are used as subjunctives. 



1 Hemachandra (IV, 330, 353) quotes huveyya (= Skt. £//0e/#) from the Pateachl dialect. 

2 See Text, p. 31, n. 7, 



KALSI GRAMMAR Ixxxiii 
II L Perfect. 

3. aing.aha, aha (V, 13) = Skt aha. 

IV, Future. 

i- sing, backhand} lekJtapeiamu 

3. sing, kachhati, vadhiyisat% hdpa\y\i\sai\L 

3. plur. kachhaiii\t\i % anuvaUsa\pt\ti, anitsasisamiij amp\a\yisamH f \ja\v\$dfojwathj[i] t and 
the two passives \a\tmvidkiyisama (read °sathti) and aldbh^\isa\vi\tu 

V. Passive. 

The terminations are those of the active. 

The 3, sing, indicative pasavati (= Skt. prasavyati) occurs three times and is misspelt twice 
(pavasati % IX, 36, and pasavati, XI, 30) ; cf. Text, p. 39, n. 3. 

3. plur* indicative anuvidhiyama (read °yaihti, = Skt. anuvid/nyante), alabfii[ya?h~]t£. 
3. plur. imperative attffln\dK[iya\m\tu* 
3. plur, aorist alambhiyim? 

3. plur. future \a\nuvidMyisania (read °samti) 7 aldbhi[y\isa\iiz\ti (cf. the Sanskrit aorist 
passive alabht). 

VL Desiderative. 

3. sing* subjunctive sustishaiu. 
3, plur. optative shuslmsheyu. 

VI I. Participles. 

(1) Present participle. 
Active. 

Root as: samtam* 

Root Jfj : kalaihtam $ala\ihta\ halaid). 

Middle. 

Root ji : vijinamana ; see above, p, lxxxi. 
Root ad: adamana* 

(3) Past passive participle. 

(a) In -tax mata and muta (= Skt. mata), mata (= virita\ kaia (= kritd) y viyapata 
(= vydprita\ vithata (= vistrita), \21\shata and ushuta (= utsrita), nisita (= *ntirita\ likhita^ 
lekhita, Uhhapita^ hltdnapita, halapiia y lopita^ lopapita> anapayita* huta (= Muta), atikamta 
( = atikranta)) sti{sam)kkita (= $amkshipta\ vudha (— vriddha), apaviidha (= apddlia\ ladha 
( labd/ia), aladha ( = *ardddha\ &c 

(b) In : j/*[#;#]«# a vipahina (i. e. c hma)* 

(3) Future passive participle. 

(a) In -tavya: kataviya, vataviya % pajohiiaviya (see above, p. Ixxxi), vijayataviya (for Skt. 
vijetavya under the influence of the substantive vijaya\pujetav\f\ya> pati[vedeta^]viya. 

(b) In -aniya : vedaniya* 



1 Johansson {Shahb^ § 76, b) explains this form as a future derived from *kajjati (= *karyatt), 
and compares the Ardhamagadhi passive hajjau 

3 The introduction of the nasal is perhaps due to the influence of the Skt. aorist passive 
alambhi or of the substantive dlambha (III, 8, &c). 

3 This barbarous equivalent of Skt. djnapia and djiidpita retains the causative character aya: of 
the present dnapayatu 



Ixxxiv INTRODUCTION 

VIII. Absoluttve. 

■ 

(a) In -tu (s= Skt -tva) : alabhitu, paliUditu (from root tyaj with Samprasarana of ya and 
dentalization of /), chithit\u\ (from the Prakrit present chitthadi) % vijin\t\m (from the present 
*vi-jinati ; see above, p. Ixxxi), rt/to (from root ih/), dasayittt, a-lochayitu (— awchayitva)* 

(b) In shamkheye (read samkhaya) from sain-khyd. 

F. — SUFFIXES 

The pleonastic affix (or occurs in haham (= Skt (from Skt 

^dtf), tavataka, natika or ndtikya (= Skt. Jfiatz), panatikya (= pranaptfi), suvamiha (= svdmin). 
The adjective s/utyaka seems to be formed from Skt, svayam ; see Text, p. 49, note 3, 

With the affix or -a/aya is formed mahalaka, 'wide 3 (XIV, 30), 'aged* (V, 16), = Prakrit 

mahdlaya (Pischei's Grmmnatih^ 4°*). As suggested in the Text (p. 33, n. 3), mpadalaya (V, 14) 
seems to contain the same affix and to signify 'stepping fast*. 

The affixes »iara and -tmna are added to substantives in kam\_ma\tald (i. e. karmataram, 
VI, 20) ixi& gajaiame, 'the best elephant 1 (Text, p. 50). 



CHAPTER VIIL 

GRAMMAR OF THE SHAHBAZGARHI ROCK - EDICTS, 
WITH NOTES ON THE MANSEHRA VERSION 

The Shahbazgarhl version has received the advantage of a detailed treatment by an accom- 
plished linguist, Professor Johansson : — Der Diatekt der sogenanntm SMhbdzgarhi-Redakiion der 
vierzehn Edikte des Konigs Afoka. {Tiri des Acies du 8 e Congris International des Orientalistes^ 
tenu en 1889 d Stockholm et d Christiania). [Part i,] Leide, 189a* Part a, Upsala, 1894. In the 
following pages the results of his investigations are utilized for my own inventory of the language 
of the text s which I had been able to improve by repeated examination of the fresh impressions. 

A— PHONETICS 
I. Vowels. 

The vowel a becomes u after a labial in mnt\a\ (= Skt- mata, XIII, 8) and mhavucha* In 
menati (— many ate, XIII, 11) the change of a into £ is perhaps caused by the palatal w. 1 

If the reading etra (VI, 15) is correct (the other versions have here iyam % eshe 3 &c), it would 
correspond to eta (Girnar) and lieta (Kalsl) — Htra ; see above, pp. Ivi and Ixx. As at Kalsi, the 
vowel e corresponds to Skt I in edUa (= idriia). 

As in Pali, Skt, u is represented by a in pana (VI, 14, 15) = puna (six times, for Skt. punah\ 
and in garuna (IX, 19) = giiruna (XIII, 4, for Skt gurftndm). Michelson suggests that the form 
pana may be due to vowel-assimilation ; see IF, 43. 358, n. b In Mo (= Skt. khalu) Skt. u is 
represented by 0 ; see above, p. Ivi and n. 2. -\ 

The vowel ri is replaced by (1) a } (%) i f (3) (4) ra, (5) ri, (6) ir> (7) wt t causing at the same 
time the lingualization of a following dental. See (1) tisatena, dukafan^ bhata } bhataha, vadhi 
(= Skt, vridd/it), vapata and viyapata (= vydprita)> ananiyam, \_dd\kkati\ (a) kita, s[u]kita\ih'\, 
edtfa, tadi$a r yadi/a, franatika ; (3) bases in -ri : pitwfiu, bhratuna, spasa{su)na (= svasrindm), 



1 With menati Johansson (p. 19) and Wackernagel (Allind, Grammatik, vol. 1, p. xx) compare 
Gothic ga-mainjan and German (English to mean). 



SHAH B AZ GARH I GRAMMAR 



Ixxxv 



and for ri after a labial : agrab/iuti, viyaputa (= vydprita), muta, vutmh and vtitam (= vrittam), nivitta, 
(= nirvritta), nivuii (= nirvritti)^ viidha (= vriddhd) ; (4) grahatha {—grihasihd) ; (5) 
(II, 4), dridka ) vistriiena \ (6) ^zYra (L e. = Skt £rzte) ;* (7) for r* after a labial : pa[ri\p[ru]chha, 
mrugo, mrttgaya mrigayd)* In iruneyu (XII, 7) the is due to the influence of /wfo, 

In a few cases the vowel e, both if it is inherited from Sanskrit and if it is due to dialectical 
changes (cf. Johannson, § 33), appears to have become i; see dtw[t] — *fe|V]e at Mansehra for Skt- 
rfz/^ (II, 4) and dfetftt (I, 3), aj/i for = Skt ayam r amiii (VIII, 17) for amne =5 Skt 
Amtikini (nom. sing., XIII, 9), tajani (nom. plur v XIII, 9). 

The two diphthongs o» and an have become £ and 0, respectively; see niche (perhaps = Skt. 
mchaihy VII, 5), \o\sha\dhd\ni (II, ^papotra (XIII, ii),paratoMka s ~opaka and -opaya m 

The Kharoshthl alphabet does not mark the length of the three vowels a, z, », and we 
must always keep in mind that every a, i, n of the text may be meant for a or d s i or u or $, 
respectively- 
Initial a is dropped in pi (= Skt. ; a? in (== iti) and #/* (= *kid+iti) ; * generally in va> 
while ^ is preserved three times through Sandhi. Besides va 3 the text often uses the two 
forms vo (— Vedic evd i i.e« eva+u) 2 and ya s which Johansson (§ 36) derives from Prakrit yeva 
(- Skt. Aw). 8 

■ 

IL Simple Consonants. 

The guttural h has become y in nirathiya (— nilathiya at Kalsi) and (VIII, 17) = 

(II, 5), instead of which the remaining versions of the rock-edicts (besides Mansehra) have -opaga. 
It seems to be dropped altogether in diadha s= *dvikardha. Greek \ is expressed by k in Amiiyokdy 
and y by the same in Amtikini and Maka. Skt. ^/z has become h in and lahuka* 

The palatal / has become y in Kamboya, \p\raytdtotave % samaya (= Skt. samdja, 1, 1, a), wrpa 
(=rdfd), and is represented by ^ in vrachaspi y vracha-bhumika (also at Mansehra), and in 
vrachamti) v\f\acheyam ; cf. Prakrit vachchai (for ^vrajyatt}) = Skt. vrajatu 

Skt, 9 is generally preserved, except in kshamanaye, garana, aviprahino, pranatika^ Pitinika 
(= P[e\Unika at Girnar). In terminations, however, dental « is never lingualized after ri, r, or sh ; 
see akarena^ agrma 7 anamtariyena^ khudrakena y Devanampriyena, parakrmnena, putrena^ vagrena, 
abhiramani) rupani, sahasani, Gamdharanmh y manusanam, maliamatranam, Rathikanmh, giirtma, 
garuna, pituna, bhratuna, spasa(su)na. On the other hand lingual n is newly developed after 
r in prapia^ati (from Skt. prapnoii)> samtirana (from firayati), and wrongly in Devanapriy\e\ (I, 1). 

Dentals are lingualized after an original ri (see above, p. lxxxiv), after ra in the preposition pati 
(eight times) or prati (twice) for prati (five times), and after ska in \p\sha[dhd\ni (II, ^prashamda 
2LTidpras&a$a (for *parshamda and ^pdrs&atfa = Skt* farskadd). Between vowels t is replaced by 
d in hapeiadi (= hapeSati at Mansehra) and, as at Kalsi, in hida-sukhaye (V, ia)-* Here we have 
the beginning of the process which, later on, every intervocalic i underwent in the SaurasenI dialect. 
For hida (five times) = idha at Girnar, see above, p. lxxil 

As in literary Prakrit, the labial p becomes v between vowels in avatrapeyit (XIII, 8). Initial 
b is replaced by p in patfham (VII, 5) for badliam (XIII, 3). The aspirate bh has turned to h in 
hoti (only VIII, section E, for the usual b/toti) t afw f and in the termination -hi (= Skt. -bhilj) of 
balmhi and iatehu 

As at Kalsi, y becomes / in majura (= Skt. mayura, I, 3), and ^ in vishava (XIII, 9)- It is 
dropped at the beginning of am (five times) for yava (IX, 19) = Skt. ydvat and of [e\ (XIII, 5) 
for ye = Skt. and between two vowels in PriadraH (thrice), Devanapviasa (four times) or 



1 The spelling kitra suggests that (5) [Ar]i[&f| is also meant for Hrta* Cf. Johansson, § %*j ; 
Michelson, AJP, 31. 57 j and below, p. IxxxviL 

2 See Buhler, ZDMG, 43. 136, according to a suggestion of the late Professor Kirste. 

3 Michelson (JAOS, 30. 86, n. 4) identifies yo with the nom. sing- masc. of the relative 
pronoun. 

4 At Mansehra (VIII, 35) t is softened also before r in yada (for *yadra= Skt. ydtra) ; and 
fenadaj— tendird) in both versions presupposes an intermediate form *tenadra* Cf. adra } pudra } 
midra in the Wardak vase-inscription; EI, 11, 308, n. 3. 



lxxxvi INTRODUCTION 

°piasa (I, a), ekatia (I, a), vijetav\t\a (XIII, u). The syllable^ becomes fin paritijitu (= paiiti- 
diiu at Kalsi). The causative affixes and ay; either remain unchanged (in anapayami, 
drasayiiu, &c.) or are contracted (in anapemi^ anapesamti, &c.). The same contraction takes place 
m anuneti (XIII, 7). The £ of the 3, sing, optative nivaieyaii (= Skt niruartayet) corresponds 
to an original aye, and the o of the numeral iodaia (= Skt irayodaia) to an original ajw. 1 

The change of r into / in palig\p\dha (V, ia),paIibodha (V, 13), xofi? (= Skt wtf, XII, a, 8), 
lo[cA]e{s/i]u and a~focheH a is a Magadhism, while, as at Girnar, r corresponds to / in *arabhati, 
* to kill = Skt. alabhate (see below, p. xciv), and in Turamaye = 2IroXe/*a?off (XIII, 9). As 
stated above (p. Ivii), this wrong translation of the foreign name Tulamaye (Kalsi) proves that the 
Shahbazgarhi version is based on a Magadha original* In Kera4^putro (II, 4) the d corresponds 
to the lingual I of Tamil Kerala ; the other versions of the rock-edicts have / instead of L 

The semivowel v is developed out of u and u in vuchati (= Skt. achyate), vuta (— upta, II, 5), 
and apavudka (= apodha). As at Kalsl, the syllable va becomes u in the absolutives in (= Skt. 
-tva\ Contraction of ava into 0 takes place in orodhana, bhoti, Aoti, bhotu, afw. 

Like the Kalsl version, the Shahbazgarhi one distinguishes the three sibilants /, sh, s t but 
with one important difference. While at Kalsi these three symbols are used indiscriminately (see 
above, p. lxxii), the Shahbazgarhi text generally employs each of them where it would have been in 
its proper place in Sanskrit. 3 Thus we find s in anuiasti, asamana, edisa, tadtia, yadiia, da£a, desa, 
draiana^ drasayiiu, Priy adroit, pahi, prade£i\kd\, yaio, iaha (= Skt. iakya), iaia, sila (i. e. Mia), 
\siland\ (i. e. silana), htdhi (i. e. hiddhi), saiayike, prativesiya, niHta (= Skt. *nisrita) t sramana, 
iravaka, iruta, srutu, iruneyu ; and sk in es/te, esha, lo]sha[d/ui\ni, ghosha, tosha % dosha^ parisha, 
prashamda, vishava (=vishaya) 3 pituslm y in the loc. plur. in -eshu, in the gen v plur. tesha\iti\ 
and yesha, in the 3. plur. aorist mhrami$hn> mafrishu, lo[ch]e[sh]u, in vasha (= varsha) and 
hashati (= *karshyatfy Exceptions are not frequent : s for s in anusochana, \s\refha ( = sreshtha) \ 
s for sh. in abhisita (~ abhiskikta), yem, ti\bhd\y\e\sa 7 [arabhi]yis[u] ; sh for s in pamchashu and 
shashu. In manusa (= manushya) and in the futures in 4saii and -esaii the / is a defective 
spelling for si, in which the original sh had been palatalized through the influence of the 
following y. In susrusha, suirashatu, suirusheyu the first s (for s) is probably due to dissimilation, 
and in an\tt\sasana, anuiasisamti the second / (for s) is due to assimilation. 4 

Cases of Cockneyism are liamclie (see above, p. lxxii), hahati (twice) for ahati (thrice) = Skt 
aha, kida (see above, p. lxxii), MdahMka. Conversely, h is dropped at the beginning ol\a\stwa = 
Skt hasUnal}, and between two vowels in maa = Prakrit maka (gen. sing, of the pronoun of the 
first person), ia (= Skt iha) and iatoka. 

As at Girnar and Kalsi, all final consonants are dropped. In some cases this applies also 
to the s of final as; see jma, &c. (below, p. xc), [sa] (XIII, io), ekatia (I, 3), [a]stina (= Skt 
hastinah, IV, 8), vacAa- (XII, a). But generally final as becomes o t and frequently, as in the 
Magadha dialect, e ; see bkuy\e\ t chature % and the nom. sing. masc. esfa, y\d\ (V, 13), ane (XII, 9), 
jane, &c, (below, p. xc). In amni (VIII, 17), Amtikini (XIII, 9)1 rajani (XIII, 9) = rajana (II, 4), 
-i has taken the place of -e. 

The Anusvara of words ending in nasal vowels is omitted in many instances. The reason of 
this deficiency need not be the carelessness of the writer, but may have been as well the faint 
articulation of the nasal sound. Examples of the omission are prof ava (= Skt. prajdvan), ida 
(IX, 30) = idam (XIII, 3), ima (IX, 19) = imam (passim), aya (twice) = ayam (V, 13), \t\dani (= Skt. 
idamm), 5 eva (twice) = evam (passim), the acc. sing. masc. atk\r\a, dosha, ba\Jni\ka, the nom. and 
acc. sing, neut dana, &c (below, p. xc), the acc. sing. fern, puja, &c, and Sabodhi, &c, the 
gen, plur. natina, Nabhitina, guruna, gartma, bhratuna, spasa{sti)na, iesha, yesha, u\bhd\y\e\sa, 
abhiratana^ &c. (below, p. xc). 

As in the Magadha dialect, the nom. sing. neut. frequently ends in -e instead of -am ; see 
eshe (X, section E), ye (VI, section F; IX, F and I; XIII, i), savre (XII, 5; XIV, 13), \_sahd\sre 



1 Mansehra has iredasa, Dhault and Kalsi tedasa, for *trayadasa. 
3 But not in rochetu \ see Text, p* 8, n. 3. 

3 I differ here from Johansson, §§ 14, 48, and side with Michelson, AJP, 30. 289. 

4 Cf. Skt. sasa instead of *sa$a, which is presupposed by German Hose (English hare). 

5 Cf. Hemachandra, I, 39. 



SHAHBAZGARHI GRAMMAR 



Ixxxvii 



(XIII, i), dane, &c. (below, p. xc). This barbarism is due to the analogy of the.nom. sing. 
masculine. 1 The termination -e is found even in the acc. sing, masc. (sayame^ VII, a) and in the 
particle [e] (= Skt yat s XIII, 5). While in the nora* sing. masc. we often have -e for -0 (see 
above, p. lxxxvi), the -e of the nom. sing, neut- is replaced by -o in katava and three other 
gerundives (see below, p. xc) a and the nom. sing. neut. of the pronoun idam has once the form iyo 
(XII, a) for iyam (VIII S section E). The nom. sing. masc. so is used for the nom. sing. neut. 
(XIII, a) and for the acc. sing, neut. (passim), and the relative yo (X, 31) for the acc. sing. neut. 
yaU Instead of anudivasam at Gimar we find anudivaso (I, %\ and at XII, 6, the acc. sing, 
of the masculine d/ira?na is dhramo. Finally it must be noted that ayi occurs repeatedly instead 
of ay am and ay a (= Skt. ay am and iyam). 



Ill* Sandhi. 

- 

Final m is preserved before the particle eva in [e]vam*eva and parair^kd\m-€va % and hiatus is 
prevented by m in anam-anasa and hhaiam-ayeshu* 

As the length of a is not marked in the Kharoshthi alphabet, the result of a+a always 
appears in writing as short a ; see kitabhikaro^ grabhagara % tenada (= Skt. tenatra), nasH> prana- 
rambko, mahathavaha^ -vashabhisita, stipatkay\e\ dhramanusasti^ &c. The hiatus remains in 
\atha\vashfra\bhisyta\sd\ (XIII, i). 

a is elided before i in braman*ibkes?m ; before u in chu (= c&a+u) and paj-upadane ; before 
e in cfaeva\ before 0 in manus-opakani and tat-opayam (see above, p. lxxii); and 0 before o in 
pas-cpakanu 

i+a are cqntracted into * in i\stridli{\yaksha (== Skt. stry-adhyakska). 



IV. Groups of Consonants. 

As at Girnar (above, p. lix), there is some inconsistency in marking the letter r if it is combined 
with other consonants, * The order of the symbols does not conform to the actual pronunciation, 

but to the convenience of the combinations 2 

" ■ - , 

(1) r is combined with the preceding akshara 

(a) in rbh : grabhagara {=■ garbhagard). 

(b) in rm 1 dhrama (U e. dharma) and dhramma (ue. dkarmmd} y hrama (= Skt. karman) 
and hrathma (i. e. karmma). 

(c) in rv : pnwa (= Skt. purva). 

(d) in rJ : drasana (i. e. darfand), drasayitu (= Skt. darsayiiva)^ PHyadraH* 

(e) in rjA: prashamda and prasliada (from Skt./^r&wfo)d 

(3) f is attached to the next following consonant 

(a) in ^ : zwgr# (i. e. varga), spagra (=- Skt* svargd). 

(b) in : &Vra (i. e> foWa, = Skt. krita), Uiri (= Skt 

(c) in r/ft and rth 1 athrd, and athra (— Skt. arthd). 

(d) in r-z> : jwara (i. e. jwm) and savraira (i. e. sarvatra). 

It must be remembered that, wherever the above-mentioned words occur in the text, the 
transcript shows the imperfect spelling of the inscription, but not the actual pronunciation. 

As at the end of words, the Anusvara is often omitted before consonants ; see atara and 
aihtara, atikraia (= Skt atikrantd)^ Atiyoka and Amtiyoka^ anaia and anamia> AHkamdaro 
(— IdXigavSpos), karatam and karamtam^ Kaliga, Devanapriya and Devanampriya % prashada and 
prashamda? badhana and samba\pi\dha^ magala and mamgala, vihisa (= Skt vihiiiisa), satam 
and sa[m]tam, Sabodhi, sayama and sa\pi\yama } s\a\yuta (= samyukta)^ sasayika (= samsayik^ 



1 Cf. above, pp. lxii, lxxiii, and Johansson, part a, p. 47. 

2 Biihler, ZDMG, 43- *33- Cf. Johansson, § 17, and Michelson, AJP, 30. a8 9) n. a. 

3 See above, p. Ixxiv, n. 4. 



Ixxxviii 



INTRODUCTION 



sasttUa and samstuta, and the 3- plur. karo\ti } (IX, section C),prapunati (XIII, 6), bhoti (XIII, 7), 
mrtftf (XIII, 4), nik\f\mnaiUi man(^tii\ y aradhetu, pativedetU) rocltetu* 

Some groups of consonants are avoided by the development of an auxiliary vowel, which is 
a in garahati\ u before or after a labial in duv\t\, praptmati\ and frequently % as the subjoined 
list of Sanskrit groups and of their equivalents at Shahbazgarhl will show. Michelson has proved 
that some of these correspondences are in reality Magadhisms and alien to the Shahbazgarhl 
dialect ; see his articles in AJP, vols. 30 and 31, and J AOS, vol. 30. 

kt becomes / in dbhi$iia % &c. 

ky becomes k in iako (= Skt fakyam)* 

kr remains in aiikratam y &c. 

ksh remains 1 in akshati, \adhi]yahha t \ksham\H % kshanati, hshamanaye, kshamitaviya, 
mo\kshaye\ samkshitena, but becomes kh in khudrdkena and \dd\khaii? 
hshy becomes ksh in vrakshamiu 

My becomes kh in mtikka (— Skt- mukhya, XIII, 8), satitkkay[a\ (~ samkhyaya). 
khl becomes kh in hho = Skt. khalu ; see above, p. Ivi and n. a. 

gr remains in agra s \_d\pag[r\atho (XIII, 5), but the g seems to be aspirated in apaghratko 
(XIII, 6). 

chy becomes ck in vuchati (= Skt. uchyaie)* 

jit becomes n \x\ kitranaia (= Skt. kriiajiiaia), naii, iiatika, nanath, raiia, ratio; n, as in literary 
Prakrit, in aifapayami and anapemi, anapesamti^ anapita* 
jy becomes / in joti- (= Skt. jyofis, IV, 8), 
iij becomes mn in vamnmiato (= Skt. vyanjanataft). 

dy becomes d t as at Girnar, in Pamda (XIII, 9), but diy, as at Kalsi, in Pamdiya (II, 4). 

ny becomes n inpuiia, hiraiia, but niy in ananiya (— Skt. anrinya)* 

tp becomes p in pajupadam? 

tm becomes t in ata- (—Skt atman)> 

ty becomes ti in ekatia> but ch in achayika % apacha s chatu 

tr remains in irayo r atra f putra, savatra, &c, but becomes t in savata (V, section N) and 
todaia (— Skt. trayddaia, V, 11), and d in tenada (= Skt tenatra, VIII, 17), 4 

iv remains in tadatvaye, but becomes / in the absolutives in (= Vedic -tvi). 
ts becomes s in ttsatena % chikisa, 

tsth becomes th in uthmas\t\ (VI, 1 5), but tk in ttikanam (ibid.). 5 
^ becomes jm aja 9 patipajeyaii ; y in uyana {= Skt udyana), 
dr remains in kfmdrakena* 

dv becomes duv in duv\£] s but b in badaya{§d\ (cf. dbddasa at Girnar), and in diadha. 
As at Kalsl, dJfcy becomes /S in and ammija{jha)peti (= [^]««*[ W S^^]/^E^1 at 

Mansehra), but d&jK in 

<ifir remains in dkruva and Amdhra* 

T 

nm becomes *» in yaniatra (= Skt. yanmatrd). 

ny becomes mn or » in amna and manati and menati> manishu, kamnamt\i\> [/id]m- 
neyasti* 

pt becomes f in guti, mjha[t]i, vuta (= Skt. upta t II, 5), asamaiath, samkshitena, nataro 
(= naptarah)* pranaiika % Tnramaye (= nroAe/xaioy). 
becomes in praptmatu 

pr remains in Priyadrasi, Devanampriya, priH (i. e. prtti), prakara\n[e (XII, 3), jfrJVJigfa and 
prajava (V, 13), prana (i.e. prdna)^ prades^kd\ 9 pranatika^ prapunati^ prabhave, \f\rayukotave 3 
pra\vd\d/i\e\samti t pravase s pravrajita, prasado, prasana^rasavaii^ampraliino^praiipc^t^ (XIII, 5), 
pratibhagam, praHbk\o\gaye^ prativesiyena, p\f\aHvidham (VIII, 17), prativedetavo (VI, 14), but 
becomes p in Devanapiasa (I, a), [^^Aarafe^ (XII, 3), pajapadane (IX, \%) $ papoira 3 paiipajeyati y 



1 For the sign which I have transcribed by ksk % see Text, p. 55, note 5* 

2 See above, p. lxxiv, n. 5. 3 jg ee above, p. Ixxv, n. 1. 
* Mansehra h&s yada (for *yadra = Skt. ydira) in the same section. 

6 Mansehra has utliana in both cases. 



S H AHB AZGARH I GRAMMAR 



lxxxix 



paHpaii (twice), sampatipati (twice), patividhana (V, 13^ pativedaka y pativedana^ paiivedetu^ pative- 
detavo (VI, 1.5). 

bdh becomes dk in ladha. 

br remains in bramana (= Skt, brdhmand), 

bhy becomes bk in 4bheslm> arabhUamti (future passive), but bhiy m \arabhi\yis\11\ (aorist passive). 
bhr remains in bhratuna* 

my becomes mm (also spelt 711mm) in samma- and sammma-* 
mr becomes mb in Tambapamnu 

rg remains in vagra (u e. varga ; see above, p. Ixxxvii) and spagra (i. e. sparga z= Skt- svarga). 
rn becomes mn in Tambapamnu 

ri becomes t in anuvatatu^ but rt in kitri (i. e. kirii = Skt. ktrt£) 7 and jf in katava* anuvatamii> 
anli^vatisajhti) nivaieti^ nivateyatu 

rth remains in athra (i.e. ariha, IV, io), but becomes rth in athra (L e. arJfta, VI, 14; IX 7 
19), and th in <zM# (passim), nirathiyavu 

rd/i becomes dk in vadhisati, vadheti, pra[va]dh\e\famti t vadhita^ diadha. 

rbh remains in grabhagara (i. e. garbhagara). - 

rm remains in hrama (i, e. karmd) and kramma (i. e. karmma, III, 6), dhrama (i, e. dharvtct) 
and dhramma (i. e. d/iarmma)} 

ry becomes in -ayeshu (= Skt. dryeshu), but «j in mtmhtariyena^ madhuriyaye, sama\chd\- 
riyanu 

rv remains in pruva (i. e. purva = Skt- purva), savra (u e. sarva), but becomes v in 
nivaieti, nivateyaii^ mvuta^ nivuii. 

r£ remains in drasana (i.e. darsana), drasayitit (= Skt. darsayitva), Priyadrasi (= °darsm) i 
but becomes in dasana (VIII, 17). 

rcA remains in prashamda (i. e. *parshamda) 2 and prashada 9 but becomes in *vasha % 
pashamtfa (XII, 3) and pashada (XII, 9). 

becomes j£ in kasham y kashati, kashamtu 

rh becomes r*zA mgarahaiix r v& gar ana (= Skt. garhana)? 

Ip becomes ^ in 

becomes / in balana (= Skt. kalydnd). 

vy becomes ^ in vamilana, vapata (twice), apa-vayata, vasana, divani^ prasavati % katava, 
pathiedetavo, [pjrayiihotave, vatavo, but ztf in vijetav\i\a> and to? in viyapata and vtyapttta (V, 13), 
kshamitawiya, pujetaviya, 

vr remains in [rivr^], pravrajita^ vrachamti, v\f\acJieyam % vrahshaniti % vrachaspi and vracha- 
bkumika (also at Mantsehra). 

■sfcft becomes in hachi (=* Skt, ka^chit)^ pacha (= paschat)* 

£y becomes ^ in prativeiiyena* 

sr remains in sraviana y Sravaka^ susrusha, sttsrtishaiti % stisrusheyu, iruia, frutti, but becomes 
/ in samana (IX, 19), nitite, and sr in [j]rtf/&z (= Skt. sreshttia). 
shk becomes k in dukatam t dukara* 

shkr becomes kr in nikramanam y iiil^f\amaiUy nikrami^ nikramishu, 
sht becomes ih in [at/to] = Skt, ashta (XIII, 1). 
shir becomes th in Rathikanam. 

* ■ * 

shth becomes th in titfiiii, \s\retham ; th in -adhithana* 

shy becomes / (i, e. ss) in manuSa and in the futures in -isati and -eiaii. 

As at KalsTj becomes k in joti-kamdhanu 

si remains in asti, nasi% \a\siina (— Skt, Iiastinalj), samsiava^ samstttia^ vistritena, -anusastu 
It occurs also in the Ancient Persian word nipista^ 



1 At Mansehra we find twice (IV, 13 and 16) the defective spelling dltarna beside the usual 
form dhrama. 

2 This form is a variant of Skt parshada (for parishada) and the origin of Skt. pfchanda \ cf. 
Johansson, §§ 37, 64, 

3 See Johansson, § 56, c, and cf. Pali rassa = Skt. hrasva (Geiger, § 49). At Mansehra Ae 
reading is garaha (= Skt. gar ha). 4 See above, p. xliu 

1013 m 



xc 



INTRODUCTION 



sir remains in i[siri\ striyaka. 

sth becomes th in grahatha, ckira-ikitika* 

sn becomes sin in [st\[ne*]ho (XIII, 5), 1 

sm becomes sp or s in the locatives singular in -aspi and -asu 

sy becomes sty in rabhasiye, siya, siyati, siyast^ but s in asti and in the genitives singular in 
-asci and -isa* 

sr remains in parisrave, sahasra, but becomes s in sahasani (I, 2}* 

sv becomes sp in spa\ka\ spagra ( = Skt svarga\ spamikeua, spasa[sti)na (= svasrlnam). 
km becomes m in bramana. 



B,— DECLENSION 
I. Bases in -a. 

(1) Masculines and neuters in -0. 



Singular, 

Nom. masc. /owl, &c. ; neut. danam, &c. 
Acc. masc. dhramam, &c. ; neut. mamgalam^ &c. 
Instr. putrena y danena y &c. 
Dat. athaye, &c. 

Abl. karana (= Skt- karandt, III, 6), pacha. 
Gen. Janasa, &c. 

Loc. (a) orodhanaspi, Sec, ; (b) dkrame } &c. 



Plural. 

Masc, pnira^ &c. ; neut. [tfjjAfljyAtf];^, &c. 
Masc*yutani s &c. ; neut. divani^ rupani, 
iaieJtL 



prananmhi &c. 
vasfies/iu, &c. 



Norn, sing- masc. — The original termination is dropped in (XIV, 13), ghosha (IV, 8), 
(IH» 6)1 vadha (XIII, 3), samba\m\dha (XI, $3), sayama (VII, 4), Maka (XIII, 9). 
The Magadha termination ~* is frequent; see jane (X, ai), vivade (VI, 14, 15), Turamaye (XIII, 9), 
Devanapriye (X, ai), &c. In Amtikini (XIII, 9) we have -i instead of -e. 

Nom. sing. neut. — The Anusvara is omitted in dana, a\chd\yika (VI, 14), annsochana (XIII, a), 
\dti\kara (VI, 16), draiana and daSana (VIII, 17), /Mfia (XI, 24), mamgala (IX, sections D and F), 
maka*pkata(TX, F). As in the nom. sing, masc, Magadha forms in -e are frequent \ see dane (VII, 
4), drasane (VIII, 17), likhite (XIV, 13), z^Vte (XIV, 13), &c. In a few gerundives we have -o instead 
of -am or -e : katavo (IX, 18, 19; XI, 34), prativedetavo (VI, 14) and pativedetavo (VI, 15), vatavo 
(IX, 19 ; XI, 34 ; XII, 8), sako (XIII, 7). The Sanskrit masculine bhaga is used as neuter in 
sahasra-blwgmh (XIII, J). 

Acc, sing. masc. — In ath\r]a (VI, section E), dosha and ba\kti\ka (I, 1), the Anusvara ts 
omitted. There are two irregular forms : dhramo (XII, 6) and sayame (VII, 2). 

Acc. sing. neut. — The Anusvara is omitted in [da]na (XII, x), karana (XIV, 14), vasana 
(XIII, 5), and in a few other instances. 

Loc. sing. — The group sp of the termination «spi is assimilated in \a\pakaranasi (XII, 3), 
nthanas\t\ '(VI, 15), \gd\nanasi (III, 7), mahana[sas]i (I, a), /»[Az]tf (V, J 3)- The termination 
occurs also in anutape> abadhe^ avahe, Kalige t prakara[#}e 9 pravase^ vtfay[e] (XIII, 11), vijite f 
vivahe^ site* 

Nom. plur. masc. — The Sanskrit neuter apaiya is used as masculine in [y]e vie apacha 
vrakshamti (V, 11). 

Nom. plur. neut. — The termination is -a instead ot-ani in \p\sha\dhd\ni . . , . . karapUa cha 
vuta cha (II, 5)- 

The remaining instances of the acc. plur. masc. are -kamdhani^ Kaliga^tt^ -prashamdani, 
pravrajita^it^ graJiaikanu 

Gen, plur. — The Anusvara is omitted in abhiratana (XIII, 5), mahamairana (VI, 14), -brama- 
nana (twice), -hramanana (IV, 9}, 



Mansehra reads si[ne]/ie. 



SHAHBAZGARHI GRAMMAR 



xci 



(2) Feminines In 



Singular* 

Nom, ichha % &c, 
AccpujOi &c. 
Instr. pttjaye t vividfiaye* 
Loc. $a\vi\tirandye* 



Plural. 

chiklflsa, [krYlfa]) slriyaka* 1 



II; Bases in -I 
(1) Masculines in 4. 

Nom. plur. irayo. 

Gen. plur. natina[m] t natina, Nabhiiina. 

{%) Feminines in -i and 

Singular. 

Nom. dipt, &c. tffcw. 
Acc. Sahodhii &c. 
Instr, bhatiya* 
Dat ~anu$€L$tiye % vadkiya* 
AbL nivuHya t Ta\ffi\bapam\nt]ya. 
Loc- ayatiya* 

With the nom. plur atavicS* Pali ra/ff, nom, plur. oiratti ( 



Plural 



Skt. rato). 



IIL Bases in 

The same forms as at Gimar and Kalsi occur, viz, nom. sing, masc., fern,, and neut sadhu ; nom. 
and acc. sing. neut. balm ; nom. and acc, plur. neut. bahuni ; instr. plur. bahuhi ; gen, plur. gtiruna, 
garuna. 

IV. Masculines and Feminines in -ri. 

Nom. plur. nataro* 

Gen. plur. bhratuna* spasa{m)nar 

Loc. plur. pitushu. 

The instr. sing, follows the ^-declension ; fituna r bhrattma. 



V. Bases in Consonants, 

(1) Present participles in -at. 
As at Kalsl, we have the two nom* sing. masc. sa\i?i\iam (satam) and haramtam {karatam). 

(a) Masculine in -vat, 
Nom, sing, prajava (= Skt. prqfdvdu). 



Plural. 

rajatWi rajanu 



(3) Masculines and neuters in -an. 

Singular. 

Nom. masc, rqfa s raya. 
Acc. neut. nama. 
Instr. raiia. 
Gen, ratio* 

The neuter base karman follows the declension : nom. sing. kramam> dat. krammayt. 



1 The Skt. feminine strl % from which this curious diminutive is formed, occurs at XII, 9 in the 
form i\strt\. 2 At Mansehra (V, 34) the reading is spas\u\na. 

m 2 



xcn INTRODUCTION 

(4) Masculines in -2«. 

Nom. sing. Priyadraii. 
Instr. sing, PriyadraJina* 
Gen. sing. Priyadraiisa. 
Acc. plur. \a]stina {asti\tie\ at Mansehra). 
The gen, sing, follows the analogy of the ^-declension, 

(5) Neuters in »as. 
Acc, Sing, yaso f bhuy\e\. 

The base vacha- (XII, 2) corresponds to Skt. vachas* 

(6) Neuter in -is. 
The base joti- (IV, 8) corresponds to Skt. JyJtis. 

(7) Feminine in -d. 

The base parishad follows the ^-declension : loc. sing, parishaye* The nom. sing, parisha 
is preserved at Mansehra (III, 11). 



C. — PRONOUNS 

(1) Pronoun of the first person. 

Nom. sing, ahanu 
Instr. sing, ntaya. 
Gen. sing, maa^ me. 

With the gen, maa cf. Prakrit mafia, which seems to be derived from the Skt. genitive mama 
under the influence of the dative makyam; see Michekon, J AOS, 30* 85, n. a. 



(2) Base ta. 

Singular* 

Nom. masc. so ) _ . 

A , . [ neut. iam y so. 

Acc- masc, tain j 

Instr. tena. 

Dat- taye. 

Gen. tasa. 

Loc. tasi. 



Plural. 

Masc- te. 



teska\ih\ tes/ia. 



Nom, sing. fern. sa. 

Acc. plur. fern, ta (XIII; 7)- 

In two places (XIII, section T, and V 3 section H) we have sa for so (nom. masc. and acc. neut.). 

(3) Base ska. 

The acc. plur. neut ska (VI, 16) corresponds to she (acc. plur. masc?) at Mansehra ; cf. Text, 
p. 59, n. 1. 

(4) Base eta* 



Singular. 

Nom. masc, eshe\ neut eta, etam, eiake 9 eshe 

(X, section E). 
Instr. etakena* 
Dat. etaye^ etakaye. 
Gen. etisa (III, 6 ; XII, 9). 



Plural. 

Masc. eta (I, 3). 



mm * 



SHAHBAZGARHI GRAMMAR xcm 

Nom. sing, fem. eska (XIII, 4). 

The i of the gen. sing, etisa, which is found also at Mansehra (XII, 8) } is perhaps due to the 
analogy of the Pali interrogative kissa (from base ki) = kassa (from base k<z). 

(5) Demonstrative idanu 

Singular. 

Nom. masc. ayam y ayi; neut. idam ) ida t imam t ima, iyam t iyo. 
Acc, neut* imam. 
Gen. imisa (IV, 10). 

Nom. fem. aya, ayi. 
Dat. fem. imisa (III, 6). 

With the gen. masc. imisa cf. eiisa (from etd) and the Girnar and Pali instrumental imittcL 
The dat. fem. imisa is an imperfect spelling of Pali imissa. Cf. the feminine bases imt i ti % ez } 
j% kl in Prakrit (Pischel's Gramntatik y § 4?4)* 

(6) Interrogative pronoun* 

The indefinite kicki (nom. and acc. sing, neut) forms the nom* sing. masc. kachi (XII, 5). The 
compound kiti is used in the sense of * that'. 

(7) Relative pronoun. 



Singular. 

Nom. masc. yo 9 y\e\ ; neut. yarn. ye. 

Acc, nwi.yam.yo (X, 31), [<?] {XIII, 5). 

Instr,jp£[#tf]. 

Gen. yasa. 

Loc. 



Plural. 

Masc. ye. 



yesha {yesha\ni\ at Mansehra). 
yesti* 



Nom. sing, fem.^tf (XIII, ia). 
Nom. plur. fem. ya (XIII, 7) . 



(8) Base anya. 



Singular. 

Nom. masc. ane, amni \ neut. aiiam} 
Acc. 

Dat. anaye. 
Gen. anamanasa* 



Plural, 

Masc. amne 1 ~ 

t neut. anam. 



(9) Base jorwi 



Singular. 

Nom. neut, sav\f\ain^ savre. 

Acc. masc. and neut. savram* savam* 

Loc. 



Plural. 
Masc* save. 

savreshu^ saves/in. 



(10) Base ubkaya. 

Gen. plur- {ubkayesam at Mansehra). 

(11) Base ekatara. 
Loc. sing, ekatare. 

(i.a) Base *ekatya. 
Nom. sing. masc. ekatia. 



1 at Mansehra, IV, 15 



xciv INTRODUCTION 



D.— NUMERALS 

One. 

Acc. sing. neut. \e*]katJu 
Two. 

Nom. masc. and fern. duv[i]. 

Three. 
Nom, masc. trayo* 

Four. 

As In Ardhamagadhi (Pischel's Grammatik^ § 439)3 the acc. masc, chature (— Skt. ckatnrak) 
is used in the place of the nom. (XIII, 9). 

Five, six. 
Loc. famchashu* shashn. 

Eight, ten, twelve, thirteen, 
[atfia], da£a, badaya{id)^ todasa* 

Hundred. 

Acc. plur. $aian% instr. satehi, loc. sateshu 
The ordinal is Sata ; see fata~bAqge t XIII, 7. 

Thousand. 

i- r 

The ordinal is sahasra (XIII, 7). 

Hundred thousand. 

Nom- sing. sa\ia~sah(z\sre* 
Nom* plur. iata~$ahasanu 



E.— CONJUGATION 
I. Present. 

(1) Bases. 
First Sanskrit class. 
Root&w#: parakramaU^nik\f\amatt^ 

Root garh : garahatu . 
Root jit \yi\jinamatWt vijiniti\ see above, p.lxxxi and n. 1. 
Root trap 1 avatrafeyti* 
Root dris ; \dd\fihatu 
Root nl : ammeti. 
Root bhu : bhoti> kotL 

Root labh : the absolutive ara[b/titu] and the two passive forms \arabhi\yis\}i\ and arabki- 
samti presuppose the present *arabhaii f f to kill ' (= Skt. alabhate). 
Root vas : vasatu 
Root vrii : anuvataiu^ anuvatamtu 



SHAHBAZGARHI GRAMMAR xcv 

Root vrqf: vrackamtL For Prakrit vadichai (for *vrajyati?) — Skt. vrajati see Hema- 
chandra, IV, 335 ; Pischel's Grammatik^ § 203 and n. 3. 

Root stha. The absolutive tithiti (IV. 10) presupposes the present *titthati (= Skt. tishthatt). 

Second Sanskrit class. 

Root ^ : asiL 

Root : npahamiu 

Third Sanskrit class- 
Root hiu The gerundive [^]nzj#&?/tfzw is formed from the Skt. present juhdtu 

Fourth Sanskrit class- 
Root pad : patipajeyaiL 
Root man : manati and menati* 

Fifth Sanskrit class* 

Root dp follows the ninth class : prapunati* 
Root sru follows the ^-conjugation : fruneyu. 

Sixth Sanskrit class. 

Root ish : ichhatu 

Seventh Sanskrit class. 
Root yuj follows the ^-conjugation : yujamtu* 

Eighth Sanskrit class- 
Root kri : karoii ; but the optative apakareyati and the two present participles karamiam and 
ha\rd\min\o\ presuppose the present *karati % *karate* 
Root kshan follows the ^-conjugation : kshanatL 

Ninth Sanskrit class. 
Root aJ follows the ^-conjugation : asamana (part. pres. middle). 

Tenth Sanskrit class. 

(a) With ayax dipayaini % dra$ayitu> stikhayamu The character aya is contracted into / in 
pujeti, pujetaviya^ a[ra]dfieti, aradfietu, rocheiu, lo[cA]e\s/i]u f a-loc/ieti % pativedetu, patwedetavo^ 
nivateti, vadlieU. 

(b) With paya : anapayami and anapemi^ anapesamti, anapita^ antmija{jha)peti i hapesadi. 

(c) With apaya : Ukha\p\eSami 1 likhapitti{ta), khanapita % nipesapita^ harapita. 



(3) Moods. 

The terminations of the middle are replaced by those of the active, with the exception of the 
present participles \vi]ji?iamana s ka\rd\mina, asamana. 

(a) Indicative. 

1. smg. parak\r\amami t karomi^ anapayami and anapemu 

3. sing, parakramati, garahatt* \dd\khdti> ammeti, bhoti and hoti r asti^ upahamii^ manati and 
mehati^ ichhati^ karoii) kshanati^ annnija{jhd)peti^pujeii % a\rd\dheii^ nivateti^ vadheti*. 

3. plur. anuvatamti % vrachaihti s ichhamti. The Anusvara is missing in hhoti (XIII, 7), vasati % 
prapunati, kard[tt\ (IX a section C). 

(b) Subjunctive 

1. sing, dipayami and mkhayami (with indicative termination). 



xcvi INTRODUCTION 

(c) Optative. 

i. sing. v\f\acheyam (from *vrachchati — Skt. vrajati), 

3. sing, siya and siyaH (— Skt. ^j/^), patipajeyati f apakareyati (from Skt. apakardti) 3 nivate- 
yati 1 (= Skt. nirvartayet\ cf. above, p. Ixxxii). The four last forms have the termination of the 
indicative. 

3, plur. avatrapeytti vaseyu t sruneyu % asu (= Pali assu) and siyastt. With the last form cf. the 
optative passive \fid\mneyasu (below, V). 

(d) Imperative. 

3. sing- bhotu % anuvataiiu 

3. plur* parakramamtU) yttjamtu. The Anusvara is missing in mk\r\amatu t 7/iaf7a[pi\ > 
aradhettii rocheiu, pativedetu. 



(e) Imperfect. 



3. sing, alio (= Skt, abhavat). 



II. Aorist. 

(a) Indicative. 

3. sing, nihrami* 

3, plur. nikramishtt* In abhuvasu (VIII, 17) the aorist termination -su seems to be affixed to 
abhuvan t the Sanskrit aorist of root bhu ; cf. Johansson, § 30. 

(b) Subjunctive. 

3. plur. manishu (from Skt. manyate)^ td\clt\e\sli\ti (aloc/tayisu at Kalsl and Mansehra). 

III. Perfect. 

To the Sanskrit perfect &ha 7 which has .the meaning of the present (see Panini, III, 4, 84). the 
termination of the 3, sing, indicative present is affixed : ahati and hahati? 

IV. Future, 

1. sing, kasham §kd\shami at Mansehra), likha\j\esami (while Girnar has likhapayisani)* 
3. sing, kashath vadhisati^ hapesadu 

3. plur. kashamti) aifyi\vatifamti % vrdkshamti (from root vraj)> anusaiismhii (from anu-sds), 
anapeiamtit pra[va]dfi[e\famti {pavadftayisamti at Mansehra): 

V- Passive- 

3. sing, indicative vuchaii (— Skt. uchyaie)^ prasavati (= prasavyaie). 
3. plur. indicative \a\mtvidhiyamU (= annvidkiyante\ hamiiavit\i\ ( — hanyante). 
3. plur. optative \l1d\7hneyasn (XIII, 8) with aorist termination ; cf.siyasu {= Skt. syuh, XII, 7), 
and see Johansson, § 140. 

3. sing, imperative antwz\dfii\yatu* 

3. plur. aorist \arabhi\yis\ii\ (from Skt. alabhyate). 

3. plur. future amividhiyisam\ii\ (from Skt, anuvidhtyaie), arabhisamti (for *dlabkyishyanti from 
Skt. alabhyate)^ 

VI. Desiderative. 

■ 

3, plur, optative stisrtisheyu, 
3, sing, imperative susrushaitt* 



1 Mansehra reads nivateya* 2 See Text, p. 31, n. 7. 3 Cf. Text, p. 53, n. 11. 

4 Cf. drabhare^ drabhisz^ and drabhisare at Girnar, where W is also a defective spelling for bb/i. 



SHAHBAZGARHI GRAMMAR 



xcvii 



VII, Participles. 

(i) Present participle. 
Active. 

Root as : sa\t?t\tam (sat am). 
Root kri : karaihtam (karatam). 

Middle. 

Root jii \yz\jinamana \ see above, p. Ixxxi and n, I* 
Rooter?: ka\rd\mma* 
Root as; asamana* 

Other participles in -mina or -mina are found in the Magadha edicts ; cf. Buhler, ZDMG, 
46. 7a, and below, p. cx f and chapters X and XL 

(a) Past passive participle, 

(a) In -ta : mata and muta (= Skt. mata, XIII, 8), muta (— mrita), kiia, \kr\i{td\> and kitra 
(= kriia) r vapata, viyapata % and viyaputa (= vyaprita y V, 13), vistrita (= <vistrita)> ttsata (= utsrita)^ 
nisita (— ^ni&ita), nipista (= Ancient Persian nipiskta\ see above, p. xlii), nipesita, nipesapita, 
likhita y likliapitu(ta), khanapita 7 harapita 3 aropita^ anapita^ bJmta (L e. bhuta) y atikrata {= afi&ranta), 
\ld\pita^ nivuta (= mrvrittd)^ vuta (=upta) 3 samata (= satnapta), samkskita {^samkshipt<£) 9 vudJia 
(= vriddha) y apavudlta (= apddha)^ ladha {= labdkd)^ &c. 

(b) In : prasana (Le.prasanna)) vtprahina (Le. 

■ 

(3) Future passive participle- 

(a) In -tavyai ^shamiiaviya^ pufetaviya, vij€tav\£\a^ katava t vatava> \p\rayuhotava i paiive~ 
detava* 

(b) In -anlyax v[e]dani[yd]. 

(c) In -jtf : /o&a (= Skt. sahyd) 

VIII* Absolutive. 

(a) In -ta (=Skt. -ft>£) : paritijitu (from root #37" with Samprasarana of 
imtUy drasayiiu. 

(b) In -A" (= Vedic -tvt) : l tithiti (from the Skt* present tiskthatt), vijiniti (from the present 
vi-jinati\ see above, p. Ixxxi and n. i), a-loclietu 

(c) In -ya : $amkkay\a\ (from sam-khya). 



The dialect of the Mansehra text is nearly identical with the Shahbazgarhl one, but contains 
some more Magadhisms. 3 It will, therefore, be sufficient to draw attention only to those forms at 
Mansehra which differ from the corresponding ones at Shahbazgarhl. 

The vowel e for a in the second syllable of sayeme (VII, 33) may be due to the preceding 
palatal y, unless it is a clerical error. For the form m\imt\4a (II, 8) see above, p. Ixx, Instead 
of the vowel ri the Mansehra version has (1) a in kata, sukata, [md\te ; (%) u in \j>d\r\f\puckha t 
vaputa (— Skt. vydprita) ; (3) e in gehatha (= gri&astfia) ; 8 (4) ra in viyaprata (V, 34) ; 4 (5) ar in 
katra (I e. karta = Skt. krita), vadhri (i.e. varddhi = Skt. vriddhv) \ (6) rz in mrig\e\ mrigaviya 
(= mrigavya) ; (7) r# in vmdhi (= vriddht) ; fi (8) ap in vudkra (i. e. vurddha = Skt. vridd&a). For 
ritchka = Skt. vviksha (II, 8) see above, p. lxx £ 

The guttural £ becomes ^ in \dt\ya\dhd\ (XIII, 1). Greek x is represented by g in 



1 Cf. Delbriick's Altind. Verbum, § mi ; Macdonell's Vedic Grammar , p. 41a. 

2 Cf. Michelson, AJP, 30. 285 f. 

8 The Prakrit form geha is used for griha also in Sanskrit. Another instance of this change is 
the root edh — rid/i ; see Wackernagel's Altind* Grammatik, 1. 39. 

* The spelling (5) katra (for karta) suggests that (4) viyaprata is meant for viyaparta* 
6 The spellings (5) vadhri and (8) mdhra suggest that (7) vmdhi is meant for vurddhu 

1618 fi 



xcviii 



INTRODUCTION 



(II, 6). As at Kalsi, the palatal ch has been aspirated in hechhi (= Skt* kaickii) and hichhi 
(=*kid+chid)> Dentals are lingualized in duva\dd\fa (III, 9) — duvd[dd\£a (IV, 18), iredaia 
(V, 2i), and after ri in koto, sttkata % [md\te s vaputa y viyaprata y vmdhu Sanskrit n is preserved in 
panaiika ( — pranapirikd)^ but is represented by dental n in ti[nt] (— trifji). In ananiyam (VI, 31) 
the first # is due to assimilation. The t for dh in .fotf (VII, 33) is perhaps a clerical error. The 
bh of the root bhu has become h in hoti 3 Iwtti^ aho> \/iu\veyu t husth huta-pmve (twice), but not in 
bhuta-pmva (V, ai) and in the substantive bhuta (i, e. bhuia)* The semivowel y is prefixed to e 
inyeva, while initial y is lost in e, am (=yat) f \a\dih (twice), atra (twice = yatra), atha (thrice = 
yatha), In sttpadarave (V, ai) we seem to have r for / and v for y\ see Text, p, 33, n. 3, and 
above, p. Ivii, n. a. The first / of id{sd\yike (IX, 7) is due to assimilation. In the aorists husu, 
\arablt\istii and \cd6\chay\i\szi> dental s has taken the place of sft. In aa (VI, 36) ~ aha (i: e. aha) 
and (VI, 30) = altam (VI, 38), A is elided between vowels. 

Final as becomes 0 only in tato t mukhato (VI, a8), Devanapriyo (VII, 3a), (V, $5), 
but generally e ; see he\tute\ y m[yamjd\nate, naiare (= Skt naptdrah)^ rajme (= rdjnah), ra\Jane\ 
(= rqjanaJi)) Priyadraiine (gen. sing.), Devanapriye % &c. In (XIII, 5) the is 

replaced by 

The hiatus remains in dhramayuta-apalibodhaye (V, 23). a + £ becomes e in maten-eva 
(X, 11), and <z-j-w becomes 0 in praj-opadaye (IX, a). 

As at Shahbazgarlri, the letter r is sometimes attached to the next following consonant. Thus 
nirathriya (IX, 3) is meant for nirartkiya, vadhrite and vadhrayUati (IV, 15) for vardJdte and 
vardhayifatu Similarly hatra (= Skt. Vj 24) stands for karta} vadhri (= vriddhi) for 

varddhi, vudhra (=1 vrzddha) for vnrddha* Anusvara is omitted before consonants in rfa (II, 5), 
aparata (V, aa), samata (II, 6), [A]tiyoge, Adka, a]jtd\taliyena^ anarabhe, anubadha, apa~bha\data\, 
\abd\ka,asapa\t\ipaH, Gadharana^chhade^aralhra^mate^pluv^ysatirana (VI, $o)Jiache (far haikc/ie). 

ksh becomes chh in chhanati and ruchhani* 

jii becomes » in kitanata {= Skt kfiiajnata) % but /w in rajirta (= f^/VS^) and r^V/^ 
(= rdjna/i). 

ny becomes n itipuna 7 punam f apu[ne]. 
tm becomes tv in atva- (= Skt. dtman). 
ty becomes tiy in apaiiye 7 \ekd\tiya % 

tr remains in iredasa, but becomes / in ti\nt\ (= Skt, trini), and d in tenada and yada? 

dr becomes in hhuda and khudakena. 

dv becomes duv in rf#zw[*fc]/d: and rfz/s/flf^fa]/**. 

dhy becomes^ in istrijd{jha)ksha* 

ny becomes «, as at Kalsi, in ana\trd\ (X, 11); n in am, anaira (X, 9), anamanasa, manaii, 
man\ishti\. 

pr remains in prap\p\tra, but becomes p in panatika, pavadhayiiamth avipahin[e] t patibhogaye y 
pafiveUyena. 

br becomes b in bamana (IV, 15) — bramana (passim). 

bhy remains in 4bhyeshu, but becomes bhiy in [^^^[qwArt], and bh in \arabli\isu (aorist 
passive). 

Mr becomes d£ in bhaia{iu)na (V, 34) = bhratuna (twice)* 

my remains in samya- 

rg becomes in ina\jreshti\. 

rt becomes t in anuvataiti and kiU (= Skt. ^rft)* 

r/A remains in nirathriya (i, e, nirarthiyd). 

rdh remains in vadhrite (i.e. vardhite, IV, 15) and vadhrayisati (i.e. vardha*)> but becomes rfA 
in vadkite (IV, ia), 

becomes ^. in hay ana (= Skt- kalyana). 

vy becomes v in ^//^ ; in viyaprata, vi^yamjd\nate % mrigaviya, kaiaviya, pra\Joht\t&viye, 
vataviye 9 paiivedetaviye. 

vr becomes v in [p]rava\Ji\tanL 
st becomes th in samiha\v\e* 



1 In viyaprata (l e. viyaparta = Skt. vyaprita) the /- is combined with the preceding akshara. 

2 Cf. above, p. Ixxxv, n. 4. 



MANSEHRA NOTES 



XC1X 



sth becomes th in ckira-thitika- 
sr becomes s in pa\r\isave* 

Masculines in -a : abl. sing, anubadlta ; dat, plur. makamatrehu 

Feminines in -a : acc- smg.puja\ih] ; loc. sing, prof opadqye ; nom. plur. janika* 1 

Masculines in : loc. plur. \JSfd\bItapa\iii\tishu. 

Masculines in -ri ; nom. plur. nature. 

Present participle in -at* — The gen. sing, asaiasa follows the ^-declension. 
Masculines and neuters in -an : instr. sing, rajina ; dat. sing. hrama\n\e (i. e. karmane) ; gen. 
sing, rajine \ nom. plur. ra\jane\* 

Masculines in -in : gen, sing- PriyadraBm* 

Pronoun of the first person: nom. sing, aath (VI, 30) — ahaih (VI, a8) ; instr. sing, me (III, 9), 
Base ia. — The nom. sing. masc. se is used also as nom. and acc. sing. neut ; dat. plur. tehi 

(XII, 7) ; gen. plur. ta[namj (XIII, 5). 

Base etax nom. sing. masc. \eshd\ (XIII, 6); gen. sing, e\td\sa ; nom. plur. neut \e\tanL 
Demonstrative idami nom. sing, neut. iya (VIII, 35) ; gen. sing, imasa; nom. plur. masc. ime\ 

nom. sing. fern, iyam ; dat. sing. fern, imaye* 

Indefinite pronoun : nom. sing. masc. kechhi ; nom- and acc. sing, neut, kicMiu 
Base itara : nom. sing. neut. \i\tare. 

Numerals : \e\k\e\ (nom. sing, masc), du[v]e, ti[nt] f duva\dd\£a and dtma\dd\£a> iredaia. 

Present indicative: 3, plur. yaihti (from root i or yd). — Subjunctive: 1. plur. dipayama\ 
3. plur. middle : para\krd\mate*— Optative : 1, sing. ye\hani\ and 3. plur. [hu~\veyu, as in the Kalsl 
version, which cf. also for the aorist hum (VIII, 34) and the perfect aha (I e. aha)* 

Passive : 3, plur. indicative \ard\bh\iyamtt\ (alabhi[yam]ti at Kalsi) ; 3, plur. aorist [arabh]£su 
{arabhisu at Girnar). 

Present participle : asatasa (gen. sing.) from root as. 

Past passive participle : \anapayit\e (III, g), 2 ropapita {ropapita at Girnar). 

Future passive participle : pra\joht\taviye ; see above, p. Ixxxi. 

Absolutive in -U : draseti. 

CHAPTER IX. GRAMMAR OF THE DHAULI AND 

JAUGADA ROCK-EDICTS 

A* — PHONETICS 
I. Vowels, 

The vowel a is converted to i through the influence of a neighbouring y in majhima (= Skt. 
madhyama) and likhiyis\ami£\ It becomes u after a labial in munisa (= mamtshya) % uchdvucha^ 
and is assimilated to the vowel of the first syllable in itdupana (= udapdna). 

The a in the second syllable of puihavi f which corresponds to Skt. i, was originally an auxiliary 
vowel; see Pischel's Grammatik, § 115. In su = Skt. svid 3 i has become u through the influence 
of the preceding v. For e — i and % in heta (= *itra) and edisa, Jtedisa (= Skt idrUa\ see 
above, p. Ixx. 

Skt. u is represented by a in porta (= punah). In pulisa (=zpuruska) the i of the second 
syllable, which corresponds to Skt. u t was originally an auxiliary vowel; see Pischel's Grammatik, 
§ 134. For the / in the second syllable of munisa (= Skt. manushya), see above, p. Ixx and n. 3. 
In Mo (= Skt. khalu)) Skt u is represented by a ; see above, p. lvi and n. a. 



1 This is a diminutive of Jam, ' a wife which occurs at Kalsl. 

2 Cf. above, p. lxxxiii, n. 3* 

n 2 



c INTRODUCTION 

■ 

Skt. ri becomes (i) a in ana[ti]a (= anrina\ anamna, dnaniya, and dnaneya, usata, kata, \kd\tu 
and hatu (—kritvd^ dakhatha, dakhdmi, [bhajfaka, bhati 9 vad1u, vithata, viydpata ; (o) i In edisa and 
hedisa, iadisa y ddisa (=yddrisa) y dhiti,p\j\t\f\sii, hhat\i\nam y m\a\t\i\- (— matrix Dhau. IV, 4), mige 9 
[inigd\viy\a\ ; (3) u in pitu- ( = pitri-, Dhau. IV, 4), and after labials in [a]ud[v]nti [= andvritti), 
p[al}i[puc/ih]d y puthavi (=prithivt), vudha (- widdha) \ (4) * in dekhata\ (5) in drakkaii (Jau. 1,3). 
The syllable is represented by hi in lukha (= vriksha). : 

The diphthong or becomes <? in ^ (perhaps — Skt. nichailj), and <z« becomes <? in and 
-\o\paya, osadhdm } moikhya and mokhiya* papoid y pdlalokika* 

Short « are lengthened in atiydyike (= Skt. dfyayikam), abhzkd\ld\ y chi\ld\-thitikd, \v\i\vaka~\, 
andvutiya (Dhau* Sep.) = (J au * Sep,), tuland\jyd\ and at\u\l\a\nd (for which Jau. Sep. 

reads i\iil\aya and [atulafid]), iiiihfdiyena, y\U\jeyu and yujevn (also yujeyu and yujevn), bahuhi, 
bahustu Final i t n may be lengthened either when they are followed by the particle ti 
(= iti) or without it ; see dld\dhci\yisa\tJi\a, aha (passim) = a\Jid] (Jau, Sep. II, 1), cha, kechd, 
patipddayemd ti, ma[m]d ti, vd (twice — Skt. eva), savend (Jau. Sep. II, 3), hosdmi, aphesu ti, 
dlddhayamtu ti, \kd\tu (Jau- Sep.) = kapi (Dhau. Sep.), palakama[rii]t[ti], yujamtu, s\a\dh\ii\ tu 
Final a, i s u t which stand for original am, is, ur, are treated in the same way ; see \apK\dkd ti, 
anusathi ti } dl[adli\i f \n\ijhaii, lipi, v\a\dht, stidhi, alochayisu^ dlddhayey\ft\ and alddhayevii^ chaley\ft\ 
ti and chalevu, nikhamdvu, pdptmevn tti, yujeyu ti and yujevn ti, y\jfi\jeyu ti and yujevn ti, lahey[u\ f 
\vd\sevu ti, huvevu ti and hveyu ti. 

The three derivatives gamu\U\a, nagalaka, and vachanik\a\ correspond to Skt. gdmuka, ndgaraka, 
and vdchanika* The a of maha- is shortened in mahamatd (Jau. Sep. II, 1). Final a is often 
shortened ; see atha and athd (== Skt.yathd), ada and add (=yadd), tatha and iatha,pita zxi&pitd, 
la/a and Idjd, va and vd, kam[mana] and kamana (= karmand), \a\nd\v\uti\yd\ and andvutiya } and 
the nominatives singular feminine achala, ichha, Ukhit\a\ sotaviya. Long 1 is shortened in nitiyam 
(thrice) = mt\j\yam (Jau. Sep. I, 7) and in the nom. plur. nati (Dhau. IV, 5) = 7iat[i] (Dhau. and 
Jau- V, a). 

Initial vowels are dropped in pi (= Skt. apt), Itaham (for ahakam = ahain\ ti (passim) = Hi 
(thrice) and kimti, va and vd (~ eva). In hveyu (Jau. Sep.) — huveyu (Kalsi and Mansehra), the vowel 
u seems to be elided. 

II. Simple Consonants. 

In the separate edicts at Jaugada the guttural k is softened in palahgam, /iidalog[am], hida- 
logika, while Dhauli reads palaloka\ih\ hidaloka, hidalokika. 1 k is represented by y in [?ti/af&{\yam 
(Dhau, IX, %) and supaddlaye (Dhau, and Jau. V, 3) ; g by y in -\o\paya (Dhau, VIII, 3) — -cpaga 
(Dhau. and Jau. II, 3). In akhakhasa (= Skt. akarkaia, Dhau. Sep. I, %%) the aspiration of the 
first hh is perhaps due to the influence of the second £&, which is a defective spelling of kkh, 
and which was produced by the assimilation of the group rk? Greek x is expressed by k in 
Amtiyoka. 

The palatal ch is aspirated in \fi\e\chhd\ (Dhau. Sep. I, 7) = kechd (Jau. Sep. I, 4), kimchhi 
and kichhu It is softened in \a\jald (Dhau. Sep. II, 7) = achala (Jau. Sep. II, 9, n)> while / is 
hardened in Kambocha and vaekasi (= Skt vraje). The palatal nasal n occurs only in paHmnd (Dhau. 
Sep. II, 6) 9 instead of which the Jaugada text reads patimnd. It is replaced by dental n also in ana- 
paydmiy d\iia^p\ay\is\a\ti, ndtisu* 

As at Ka!sT ; lingual n is replaced by dental #. But n is used in four stray instances : 
[Ma]nas[i] (Dhau. Sep. II, io), nijhap\e\ta[vi\ye (Jau- Sep. I, i), pdtaIoM\_k]e[nd\ (Jau. Sep. II, 4) > 
and savend (Jau. Sep. II, 3). 

Dentals are lingualized after ra in the preposition pati (also prati in praUvedayapttu 9 ]vXi.Vl 9 a), 
and after ri in usaia, kaia 3 \kd\tu and katu % puthaviyam, \b/ut]taka t bhati, vadht^ vithata, viyapata, vitdha. 
t becomes ch in [cfi]i[th]itu. In the Jaugada separate edicts, d is hardened in the following forms of 
the root pad ; patipdtayeham 9 [pd]iipdtayem\a]> vipaiHpdtayamtam, \saihpaiipd\ta[yam~\tam, sampati- 
pdiayit\av\e, while Dhauli reads [pa^tH[pdday\eham, &c. For [idha] (Dhau. IV, 8) and hida 
(passim) see above, p* lxxii. The enclitic particle nam (in Jmvamti nam, Dhau, and Jau, VIII, 1) 



1 Both Dhau. and Jau. have sava-Ioka-hita and palalokika. 

3 For other instances of the aspiration of initial k see Pischel's Grammatik, § ao6. 



DHAULI AND JAUGADA GRAMMAR ci 

is derived by native grammarians from Skt. nam ; but in Pischel's opinion {Grammatik, § 150) it 
goes back to Skt, mmam t which would have lost its first syllable. 

The labial p is aspirated in aphal\tt$d\m (Jau. Sep, I, 11), as in Prakrit pharusa (— Skt. 
parusha) ; see Pischel's Grammatik, § 208. bh becomes h in the instrumental and dative plural 
in -hi, in lahey\€t\ and lahevu, koti, kotn % a[fi]o, huvamti, [ftjuveyd, huvevu y and in the participle hftta, 
while bhuta is used as substantive. 

The semivowel y becomes/ in majula (— Skt mayura), and h in the optatives alabkeham t yeham 3 
[pd]$i[pdday\eha?h and patipaiayclmvu It is replaced by v before u and u at Dhauli, while it 
remains at Jaugada ; see -avutike* asvasevu, aladhayemt, chalevu, \p\a\jP$mevu and papumvii , yujevu 
and yujevu* lahevit^ \va\sevu, huvevu and huvevu y instead of which Jaugada reads -dy\tit\ike, &c. 
But both Dhauli and Jaugada have nikhamavu (III, 3). y is prefixed to e in yeva } but is dropped 
at the beginning of e, ena % am (= Skt. y at), ata (—yatra), atha and atha (=yathd) 9 add and ada 
yada\ asa {~yasya)> a (=yd)> am, adise, ava (= ydvat). The syllable ya becomes i in apa~ 
viy\a\t\a\,paUHjit\7i\* bhati (= bhritya\ The syllables aya and ayi are contracted to e in tedasa 
{= *trayadaJa\ Ujeni (= Ujjaymt), nijkap\e\ta\vt\ye,pativedeiaviye. 

As at Kalsi, r becomes / throughout. 

v is prefixed to u in v[ii]te (= nktam). The syllable va becomes u in t\ttl\dya and [atuland] 1 
va becomes 0 in (= kritva), and # \nkapi y amtsasitt^ and other absolutives. The syllables 

ava and become 0 in olodhana, viyovadita\viy€*\ -viyokalaka, hoii^ hotu, a\Jt\o, and Aosati 
(= bhavishyati). 

The two sibilants i and ^ are replaced by s throughout. Skt. / is represented by ch in 
chahiye and chaghatha, from root r&zi (= sak)* 
h is prefixed in hida t fieta, hedisa, ftevam* 

As in other Prakrits, final consonants are dropped. A preceding short vowel is lengthened in 
sammya- (= Skt. samyak), p\a\lisd (= paris/iat) t anusathz y alddhayevu, &c. (see above, p* c). 
Conversely, a preceding long vowel is sometimes shortened; see \siyd] and siya (= J^tf/), da\kkeyd\ 
and f/o&^Vj^ (= amtbandhat, Dhau. V, 6), and the nom. plur. masc. anuvigina, &c. 

(below s p. civ). Final as generally becomes 0; see Ujeniie^kuie, T\a\kha[s\ildte z duvdlate, mukkate 7 
viyamjanate, heiute^ the genitives singular atane y Iqfme, Piyadasine, the nom. plur. lajane, da\y\iye % 
\bhuy\e, ne,jane y &c. It becomes 0 only in seto % [ya\so, and man\o\- \ a in \sampd\Hpdda (?), sa, 
esa ; 1 # in d[sa\. Final becomes * in amie = Prakrit and Pali anio (Skt- antar), and # in 
punar). 

Final a and are nasalized in mamam (Jau. Sep. II, 7) — fn^xna (passim) and sahasesum 
(Dhau.) = sahasem (Jan.), while the Anusvara of words ending in short nasal vowels is omitted in 
hidafaka, ba/ntka, -vachanik\a\ -a\?ii\iik\a\ &c. (below, p. civ), the acc. sing, fern, Sambodh[t\ and 
hint, aphdka (= Skt. asmakam) and t\u\pftak\a\n The Anusvara is dropped and the preceding 
vowel lengthened in kitl, vadhl % mdht, bataviyaiala, k\ani\matald y duvdid, \apfi\dkd ti ; cf. above, 
p. c. But the nom. sing, of neuters in -a generally follows the analogy of the masculines and ends 
in -e ; see below, p. civ. 

Long nasalized vowels are generally shortened ; see the genitives plural b/taginmam, gulfmam, 
6/idt[t]nam, |>}«z[?wj s pdndnam, &c*» the acc. sing, fern, ydtam^ sususam, and the loc. sing. fern. 
\pd\lisdy\aiii\ (Jau. VI, 4), Sanidpdyam, Tosaliyam^ nitiyam, pitthawyani* The Anusvara is 
omitted in palisayd (Dhau. VI, 3) ; in ies\a\ and samfflanaya the long a is shortened at the 
same time. 2 

III. SANDHI. 

■ . 

Final d is preserved in \td\d-{e\payd 3 and final m in hedisaniteva* In hemeva (= Skt. evamma) 

the syllable va of ivam is dropped. 8 The final m is doubled in hevammeva and stikhammeva. 

Hiatus is prevented by m in bkaH\tn-ayesti\. 

Hiatus remains in svag{a\-dladhi (Jau. Sep.), mahd-apdye (Dhau. Sep.) = makdpdy\e\ {Jau, 



The two last words, although masculine in form, are used as neuters. 

But palisayd and samtilandya may as well be genitives used in the sense of the locative. 

Cf. emeva = Skt. evam^eva^ Hemachaadra, I, 571, and Jacobi, ZDMG, 47. 579. 



INTRODUCTION 



Sep.), dtiaftale (Dhau. Sep. and Jau. Sep,), pasu-opagdni (Dhau. and Jau,), man\d\-atileke (Dhau. 
Sep. and Jau. Sep.). As a rule, a + & are contracted into a ; see -vasabhisita, panalambhe % &c. But 
the a is shortened before a group of consonants ; see aiata {— Skt, yatra yatra) y apalamta (= *dpa- 
rdntdfi), [t\e[nd\td (= tendtra), nathi (= ndsit), badhand\vi\ tik\a\ (= ba?idha?idntikam\ supathdye. 
Final a preceding z, 0, 0 is dropped in bdbha\ii\4bh^yes^^ chu (= cha-^n), [$a]j-ztpadaye s ch=eva 9 
[ta\kesa> munis-opagdni. In *w (Jau. Sep. I, 7) the nasal vowel am of «wz;ft is treated in the same 
manner before e (=yafi). a is elided after e in [V]y[flWfJ for e + aymh (= Skt. yoyam). 

IV. Groups of Consonants. 

The only Sanskrit groups which occasionally remain unchanged are khy f fr y tv, ny > pr, my, vy s 
sv (which becomes sv), sm t sy, sv. Moreover the group rs is preserved at Jaugada in drasayitu 
(IV, 3) and Piyadrasine (I, 3), which are meant for darsayitn wd Piyadarsine ; cf. above, p, Ixxxvii. 
All other groups of consonants are either assimilated, or an auxiliary vowel is developed within 
them. 

A long vowel preceding a group is generally shortened; see aiane (*s atmauafi), aianam, 
atiyayike (~ dtyayikazn), anusathi (= anusdsit), anusathe^ \ayeszi\ (= dryeshu), asvasanaye, 
asvdsa[fi]iyd, \a\svaseyu, asvasevu, asamati (= asamdptt), dladhi (= *drddd/it), iadatvdye, p\d\la- 
kavidmi) palakamena, znaga (= mdrgd) % mahamaid (Jau. Sep. II, 1), Lathika, sasvatam, isaya 
(— trshyayd), MU (—kzriizn) s pzduva (= purva). 1 But a remains in dnapaydmi, d[nd]p[ay]is[alti, 
mahdvidta (passim), sdsvaiam (Jau. Sep. II, 14)- In tittmi (= trini) the t is shortened and the 
nasal doubled* Similarly, the short vowels i and u in asvdsa\ii\iyd, da\v\iye, and \bhuy\e suggest 
that these three words are meant for asvdsaniyyd y daviyye, and bhuyye ; cf. above, p. Ixxiv. 

A long nasalized vowel is shortened before consonants in aiikamtam, apa~b/i[am']daid 9 hUmkte % 
Devdnathpiya, Pathdiyd, bambhaim, while the nasal is dropped and the length retained in bdbhana. 
In chhdmda (Jau. Sep. II, 5, 11) = chhamda (passim), the am is lengthened although it is followed 
by a consonant. Anusvara is omitted after short vowels in Mchfri (cf, above; p. lx) s badhana (= Skt. 
bandhana), vihisd ; after e in kaleti (Dhau. and Jau, IX, 3) ; and before y in anusaydnam, sayama, 
sayuta (= smhyzikta). 

The auxiliary vowel which is developed within some groups is u before or after labials in 
dime, duvddasa, duvdla, piduva, szwdmika } pdpundii ; e in dnaneyam (Jau. Sep.) = dnaniyam (Dhau.) ; 
and frequently i, as the subjoined list of Sanskrit groups and of their equivalents at Dhauli and 
Jaugada will show, I need not quote any examples of the groups kr 9 gr f dr y dhr 7 br, bfir, sr, sr, 
which have become k> g, d t dh, b, bh f s, s t respectively, 

hkh becomes kh (i, e. kkh) in dnkha\ni\ and dukhiyatL 

kt becomes i in -dy\zii\ike, -avutike, &c. 

ky becomes My in sakiye and cltakiye. 

kl becomes kil in Mamie, k\t\lamatJiena, palikilesa* 

ksh becomes kh in khana, khandtave, khami$ati> \kAJud[afn], khudakena s T[d\kha\s\tfdte> 
dakhdmiy &c., 3 nakhatena, mokhdye, luhhdnL 

kshn becomes khin in s\a[khina (— Skt. slakshnd). 
kshy becomes^ in cliagftatha. 

khy remains in mokhya (Dhau. Sep.), but becomes khiy in mokhiya (Jau. Sep.). 
Ml becomes kh in kho =s Skt. Main \ see above, p. lvi and n. 2. 
gn becomes in \d\gi t but gin in anuvigina* 

jii becomes jm in ldjind % Idjine \ mil in patimiid (Dhau. Sep.) ; mn or n in pafimnd (Jau. Sep.), 
dnapaydmi) d\iid\p\ay\is\d\ti 7 dndp\ay\i\td\^ ndtistL 

jy becomes j in the passive forms yujeyu and y\u\jeyn. 
dy becomes diy in Pamdiyd. 

ny becomes mn in hilamna and dnamne % but niy in dnaniyam^ and ney in dnaneyam. 
tp becomes p in [pajfupaddye. 



1 pzduva presupposes an intermediate form ^pzirva, in which the n of purva was shortened 
before the group rv* The same applies to atiyayike. Cf. above, p. Ixxiv, n. x. 
8 See above, p. Ixxiv and n. 5. 



DHAULI AND JAUGADA GRAMMAR cm 

tm becomes t in atone and atananu 

ty becomes tiy in atiydyike, apatiye f ekatiyd. 

tr remains in s[a]vatra (Jau. II, 4), but becomes i in s\a\vata (passim), timni 3 &c. 

iv remains in tadatvaye. 

is becomes s in usatena and chikisd, 

tsth becomes ih in upland* but th in uthdy\a\ ; cf, above, p. Ixxxviii. 
dg becomes ^ in uga\chhd\{chhe), 

dy becomes y in uyanasi ; j in aja, [pa]tipa[jd]ti t paHpaj^yd^ sampatipajaii^ sa\pi\pati- 
pajam\l\n\e\ 

dv becomes v in anuvigin^ but duv in dnve^ duvadasa, duvala* 

d/iy becomes jh in \ii\ijhaiz y nijhap\e\ta\yt\ye y majham^ majhime\jid\. 

ny remains in \anye\ (Jau. Sep. I, 5), but becomes mn in amna (passim) and maiim\ate\ 

pi becomes t in asamati % nat\l\ and nati (— Skt. napidrah)^ \it^jhatt* 

pn becomes pun in pdpundti, &c. 

pr remains in pratimdayamtu (Jau. VI, a), but becomes/ everywhere else* 
bhy becomes bhiy in dla\in]bhiyamti) dlabhiyisu % dlalphjiyisamti, -ibhi[ye$]tt. 
my remains (with the nasal doubled) in sammya-. 
rk becomes kh in akhakhasa (= Skt. akarkaid). 
rg becomes ^ in magesn^ vaga, svqga* 

rt becomes / in [anu]vatatu and anuvatisamii\ i in vatitaviya, kataviya> hitU 

rth becomes th in atha (Jau. Sep. II, 3, is, 14) th in atha (passim) and \iiilaiht\yam. 

rdh becomes dh in vadhite, vadhayis[a\ti t pavadhayisamtu 

rbh becomes bh ingabhdgdlasu 

rm becomes mm or m in a\titi\chatummdsam, kamma- (= Skt. karman) and kamana (= 
mana)) dhamma. 

ry becomes^ in \ayesu\ but in dnamialiyam^ nithfdiyena^ mddhuliydye* 
rv becomes v in pavaiasi and sava % but /ot in puluva. 

rs becomes s in dasana and Piyadasi- % but « in drasayiiu (I e. darsayiiu^ Jau. IV, 3) and 
Piyadmsine (i. e. °darsine 3 Jau- 1, 3). 
becomes J in zw#. 
becomes j in itaya. 
lp becomes / in apa and -kapanu 
ly becomes y in kaydna* 

vy remains in samchatitavye (Jau- Sep. I, 7), but becomes y in [i^fo*]/^ (Jau. Sep, I, 5), and 
viy in samchalitaviy\e\ (Dhau, Sep. 1, 13), ichhitaviye^ and other gerundives, divi\_y\dni> [7/*3gvz]z^[#], 
viyamjanaie^ viydpatd^ -viyohdldka* 

vr becomes v in vachasi (= Skt. vraje)* 

£ch becomes chh in pachhd* 

si becomes s in s[a]khina (= Skt. s*lakshna) m 

sv becomes sv in asvd$andye y asvdsa\?i\iyd 9 \a\svaseyU) asvasevu, sdsvatam and sasvatan^ but 

s in 

skk becomes k in dukatam and dukala* 

m 

shkr becomes kh in nikhamdvu^ \11\iMami, \fi]t[kha]m\i]s\ii\, nikhamisaihii t nikhamayisdmu 
shir becomes th in Lathika* 

shift becomes th in \cK^[tl£\itu 9 nithfdiyena y se\the\ ; th in adhithdna. 
slip becomes ph in niphaii. 
shm becomes ph in ft^£? 9 &c. 

becomes s in AV^ munisa t hosati, esatha (Jau. Sep.), and other futures, but h in ehatha 
(Dhau. Sep.) ; cf, Maharashtrl ehii in PischeFs Grammatik, § 5^9, and ehiti in Pali. 
As at KalsT, sk becomes k in \a\gi-kwhdhanu 

st becomes th in athi, nathi, anusathi, anusathe, vithatena, samthuta, hathini; th in athi (Jau. 
Sep. I, 4). 

sir becomes th in itku 

sth becomes th in chila-thiiihd. 

sm remains in ahasmd, but becomes ph in aphe t &c, and s in the locative singular in -asi* 



civ 



INTRODUCTION 



sy remains in (Jau. Sep. I, 6), but becomes sty in alasiyma (Dhau. Sep. I, n), 

sty a and \siyd\ (= Skh syat) y and s in the genitive singular in -asa. 
sv remains in svaga y but becomes suv in suvamike\iid\. 

km becomes mbh in bambhana. In babhana the Anusvara is omitted, and the long a of Skt. 
brakmana is preserved. 



B. — DECLENSION 



I. Bases in -a* 
(i) Masculines and neuters in -a. 



Singular. 

Nom. mascja/ii, &c. ; neut. ddne, &c. 

Acc. masc. dhammam^ &c, ; neut mamgalam^ &c. 

Instr. ptiiena^ &c. 

Dat. athaye % &c. 

Abl. anubamdh\a\, pachkd* 

Gen. janasa, &c. 

Loc. affiasii &c. 



Plural. 

Masa^ftA?, &c, ; neut. osadhdni^ &c 

Masc. kamdhani, y\ti\ t\dii\i ; neut. vasdni, &c. 

mahamaiehii samanehu 

pdndnam^ &c. 
vasesii, &c. 



Nom. sing. masc. — The original termination -j seems to be dropped in [x£;/^]^zdfe (Dhau. 
Sep. I, 14). The termination is -0 instead of in the colophon of Dhauli : seta (Text, p. 91). 

Nom. sing. neut. — The termination is -am in jtvam (Dhau. and Jau.T, 1) and duvdlam (Jau. 
Sep. I, 2) ; -a in -a\ih~\tik\a\ (Dhau. Sep. I, 9 ; Jau. Sep. I, 5), duval\a\ (Dhau. Sep. I, 3 ; Jau. Sep. 
II, 2), mata (four times), v\d\Utamya (Jau. Sep. I, 7) ; -a in kataviyatala (Jau. IX, 6) t k\ani\matala 
(Jau. VI, 5), duvdld (Dhau. Sep. II, 3). 

Acc. sing, masc* — The Anusvara is omitted in hidaloha (Dhau. Sep. II, 6). 

Acc. sing. neut. — The Anusvara is omitted in bahnha (Jau. Sep* 1,4) and -vachanik\a\ (Jau. Sep. 

I, 13, II, 1). The form of the nominative is used in dnamne (Dhau. Sep. 1, 14). 

Nom. plur. inasc. — The final a is shortened in anuvigina (Dhau. Sep. II, 4 ; Jau. Sep. II, 5), 
dya\td\ (Dhau. Sep. I, 4; Jan. Sep. I, a), nagalaka (Jau. Sep. I, 10), ma\fia\mdta (Dh^u. Sep, I, i), 
vaiaviya) Dhau* Sep. I, 2, II, i), -viyohdlaka (Jau. Sep. 1, 1). 

Nom. plur. neut. — The termination is -a instead of -dni in lopdpitd and halapiid (Dhau. 

II, sections B and C ; Jau. II, 4). As at KalsT and Mansehra, the two Sanskrit masculines vriksha 
and prdna are used as neuters : luktidni (Dhau. and Jau, II, 4) and panani (1, 4). 

(2) Feminines in -a* 

Nom. sing* paja, &c. 

Acc. sing, ydtmh A sususmh. 

Instr, sing, isdya, t\iil\aya y iiilana[yd\. 

Loc. sing. Samdpdyam t samttlaiidya, pajdye y [pd\jupaddye. 

Nom. sing. — The final a is shortened in achate ichha y Hkhit\a\ sotaviya. 



II. Bases in -u 

(1) Masculines and neuters in -L 

Nom. and. acc. plur. neut. thhnu 
Loc. plur. ndtisu* 

(2) Feminines in -i and -2. 

Nom. sing, amisathi^ dladhh UpU &c. 
Acc. sing. Sambodh\t\i Ami, 
Instr. sing, anusathiyd, andvutiya* 



DHAULI AND JAUGADA GRAMMAR cv 

Dat. sing- amts[at£\iy[e] t \vd\4hiye. 
Abl. sing, niphaiiy\d\ 

Loc. sing. Tosaliyam^ nitiyam> puthaviyam s a[ya\tiye. 

Nom. plur. ithl)- 

Gen. plur. bhagininam* 

Nom, sing, — The final vowel is long in anusatkt, dl[ad/i\? s [n]ijftati, lipf, v\a\dhl (Dhau. IV 3 
section I), sudhl (Dhau. VII, section E). 

Ace sing. — The termination is -f in Mil, vadhi (Dhau. IV, J) f mdhl (Dhau. and Jau. VII, B). 

II I. Bases in ~u. 

Norn. sing. masc, fern., and neut. sadhtt, sdd/i[&]. 
Nom. and acc. plur. neut. bahfmi. 
Instr. plur. bahfihi. 
Gen. plur. gulfmanu 
Loc- plur. bahusu. 

IV, Masculines in -ri. 

Nom- Sing- piid % pita (Jau. Sep. II, iq). 
Gen* plur- bkdt\f\nam. 
Loc. plur. p\t\t\pju> 

The instr. sing, follows the i-declension : [pyiindt bhdtind^ likewise the nom. plur. nat\z\ naii ; 
cf, Prakrit and Pali aggi (nom. plur. masc). 

V. Bases in Consonants. 

(i) Present participles in -at, 

Nom- sing- masc. samtath, halamtam* vipatipdtayamiam, \sampaHpd\ia\_yam~\tam. 
The base mahat follows the ^-declension : nom. sing* masc. mahamte* 

(2) Masculines and neuters in -an. 

Singular. Plural. 
Nom. masc. Idja, laja (Dhau. Sep. II, 4), lajane. 
Acc. masc. atanam ; neut. ndma* 
Instr. lajina % hai^nana\ hamana. 
Dat. kammam. 
Gen. atone, lajine. 

The neuter base karman may also follow the ^-declension : nom. sing, kaiiime^ acc. kammam, 
gen, kammasa. 

(3) Masculines in -in. 

Nom. sing. Piyadasi. 

Instr. sing. Piyadasind, 

Gen- sing. Piyadasine. 

Acc. plur. hathini (= \lid\ihini at Kalsi). 

(4) Neuters in -as. 

Acc. sing. [yd\so> da^yYye % \bhuy\e* 

(5) Feminine in -d. 

The base pariskad follows the a- declension: nom. sing. p[a\iisa s loc. [pa~\lisdy[a?h] and palisdya. 



1 Cf. atavi, above, p. xci. 3 For these two forms see above, p. lxxvii. 

1013 O 



cvi 



INTRODUCTION 



C— PRONOUNS 



(i) Pronoun of the first person. 



Singular. 

Nom. hakarh, 
Acc. 

Instr. mamayd, mamdye^ mamiydye^ me. 
Abl. mamate. 

Gen. mama, mama, mammh^ me. 
Loc. 



Plural. 



maye. 

aphe, a[p/i]eni. 



aphakct) [ap/i]dkd i ne* 
\ap/iesu\ apliesfL 



For the forms hakmh and mamayd see above, p. Ixxviii. With the instr. sing, mamdye (Dhau. 
Sep.), instead of which Jau. Sep. reads mamiydye^ cf, mamai, Hemachandra, III, 109, The ablative 
mamate for Skt. mattah is, like the instrumental mamaya, due to the influence of the genitive 
mama. The nom. plur. maye is derived from Skt. vayam, but influenced by the instr, sing, mayd, 
and the acc. aphe (Dhau. Sep. II, 7) is formed from the same base as Skt. asman* The acc. a[p/t]eni 
(Jau* Sep. II, 10) and the loc. aphesu follow the analogy of the masculines in -a. 

(a) Pronoun of the second person. 

Nom. plur. tnphe, flu* 
Acc. plur. tttplte, tupheni. 
Instr. plur. tup/iehi. 
Gen. plur. t\ii\phak\a\. 
Loc. plur. tuphesUn 

The base *iiishma> from which the nom, and acc. plur. tuplie {— Prakrit tumhe) is derived, 
seems to be a compromise between the Skt. base yushma and the singular tvam (Prakrit tumam)} 
With the form phe (Jau. Sep. I, a) cf. 6he s Hemachandra, III, 91. The three forms tupheni (Jau- 
Sep.), iuphehi, and iuphesu follow the analogy of the masculines in -a. 



Plural. 



te t $e. 



(3) Base fa. 

Singular. 

Nom. masc. se t ie (Dhau. Sep. I, 13). 
Acc. neut. tam t se } sa* 
Instr. tena. 
Gen. iasa* 
Loc. tasu 

In Dhau. Sep. II, the nom. plur. neut. tani takes the place of the masc. te (Jau. Sep. II, 9}. 



Plural. 

Masc. ete \ neut eidni* 



(4) Base ita. 

Singular. 

Nom- masc. e\sa\ (Dhau. VIII, 3) ; neut.^. 
Acc. masc* and neut. etam. 
Instr. \e\takena. 
Dat. etaye t etakaye. 
Gen. etasa. 
Loc. eiasu 

Nom. sing, fern. eia{ta)ka. 

In Dhau. Sep. 1, 11 f., the nom. plur. masc. ete \jdta\ corresponds to the nom. plur. neut. et[a]m 
JaUt\m\ in Jau. Sep. I, 6. 



1 With aphe and iuphe cf. the Singhalese nom. plur. apt and topu 



DHAULI AND JAUGADA GRAMMAR 



cvii 



Plural. 



Masc. itne. 



imehu 



(5) Demonstrative idanu 

Singular. 

Nom. masc. ay[am] 9 iyam ; neut. iyam. 
Ace. neut- imam. 
Instr. imena* 

Dat [t\m[a\ye> 
Gen, imasa. 

Norn. sing, fern, iyam, 
Dat. sing. fern. ima\y\e. 

As at KalsT, the nom. sing. masc. ayam occurs only in [e~]y[am] (= Skt. yoyam % Jau. Sep. I, 6). 

(6) Interrogative pronoun. 

Nom, sing, neut* kirn. The ace sing. neut. ham and the ace plun neut. kani are used as 
demonstratives. The abL sing, of the same base is preserved in akasmd* The indefinite pronoun 
is formed with clta or c/tlia (nom- sing, masc, kecAd, \k~\e\chhd§ y and with chhi ~ Skt. chid (neut. 
sing. MmcMiit kichhi) ; and kimti is used in the sense of 1 that 



(7) Relative pronoun. 



Singular. 

Nom. masc.^, e ; neut. e. 
Acc. neut. am. 
Instr. 
Gen, ascu 



Plural. 
Masc. e ; neut, 



Nom. sing. fern, yd, d. 



(8) Base anya. 



Singular* 

Nom. masc. [anye] 9 amm ; neut. 
Acc. 

Dat. amndye* 
Loc. 



Masc. amm 



} 



Plural, 
neut. amndnu 



ammsu. 



Singular. 

Nom. neut. save. 

Acc. masc. and neut. savatk. 

Instr. savena, savend. 

Gen, savasa* 

Loc. 



(9) Base sarva. 



Plural. 



Masc, save. 



savesu. 



(10) Base *dkatya. 
Nom. plur. masc. ekatiyd. 



D.— NUMERALS 
One. 

Nom. sing, masc* eke ; instr, sing* ekena> ek[a\k[e]na. 

Two, three, five, 

Nom, masc, dove (cf. above, p. lxxx) \ nom. and acc. neut* iimni\ ioc, pamchastu 

o 3 



cviii INTRODUCTION 

Ten, twelve, thirteen. 
d[a]sa t duvddasa, tedasa. 

Hundred. 
Acc. plur. saiani \ Jnstr. satehu 

■■ i 

Thousand. 

Loo plur, sahasesii) sahasesum (Dhau. Sep. I, 4)* 
Literary Prakrit also uses the termination -esuth besides -esu\ see Pischel's Grammaiik % § 371- 

Hundred thousand. 
Nora. plur. saia-sah\a\sanu 



E.— CONJUGATION 
L Present, 
(1) Bases. 
First Sanskrit class. 

Root kamp : anukampati. 

Root kram \ p\a\lahamdmi> nikhamavft* 

Root gam : gachlmna* 

Root chalx chaley\p\* 

Root dri£\ dakhdmiy drahhati^ dekkata* 

Root bhu : hoti % huvmhii (sixth class). 

Roots rahh and labh : dlabkeham, lahey\i£\> 

Root vas : \yd\sevu. 

Root vrit: \ami\vatatu* 

Root svas : \a\svaseyiu 

Root sihd : \cli\$jli\tiu (from *chittkatfy utkay[a\ (from *utthaii). 

Second Sanskrit class. 

Root as 1 athi* at/it (Jau. Sep* I, 4). 
Root £: eii. 

The two roots yd and ids follow the conjugation : yeham^ anusdsdmi. 

Third Sanskrit class. 
Root hu : pajokitaviye ; see above, p. Ixxxi. 

Fourth Sanskrit class. 

Root pad: [pd\tipa\Jd\tu 
JLoot mam mai?m[afe\. 

Fifth Sanskrit class. 

Root dp follows the ninth class (pdptmdti, pdpundthd) and the ^-conjugation {pdpuneyu), 

Sixth Sanskrit class. 

Root ish ; ichhati. 

Seventh Sanskrit class. 
'R.ootyttj follows the ^-conjugation ; yujeyu and yujevu^yiijamtu^ yujisamtu 



DHAULI AND JAUGADA GRAMMAR cix 

Eighth Sanskrit class. 
Root kri ; kaleti> kaldmi, kalmhti, kalamtam ; see above> p. lxxxl. 

Ninth Sanskrit class. 
Rooty^: janitu and janisamti are formed from the present jdndtL 

Tenth Sanskrit class. 

(a) With aya: atikdmayisatU nikkdmayisdmi* dasayitu and drasayitu (i.e. dat sayitn), patipdda- 
yema, aladhayamtu % likhiyts\dmi*\ aiochayisu, vadhayis\a\ii> vedayaiU sukhaymnu The character 
ayi is contracted into e in paEvedetamye, 

(b) With pay a : hdpayisai\i\. In dnapaydmi and nijhap\e\ia\y{\ye x the long vowel of the two 
roots jfia and dhya is shortened* 3 

(c) With dpaya : khan&pitani, likhapita^ halapita. 

(d) With papaya: lopapita. 

(e) With lya\ dukhlyati (denominative of Skt- dnkhha)* 



(a) Moods. 
(a) Indicative. 

i. sing. p\a\lahamami> dakkami, anusasami, ichhami^ kalami, anapayami. 

3. sing, annkampati) [pa~\lakama\t\i, drakhatu hoii 9 aihi and athi y et% \_pa]tipa[jd]ti, sampati- 
pqjatii papunaii, ichhati, kal\e\ii> vedayaii* dukhiyaiu The only middle form is mamn\ate\ 
(Dhau. X, i). 

a. \>\ux* papunatha (from the strong base of the ninth class). 

3. plur. hwvamii^ ichhamtiy kalamii and kaleti (Dhau. and Jan. IX, a). 

(b) Subjunctive, 
1 , sing, sttkhayami with indicative termination ; cf. above, p, xcv, 

3. plun nikhamavu with optative termination ; cf. Johansson, Shahh^ part 3, p. 89, n* a. 

(c) Optative* 

1, sing, alabheham^ yehain, [pa]ti[pdday]ef£a?h and paiipaiayeham ; see above, p. lxxxii. 
3. sing. uga\chhd\{chhe)y dakh\e\yd and da\kheya\, nthdy[d\ (from the indicative Pali 
uUhdti\ cf. Fischers Grammatik, § 483), \Ji\nveyd, siya and [siya] (= Skt. sydt), patipajeyd. 
1. plur. gachhema^ patipadayema and [pa~\Hpdtayem\a\. 

3. plur. chaley\ti\ and chalevu^ hveyu y huwvu and huvev% takey\u\ and fa/ievu, [vdjsevf^ 
\a\svaseyu and asvasevu i paptmeyu> \p\a\p)[inevit and paptmevu, ^[yj^fw], yujeyu> and yujevu^ 
dlddhayey\u\ and alddhayeviu 

(d) Imperative, 

3. sing. 

a. plur. dakhatha (with indicative termination), dekhata. 

3. plur. ^0]/tf£d7;/tf;«#/ and ^&r^;//^[^]^[w],^?^;;/ft7, dlddhayamtu % praHvedayamiu. 

(e) Imperfect. 

3. sing. 



1 Cf. the substantive nijhati (= *nidhyapti) in the rock-edict VI, which is formed from *nidkya- 
payatii as Skt. djhapii and vijiiapti fro m jfiapayati — jnapayaiu 

2 But in ^^[^^'[ta] (Dhau. Ill, 1), the long vowel of the root /&z is preserved. 



cx INTRODUCTION 

II. AORIST. 

(a) Indicative, 
3. sing, \ii\ikhami ; 3. plur. \ii\i\bhd\m\t\$\u\ . 

(b) Subjunctive, 
3. plur. alochayisu ; see Text, p. 31, n. 7. 

Ill, Perfect. 
3, sing, a\firi\ (only Jau, Sep- II, 1) and aha. 

IV. Future. 

1. sing. Jwsmni and hosdml (= Pralcrit hossdmi), nikhdmayisdmi, likhiyis\ami*\ 
3. sing. khamisaiU ftosati, kachhati} atikdvtayisati^ d\7id\p\ay\u\a[ti % va4hayis\a\tL 
3. plur. esatha and ehatha, chaghatha (from root chah = Sfet sak)? aladhayisatha and 
yisa\ilt\d. 

3. plur. nikhamisathih anuvatisaihti, \^nus\a\sisam\t\i> yujisamti^ kackhamti^jdnismhti^pava- 
dhayismhiu 

V. Passive. 

3. plur. indicative dla\nt$kiyamti? 

3. plur, optative yttjeyu % y\ft\jeyu, yujevu> y\ujev\ u. 

3. plur. aorist dlahhiyisu. 

3- plur. future dla[6/i\iyisa?ht£ and d^aiii\bkiyi$a\ih'\i\t\. 

VL Desiderative. 

3. sing, imperative sususatn* 

VII. PARTICIPLES, 

h 

(1) Present participle. 
Active. 

Root as : samtam. 
Root kri : kalamiam. 

Causative of ^zrf; vipaiipdtayamtam and [^^^A^]^^?^]^?^ (Jau. Sep.). 

Middle. 

Rootjtotf: ^[w/^fl/^^/wp]//^], and causative: \yi\paffj\pddayamlne (Dhau. Sep.). 

■■ 

(2) Past passive participle. 

(a) In -tax mata, kata (= Skt. krita\ viydpata (= vydprita), vithata ( = vistrita), usaia 
(— uisrita), \ji\isita (= *nisrita), likhita, likhdpita, Mdndpita, lialdpita, dlopita, lopdpita, and- 



1 For an explanation of this form see above, p. lxxxiii, n. 1. 
3 Cf. sagghad in the Suttanipata, verse 834. 

3 For the probable origin of the nasal within the root, see above, p. lxxxiii, n. 2. 



DHAULI AND JAUGADA GRAMMAR cxi 

p\ay\i{t&\*. huta> atikamtq, kilamta^ dya\ia\ (u e. dyattd) y sayuta (= samyukta), v\ti\ta (= nkta\ 
vitdha (= vriddha), anusalha (from anu-ids\ &c. 
(b) In -na : uvigina (=: udvigna), 

(3) Future passive participle. 

(a) In -tavya : etaviya, $otaviya y kataviya, vataviya y pajohitaviya^ ichhiiaviya and \ichhz\taya 
(from the present ichchhaii) y chalitaviya^ samchalitavya and *taviya 9 vatitaviya s viyovadita\yiya*\ 
pativsdetaviya y nijkap\e\ta\vt\ya. 

(b) In -amya 1 asvdsa\ii\iya. 

(c) In -ya 1 sakiya and ckakiya* 

VIII. Infinitive. 

khamitave y aladhayitave^ sampatipddayitame and sathpaiipatayit\av\e, 

IX. ABSOLtmvE. 

kattt and (— Skt. hritva), anusdsiiu, dlabhitu> samckaliiu^jmtiUt (from jdnati) y paliiiji§ii\ 

(from root #>a/), \clt\i\ili\ttu (from ^ckiUhait)^ dasayitu and drasayitti (i. e, darsayitu), hapayiUu In 
vadium which corresponds to Skt. vedayiivd, the causative character is neglected. 



A few words may be inserted here on the small B ombay- S opara fragment of the eighth 
rock-edict (Text, p, 118). The preserved forms agree with the Magadha dialect of Dhauli 
and Jaugada. But, as at Girnar, the semivowel r is not changed to /; see hiramna (— Skt. 
hiranya, 1. 7) and \rd\U (1. 9)- In the aorist nikhamtiha (1. 5) the lingual is retained, while Kalsi 
has nikhamithd and the pillar-edicts have kuthd and vadhitha, with dental th 

CHAPTER X 
GRAMMAR OF THE PILLAR-EDICTS 

A* — PHONETICS 
I. Vowels. 

The vowel a is replaced by i in the second syllable of gihitlta (see above, p, lxx), in majhima 
(see above, p. xcix), and perhaps in min\a\ (Delhi-Mirath) and mina (= Skt manak ?)- It becomes 
u in the second syllable of udupdna (see above, p. xcix), and after m in mnta {j=zmatd) y muni$a 
(=: mamtshya). The change of a into e in seyaka (L e. seyyaka\ which is the reading of three 
versions instead of say aha (= Skt. Salyaha) at Delhi-Topra, is due to the following palatal y* 

Skt. i is represented by a in the first syllable of hapilikd (Delhi-Topra) = hipilikd (Allahabad- 
Kosam) and = Skt. piptlika % and by u after original v in dutlya and dutiya y dupada, kinasu (i. e. 
kinassit) = Skt. heiiasvii \ see Text, p. 134? n. i< e corresponds to Skt. I in hedisa (Sarnath, 11. 6, 7). 

i corresponds to Skt. u in the second syllable of pulisa (see above, p. xcix) and of munisa (see 
above, p. Ixx). In Mo (= Skt. Main) Sid:, u is represented by 0 ; see above, p. lvi and n. a. 

ri becomes (1) a in anttgaJdnevu^ apahatha (= Skt- apakrishta) } hata y kapana ( = kvipana) y ddna- 
\gaK[e % (Queen's edict, 1, 3), bhatakesu y vadihd and vadikyd {^vritikd)^ vadfti, viydpafa ; (a) i in 



1 Cf. p- Ixxxiii, n. 3, 2 Cf. gahatha (= Skt. grikastha) at Kalsi. 



INTRODUCTION 



gihitha (— grihastha), nisijitu (from nisrijati)^ pit\i\su (= pitrisfw), simala srimard), hedisa 
(= zdrisa) \ (3) * in dekhati^ &c. 

z corresponds to Skt. e in (Sarnath, 11. 6, 7, 8), L e. *ikka = Prakrit A and Skt. eka. Cf. 
Ardhamagadhl ikkarasa = Skt. ekddasa ; Pischel's Grammatik, § 443. 

becomes * in kevaia (= Skt* ka£varia) s and 0# becomes 0 in -opagdni s Kosambiyam^ puta- 
papotike, mokhya* 

Initial 0 is lengthened in dnavasasi (Sarnath) = aiia\ya\sasi (Kausambi and Sarhchi). Final a 
is lengthened frequently; see eva, yeva, va and evd t yeva, vd (= Skt. and chd, na and 

(in nasamtaih), fietd, aha and aha or tf/^ vadhithd> huihd, vivdsdpaydtha, [sa\ vmamdhdpayiyd, 
iidma and ndmd (in ndmd ti), mama and mamd, asvasa and asvasd, gonasa and gouasd, jdnapadasa 
and jdnapadasa^ Devdnampiyashd, lohasa and lohasd y usahena and usdhmd, bliayena and b/iayend, 
v\a\chamnd. Interconsonantal * and « are sometimes lengthened ; sttganiyati (Queen's edict, L 4), 
-thitika and -thitika (also -ihitika and -thitika), ttltta (thus AIlahabad-Kdsam ; in the other 

versions), devlye (Queen's edict, L 2 ; deviye t id,, 11. 4, 5), pavajitdnam y lajthi (instr. plur. of Skt. 
i*djaii)i amtpailpajamiam, anupatlpajamtu (also annpati 0 ) Y anupafipajisat% anupatipati (also a??ttpaif), 
sampailpaii) patlpaii, pailbhoga (also paW\ patlvisitkam (also pati°), paU\pedayamii^\ niihuliye, 
pachupagamane (packupa* Allahabad-Kosam), bahusn (but gulusti). Final * and > may be 
lengthened before ti (= or without it ; see anuvidhiyamii % dvahdml ti, kachhaft ii t khddiyatl^ tz, 
U ti (Delhi-Topra, II, L 16), \Jid\ihtaviydm 7 anupaiipajamtu^ hatU ti. Final i and which stand for 
original is and nsor ur, are treated in the same way; see [gut\i zxi&goti ti, lipi and lipi % bhikhu and 
[6hihhju s Sakyammtt ti v sddhu and sddhu^ dlddhayevu and dlddhayevu ti, npadahevu and ttpadahevu, 
pavatayevu ti. 

Initial a is shortened in avahdml and ova 1 (Delhi-Topra) = avahami and dva or dvd (in the 
other versions)- Interconsonantal a is shortened in the Queen's edict in dlama ( =s Skt. drdmd) and 
mahamata (— mahdmdird). Final # is often shortened ; see at fid and at fia (= Skt.^rtfez), 
and ita/Aa:, and zwz (= Skt. ™)," apahatd and apahata^ lajd and atand and atana t lajina^ 

Piyadasina, amtsathiyd and amtsathiya, and the nom. sing. fern. (pillar edict I, section D), 
apehhd and apekha, &c. Also final £ is sometimes shortened ; see Piyadasl (Allahabad-ICosam) and 
Piyadasi, dudl and (= Skt. dhdtrz), atkami-pakha (Delhi-Topra) and athami-pakha y 

chdttmtmdsi'pdkha^ devi-kumdlanain^ bhikhuni, Lummini-gdme- Interconsonantal i is shortened in 
dutiya = dutlya 2 (Queen's edict, 1. 5), and u in amdupdyd y thube, bhutdnam, sususa (also susftsd). 

Initial vowels are dropped in /1 (— Skt, apt), laghamti (for *alaghamii ^ Skt. arhanti), hakam 
(for ahdkam — ahani)^ ti (for and H?^^ posatha (for upavasathd) y va and w (for ^^)." 

II. Simple Consonants. 

As at Kalsl, palatal n and lingual n are replaced by dental n throughout. 

The guttural k is palatalized in adha-^kos^kydni and vadikyd? cf. above, p. lxxi. It is 
represented by y in atha-bhdgiye (Rummindei, L 5), ata-patiye (Delhi-Topra, IV. 11. 4, 14), nimsi- 
\dhd\yd (= Skt. ^nislishiakd), and perhaps in gevayd \ see Text, p. 130, n. 4. is preserved in 
laghamii (for *alagkamti — Skt. arhanti)^ but has become A in /aA^ 

The palatal ch is softened in samkuja^ which is probably connected with Skt. sdmkuc/ii ) 
1 a skate-fish/ It is aspirated in kichhi (Queen's edict, L 4) = kichhi at Kalsl, &c. 

Lingual d may become / ; see etfake and elake> etfakd and elakd, dudl and dttlL 

Dentals are lingualized after ri in kata t bhatakesu^ vadhi, viydpata, vadikd and vadikyd 
(= ^vritika)) in which the i (for t) is softened, and after ra in nigamiha (= Skt. nirgranthd) and in 
the preposition pati, but not in pachupagamana ( = pratyupagamand) f patydsamna and patiydsamna 
( = pratydsanna). t is elided, # lengthened, 4 and # developed from « in ckdvudasd (= Skt. cfiaturdast), 
while is contracted to 0 in ckodasa (= chatnrdasd). d becomes or ^ in dnvddasa and dnva\td\- 
s\a\pamnadasd and pamnalasd (= Skt. panchadast). The original of the root *nadh Skt. w^) 



1 Cf. rtfz/«, a^, avath at Kalsi. Michelson (IF, ^3. 236) compares Avestan (=Skt. ydvat). 

2 Pischel {Grammatik^ § 8z) derived Prakrit dtidia^ &c, from a supposed Skt. form ^dvitya. 
A In ambd-vadikyd (Delhi-Topra, VII, 1. 23) = ambd-vadika (Queen's edict, 1. 3). 

4 Cf. Pischel's Graminatik, §§ 78 and 443. 



GRAMMAR OF THE PILLAR-EDICTS 



cxiii 



is preserved in \sd\innaikdhdpayiyd and sanamdhdpayitu, 1 dh becomes h in nigoka {— nyagrddha\ 
vidahami and upadahevu (from dadhdii)* For Jiida idha at Girnar) see above, p. lxxii. 

p is softened In thuba (= siupa> Nigali Sagar, 1. %) and libi % (Delhi-Topra, VII, 11. 31, 33) 
.= lipi (passim). It becomes k through dissimilation in kipilika and kapllika t= Skt, piptlika? 
bh becomes h in l[d]hiye } hoii> hotu y fiuvdti, hosamti, hohamti, Jmihd y Imsu % and in the instr. plur, in 
-hi (for -bhih). m becomes p f and the aspiration changes place, in haphaia — Skt, kamatha \ cf. 
aphe and tuphe (= Prakrit amhe and itimlte) at Dhauli and Jaugada, and \td\phd (= Skt iasmai) 
at Kalsl. 

y is represented by h in abhyzmmdmayeham^ and by v in dvuti (= *dyukti)t vishava (— Skt, 
vis hay d), sochava for sochaya (— *sauchya\ papova *prapno +ydt), yavu, anugahinevu r dldd/iayevu, 
upadahevu, pavaiayevfu It is prefixed to e in yeva and yeva (also eva and evd), but is dropped 
at the beginning of aia (= Skt. yatra\ atha and (= Skt. yathd) y dva (also ydva, = Skt. 
ydvat), dvate 9 e (also (also yena). At the end of etad-athd (Delhi/Fopra, VII 3 1* 34) the 

syllable ya seems to be dropped ; cf. above, p. lvii. It becomes i in nigoha (= Skt. nyagrodha), 
pativekhdmiy dupaiivekhe y and ayi becomes e in jhdpetaviye (slsojfidpayitaviye). 

r has become I throughout, except in chan^da^m\a~siityi\yi\ke (Sarhchi, 1. 4). 

va becomes u in anuvekhamdne ; vd becomes the same in the absolutives in -in (~ Skt. tvd) ; 
ava and avi become 0 in oddia^ olodhana^ posatha y paliyovaddtha % paliyovadisamti^ viyovadisamii y 
viyohala y hoti y hottt, hosaihti y hohamtu 

The two sibilants i and sit have become j throughout. But sli is used in vishava (= Skt. 
vishaya y Sarnath, 1. 10), Devdhampiyasha and she (Oueen's edict, 11. 1 and 4). In chaghati y £ is 
represented by ch ; cf. above, p. ci7 

h is prefixed in hida y hidata, hedisa y hevanu For heid (Queen's edict, 1. 3) see above, p. Ixx. 

Final consonants are dropped. A preceding vowel may be shortened ; see min[d] and mina 
{— Skt. viandk ?), papova and papova, siyd and siya, avimand and avimana, ah hit a and abhzta, &c« 
(below, p. cxvi). Conversely 3 a preceding short vowel may be lengthened; see dva and dva 
(= yavat), lipi and lipi, sddliu and sddfcu, &c. (above, p. cxii). Final as generally becomes e \ see 
ite y suve (= svas\ bhuye y lajdne, viydpatdse y jane y &c. But it becomes 0 in vayo- ; a in chamdama- 
and esa (nom. sing. masc. and neut.) ; and a in esd (nom. sing. neut.). 

The vowel 0 is nasalized in chum (Sarnath, 1. 3) for chu (passim), Final Anusvara is omitted 
in badha (Delhi-Topra, III, 1. 31), heva (= Skt. evam* Rampurva, 1,1. i), and in the acc. sing- vadhi 
(pillar-edict VI, B). The Anusvara is dropped, and the preceding vowel is lengthened , in the acc. 
sing- anupailpatl (Delhi-Topra, VII, 1. 24) and in the nom. sing. \da\1id (Delhi-Mirath, II, 1. 3). But 
the nom- sing, of neuters in -a generally follows the analogy of the masculine and ends in -e\ 
see below, p. cxvi. 

Long nasal vowels are generally shortened ; see kiyam Skt. kiydn), Bhagavam (=Bhagavdn), 
the gen. plur. in -am } the loc. sing. fern, tisdyam, tisyam, Kosambiyam, pttriinamdsiyam^ and the acc, 
sing, mam (= mam), imam (= imam), tarn (= tarn, pillar-edict VI, B), ikam (= ekdm), pajam 
(=prajdm) 3 dnkhiyanam, chdvudasam, pamnada$am> patipadam } hedisam (acc. sing, fern., Sarnath, 
1. 7). But the Anusvara is omitted in the acc. sing. p\a\tipadd (Delhi-Mirath, V, L 6), and the long 
a is shortened at the same time in kiya (Lauriya-Nandangarh, II, 1. i)« 



III. Sawdhl 

Final d is preserved in etad-athd (Delhi-Topra, VII, 1. 34), and final m in etamteva (id., I. 33 ; 
Sarnath, II. 8, 9), kaydnam-eva (Allahabad-Kosam, III, 1. 1), hedisavinva (Sarnath, 1. 7), The final 
m is doubled in iyammana (— Skt. idam any at) 9 kaydnaihvteva, hevammeva* In hemeva, hemevd, 
hemmeva, the syllable va of Skt, evarn is dropped. 

Hiatus remains in -vasa-abhisita at Delhi-Topra (six times), 5 while the remaining versions (and 
Delhi-T5pra, VII, I. 31) read -vasdbhisita. Other instances of a-\~a — a are dhammdnupatipati, 



1 Cf. pilandhati &c. in E. Muller's Pali Grammar \ p. 34. 

3 This Prakrit form is mentioned already by Panini, III, s, %l. 

3 Cf. Geiger's Litter aiur mid Spraehe der Singhalesen y § 39, section 1. 

4 CC above, p. lviii, % t and p. Ixxxvi, L 6 from bottom. 6 Also at Delhi-Mlrath f V, 1. 14. 

IMS O 



cxiv 



INTRODUCTION 



dhammanusathi, dhammdpaddna, dhammapekha, apdsinave* The a which results from the contraction 
is shortened before a group of consonants in samghathasi and -apadanathaye (Delhi-Topra, VII, 
IL 35 and 28). The nasal vowel am of tuphdkath and upasakanam is treated in the same manner 
before amtiham in iuphak-amiikam and npasakan-amHkmh (Sarnath, II. 6 and 7). In ikike (= Skt. 
ekaikah), chu (~ cha+u)> cfeeva, and ckhdy-opagdni, final # and « are elided before the initial i s u % e t 
and 0 of the next following word, 

! 

IV. Groups of Consonants. 

The only Sanskrit groups which occasionally remain unassimilated are ky> hhy, ty, dhy, dhr, bhy, 
rshy (which becomes sy), sv (which becomes sv\ shy (which becomes sy). For the group ky see 
also above, p. cxii and n. 3. 

A long vowel preceding a group is generally shortened ; see ata- (= Skt dtman), asvatha 
(= ahjasta), anusathi (= anusdsti), aladha (= *araddha) 7 kinasu (for *kina+sstt = Skt. svid), paia 
(= praptd), viaga (= niargci)^ madava (= mardavd), mahamaia (= mahdmdira. Queen's edict, 
1. 1), Sdkyanmuh isya (= zrs/iyd), -suliyika 1 (for *suryika\ dusa {— dftshya\ pmhnamdsiyam. But 
the length remains in dnapayati, pdpovd (from prdpnott), mahamaia (for °mdira)> palikhd (for 
parzkshd). While long I is preserved before n m-gamtni and 6M\kImi£\ina$h t it is shortened, and 
the following nasal is doubled, in iiihni (= trmi). Similarly, amtsatkini and devinmh are perhaps 
defective spellings for amisathimni and devhhnaiiu Before^ and / the length is preserved in anuvi- 
dklyamti, sukhtyand } kapUika, but it is shortened (and probably the following consonant is doubled) 
in anuvidhiyaihti, sukhiyand, bhuye, kipilikd \ cf. above, p. cii. A short vowel preceding a group 
is lengthened iwagacha (— dgaiyd), ddkhind (also dak hind, i.e. dakfc/itud), pttidpapoiike 2 (for 
putrapra 0 ), pundvasune (for punarva Q ), kichhi (for *kid+chid, Queen's edict, L 4), nilakhiyaii (for 
nirla*)) ntlahhitaviye (also nila? at Rampurva, V, 1. 9), vadhtsati (also vadhisati, L e. vadd/dssaii), 
sampatipajtsati (also °jisat£) } anupailpajimii^ anup\d\ttpamne (for anupratP). 

A long nasal vowel is shortened before consonants in amba-(= Skt. amrd), atikamtam, Kosam- 
biyam (= Kausambydm)> Devdnampiya* while the nasal is dropped, and the length is retained, in 
babhana (= bdmhana at Girn^r). Anusvara is lost after a short vowel in thabka (Rummindei, 1. 3) 
= thambha (Delhi-Topra), in sayame and savibhdge (also smhyame and samvibhdge)^ in vihisdye (but 
not in amhimsdye), and in satavisaiL The nasal vowel /zfc is replaced by a length in msatt, panma- 
vlsaiiy and saduvlmtu Similarly, seems to be replaced by a in bh\d\khati (— Skt. bhaiikshyait). 
In visvaihsayitave (Sarnath, 11. 8, 9) the nasal vowel am corresponds to Skt. d. 

The auxiliary vowel which is developed within some groups is u before v in duvehi 7 duvddasa 3 
sa4uvzsath suve\ a in dusaihpatipddaye, laghamti (for *alaghaviti) y sochaye and sochave; and 
frequently i, as will appear from the subjoined list of Sanskrit groups and of their equivalents in the 
pillar-edicts. It is unnecessary to quote examples of the groups kr, gtr, tr, pr t br } sr f sr, which have 
become k s g, t t p } b, s, s, respectively. 

hkh becomes kh (i. e. kkh) in dukhlyanam. 

kt becomes t in abhisita y yuia, vaiaviya, viyata. 

ky remains in Sakyamtmz (Rummindei, 1. %). 

ksh becomes jh in jhdpayiiaviyef but kh everywhere else* 

kshy becomes khiy in nilakhiyaii \ kh in dupativekhe and bh\a\kkati ; gh in chaghatL 
khy is preserved in mukhya and mokhya, but is assimilated in miikhd (Delhi-Topra, VII, h 



1 This word presupposes an intermediate form with short u: *-smyika\ cf. above, p. cii, 
n. x, In the Magadha dialect the affix -ika does not, as in Sanskrit, necessarily involve Vriddhi 
of the first syllable \ see putdpapoiika and hidatika, but dnugahika. In avttalika ) adha[kos\ikya 3 
chamdamasuliyika we cannot say whether the a preceding the group of consonants in the first 
syllable was originally long and subsequently shortened- The same applies to the first a of 
chamdiya^ which was formed from Skt. chanda with the affix -ya. In nithfUiya and ptimnamasiyam 
the first vowel has remained unchanged, while the corresponding Skt. forms are naiskthurya and 
paurnamdsydnii with Vriddhi of the first vowel. 

2 The SamchI pillar (section C) has puiapapotike. 

3 The Anusvara is omitted in Devdna\pi\yena (Rummindei, 1. 1). 

4 Cf. Pischel J s Graviviatik^ § 336. 



GRAMMAR OF THE PILLAR-EDICTS cxv 



hhl becomes hh In kho — Skt. Malu ; see above, p. lvi and n, %. 
chy becomes chay or chav in sochaye and sochavey 

jii becomes jin in lajina \ mn in chhamdmhnani and vimnapayiiaviye ; n in dnapayati, dnapita^ 
natikd) naiisu. 

itch becomes mn in paihitavi$ati t pamnadasd and pamnalasa> but remains in [pd\ihcha\dasa\ 
(AUahabad-Kosam). 

dy becomes diy in chaindiye* 

dv becomes duv in saduvisati. 

nm becomes mm in dsammdsike, 

ik becomes h in ukasa. 

tm becomes t in ata- (= Skt. dtman)* 

ty remains in pa£ydsa?hna s but becomes iiy in patiydsamna (Delhi-Tdpra), and ch in agdcha, 
pachupagaviane^ sache* 

tir becomes s in usapdpite. 
ts becomes s in usdha* 
tsy becomes chh in machhe* 
db becomes b in nbalihe* 

dy becomes j in anupatipajamiu^ &c, ; diy in khddiyaii ; day in dusampatipadaye* 

dr becomes d in chamdama-* . ^ ~^ 

becomes in dnpada^ duiiya and dutiya, but in duvehi } duvddasa. 

dhy remains in avadhya, but becomes rf&y in avadhiya, and in majhimd^ nijhatiyd, nijha- 
payitave, nijhapayiid> nijhapayisamiu 

dhr remains in dh\r]uvdye (Delhi-Mirath), but becomes dh in dhuvdye and vadhi (pillar- 
edict V, D). 

ny becomes mn or n in ai'mia (passim) and ana (pillar-edict III S H), 

pt becomes t in \gui\Kgofi (— Skt. *gopti)i nikhitd l nijhatiyd^ pata (= prapta), sata {— sapta 3 
Delhi-Topra, VII, 1. 31). 
pn becomes p in papovd* 
t My remains in abhyumndmayeham and abhymhnamisatiy but becomes My in l[d\/iiye. 
* bhr becomes bh in palibhasayisanu 
mb becomes mm in Lummini- (Rummindelj 1. 4), 
mr becomes inb (for mbr) in avibd- (= Skt. dmrd) m 
yy becomes^)/ in dvdsayiye and \sd\mnamdhdpayiyd % 
rg becomes g in magesu and visaga* 
rgr becomes g in nigamthestu 
rgh becomes lagh in laghamii {^or^alaghamtt). 
rn becomes mn in pamna (pillar-edict V, B) and pmhnamdsiyam. 
rt becomes t in pavatayevu^ but p in kataviya % kevata, palihatave^ apahatd* 
rth becomes ih in atha (Delhi-Topra, VII, W and OO), but A in atha (passim), 
rd becomes d in chakhuddne^ chodasa, chdvudasd^ madave* 
rdk becomes dh in vadhati, vadheyd, vadhithd, vadhisati, vadhita. 
rbh becomes bh in gabhim. 

rm becomes mm in kammdni, ckdtmhmdst, dhamma (spelt dhama at Lauriya-Araraj, II, I. 3). 
ry becomes liy in niihfdiye, paliyovaddtha and paliyovadisamti, -suliyike (Delhi-Topra, VII, 
L 31), but riy in ~\sti\r^yt\ke (Samchi, 1. 4). 

H becomes / in ntlahhiyaii and mlakhitaviye. 

rv becomes v in pundvasune and sava. 

rs becomes s in Piyadasu 

rsh becomes s in ukasd and vasa. 

rshy becomes sy in isyd. 

Ip becomes^ in apa (pillar-edict II, C). 

ly becomes y in haydna> saydka and seyaka (= Skt. ialyakd). 



1 Three versions of the pillar-edict II, C f read socheye, which Michelson (IF, 33* 541) identifies 
with Pali socheyya (— Skt. *saucheya)* 

p 2 



cxvi 



INTRODUCTION 



vy becomes viy in viyamjanena> viyata, viydpata, viyovadisamti, viyohdla, and in the gerundives 
in -taviya. p q A ^ ^ (/a kX^r^ 

vr becomes # in pavajitduam. 

sy becomes s in palibhasayisam (future of the causative of Skt. bhraiyati). 
//becomes nts in ;m/ttz[d5far|j/<z Skt. *nislishtaka) ; cf. Pischel's Grammatik, § 74. 
becomes jz/ in tfjz/tf, asvatha (:= Skt, asvasta), visvamsayitave (infinitive of visvdsayati) r; 
in (= ; ^ in 

j^/ becomes ^ in vadhitha and ; jfi& in atha-hhagiye> aihaml^ apakatkesu, tuthdyaian\a\ni t 
pativisitham ; in and 
becomes *A in nithfdiye, 

slip becomes/ in chatupada. 
^ .s^* becomes/ in dupativehhe, 

■ jAj/ becomes .rp in tisyam ; ^ in tistyam ; s in iisdyam and tisdye 7 dusdni, pusitaviya (from Skt. 
pus&yatfy, munisa (= mamtshyd), hosamii and other futures ; 4 in liohamtu 

st becomes tk in anusathi^ asvatha (= Skt. dsvastd) y thambhdm, thnba (= stiipa) } pavitka- 
lisamiu 

sth becomes th in gihitha (— Skt, grihasthd) and -thilika or -ihiilha ; 1 /A in anaihika and 
-ihitika or -thitika? 

sit becomes jzVz in asinava (from a-snu). 

sin becomes j in the locative singular in -£$3 P 

jp becomes ^j/ in (= Skt. ; j in the genitive singular in -asa \ h in ddhamtu 
htt becomes hin in. auugahinevu* 
hm becomes bh in babhmia. 



B. — DECLENSION 



I. Bases in -a. 



(1) Masculines and neuters in -a. 



Singular. 

Norn, ms.sc, jane, &c. ; neut. ddne s &c. 
Acc. meLSC.janam, &c. ; neut. danam^ &c. 
Instr. dhaihmena, &c. 
Dat. athdye^ &c. 
Gen. janasa, &c. 
*Loz.janasi > &c. 



Plural. 

Masc. pulisd. &c ) _ _ . 0 

^ j . "L neut. savanani. &c, 
Masc- puhsam J 

dkalehi, pulimeku* 



pdndnaih, &c 4 
athesUi &c. 



Nom. sing, neut —In [rf«j«a (Delhi-Mirath, II, 1. 4) the termination is -a. 
Instr. sing. — The final a is lengthened in usdhend, bhayend> v\d\chanend. 

Gen. sing. — The final a is lengthened in asvasa, gonasd, janapadasd> Devdnampiyashd, 
lohasd* 

Nom. plur. masc. — The final a is shortened in abfizta, asvatha, dyata, kata, pujita^ mahdm\a\ta 
(KausambT edict, I. 1), laj&ka. The Vedic termination -cisah is preserved in viydpatdse (Delhi- 
Topra, VII, 11. 25, %>}). 

Nom. plur. neut.— The final i is lengthened in \Iiayntaviydm (Delhi-Mirath, V, 1. 8). The 
following Sanskrit masculines have the termination of the neuter : ihambhdni, nikdydni, nigohdni, 
niyamdniy mokhdni, tiihni divasdni and etani divasdni (acc). 



1 With the compound chilam-thittka or chilam-tkitika cf. Skt. chiramjtvin and chiraniana* 
* In chila-ihitike (Delhi-Topra, VI I, L 32) and chila-thitlkd (Allahabad-Kosam, II > L 3). 
3 From pidhna = Pali purima. 



GRAMMAR OF THE PILLAR-EDICTS 



cxvii 



vadikyd, &c. 



(a) Feminines in -a. 
Singular, Plural. 

Norn, ichhd, &c. 
Accpajaih, &c. 
Instr. pujaya and piifdya, &c, 
Dat. vihisdye > avihinisaye. 
Abl. dakhinaye^ dakhinaye. 
Gen. dutiyayci duiiyaye, 

Loc. tisayaniy tisdye l chavudasaye, panmadasdye, disasu* 
patipaddy\e\l 

Nom. sing. — The final <z is shortened in apekha^ avadhya> isya, kapilika } kdldpi£a s jatuka } daya, 
palana, likhdpita, vad/iita, viyata y sdlika, sukhiyana. 

Acc. sing. — The termination is -0 in p\a\tipada (Delhi-Mirath, V 3 1. 6), 

Instr, sing, — The termination is -aya in agayd, anulupdyd, -kamatdyd % palzkhayd, vividhayd, 
sukhdyandyd, sususdyd, while the final d is shortened, as at Girnar, Dhauli, and Jaugada, in ag-dya, 
-kdmaidya, palzkhdya y vividhdya, sususdya. 



IL Bases in -u 

(1) Masculines and neuters in -z". 

Nom, sing, masc^ vidfii, Sakyamum; acc. plur. neut* timni\ loc. plur. ndtistt. 
The feminine Base anusathi forms the nom. and acc. plur. anmaihini with the termination of 
the neuter, 

(a) Feminines in -i and -J. 

Singular. j Plural, 

Nom. vadfri, dhdii } &c. 

Acc, va4hi (pillar-edict VI, B), mmpatlpatu 
Instr. vad&iyd, anupaftpatiyd y &c. 
Dat. anupaiipatiye, dhdtiye } deviye* 
Gen. Kdluvdkiye^ deviye and devlye. 
Loc, tisyaihy tiszyam, Kosambiyam^ pmhnamdsi- 
yarn, chdttimmdsiye. 

Nom, sing, — The final vowel is long ingabhim, sukali, dudl (also dull), lipl (also Kpi). 
Instr. sing. — The final a is shortened in anusaihiya (also amisathiya)* 



bhi\khuii^nmh^ devinaiiu 
ckdimhmdsisU) ttm? 



III. Masculines and Neuters in 

Singular, 

Nom. masc. bhikhu and \bhikli^X % sddhu and 
sdd/zii, lahu \ neut. &z£». 

Gen. 

Loc. pundvasttne^ bahune* 

The loc. sing, is formed from a base in -na. 



Plural. 



Neut. bahwii* 

\bhifi]khuna[vi\. 
gulusUt bahusu. 



IV. Masculines and Feminines in -ru 

m 

Nom. sing. apahatd^xA apahata, nijhapayitd* 
Gen. sing. main. 
Loc. plur./#£sw. 



1 As in Pali, the Skt. feminine pratipad has assumed the form patipadd. Cf. Hemachandra, 



L iS- 



* In Sanskrit the corresponding form is tisrishu. 



cxviu INTRODUCTION 

V. Bases in Consonants. 

(i) Present participles in -at. 
Norn, sing, masc. samtam, anupaUpajamtam ; cf. above, p. ex. 

(a) Masculines in -yat and -vaU 

Worn, sing, masc. kiyam and kiya (Lauriya-Nandangarh), Bhagavam* The base ydvat follows 
the tf-declension : nom, sing. maa&awA (Sarnath, L 9). 

(3) Masculines and neuters in -an. 



PluraL 

lajane* 
kammdnL 



Singular. 

Norn. masc. lajd } laja* 
Acc. neut. ndma. 
Instr, atana, aiana> lafma. 

The instr. plur. follows the ^declension- 

(4) Masculines and neuters in -iff, 

Nom. sing. masc. Piyadasl\ instr. sing. Piyadasina\ nom* plur, neut, -gdmlni. 
The final t of the nom. sing. masc. is preserved only in the Allahabad-Kosam version, while all 
others read PiyadasL 

(5) Masculines and neuters in -as, 

Acc. sing. neut. bhuye* 

The masculine chmhdama- (= Skt. chandramas) and the neuter vayo- occur as first members 
of compounds. The base avimanas follows the ^-declension : nom. plur. masc. avimana and (with 
shortening of the final a) avimana. 



C— PRONOUNS 



(1) Pronoun of the first person, 

Nom. sing, hakam* 
Acc, sing. mam. 

Instr. sing, mamaya and mamiyd, mama and mama, me. 
Gen. sing, viama> vie. 

(2) Pronoun of the second person, 
Nom. plur. tuphe ; gen. plur. tuphakam. 



(3) Base to* 



Singular. 
Nom. masc. and neut. se. 1 
Acc. neut. tarn, se. 
Instr. Una* 
Gen, 
Loc, 



Acc. sing. fem. tarn. 
Dat. sing, fem, i&ye. 



(4) Base na. 
Nom. plur, neut nam ; see Text, p. ia7, n. 10. 



Plural, 

Masc. te. 
Neut. tanu 

iesawti ianavi. 
Usu* 



Moreover, the nom. sing. neut. she occurs in the Queen's edict, 1, 4. 



GRAMMAR OF THE PILLAR-EDICTS 



cxix 



(5) Base eta. 



Singular. 
Nom. masc. esa ; neut. esa y esa. 
Acc. neut eiam, 
Instr. etena. 
Dat. etaye. 
Loc. 



Plural. 



Masc. ete. 
Neut. etanu 



Nom* sing, fem* esa. 

(6) Demonstrative sV/ara. 

Nom. sing. neut. iyaih\ nom, plur. masc. ime % neut. imam; nom. sing. fern, 2700/. acc. imam. 

(7) Interrogative pronoun. 

The base if forms the acc. sing. neut. Mm (in kimti)^ kimam or khhmam (see Text, p. 129, n. 5) 
and the instrumental 1 (in kinastt, u e. *kinassu = Pali kenassu and Skt. kaiasvit). The base 

is used as demonstrative : nom. plur. neut. (in potake cha kani ; see Text, p. 137, n, 10) and 
acc. plur. masc. kani (four times)* The indefinite pronoun is formed with pi (= Skt. apt) or chi 
{— Skt. chid) : instr. sing. kenapi\ nom. plur. neut* [£]tf/*zir/iz. 



(8) Relative pronoun. 



Singular. . 

Nom. masc. and neut. ye 3 e. 
Instr. yen& 7 ena. 



Plural. 
Masc. ye \ neut. yam. 



Nom* sing. fern, yd. 



(9) Base any a. 



Singular. 

Nom. masc. amne; neut. [ajmne, ana. 

Gen. 

Loc. 



Plural. 

Masc. amne ; neut. amnanu 

amnanam. 

anwesu. 



The gen. plur. amnanam follows the analogy of the nouns in (above, p. cxvi) ; cf. tanam for 
iesam (above, pp. lxxviii and cxviii), ta\itam~\ at Mansehra, and the dat. sing. fern, taye (above, 
p. cxviii), imaya and ima[y\e at Girnar, KalsT, and Dhauli, imaye at Mansehra. 



(10) Base sarva* 



Singular. 

Nom. masc, save. 
Loc. savasi. 



Plural 



savesu. 



D.— NUMERALS 



One. 

Nom. sing. masc. ikike (— Skt ekaikah), fern. ika\ acc. sing, fern, ikam. 



Instr. masc. ditvehi (from the base dva). 
dutiya, and in the compound dttpada. 



Two. 

The base dvi appears as du in the ordinal dutlya or 



1 Cf. kind, Hemachandra, III, 69, and Pischel's Grammaiik, § 448. 



cxx INTRODUCTION 

Three, four, six. 

Acc. neut. tiihni ; loc. fern. tlsu r The bases chatur and shash form part of the compounds 
chatupada and asammasika* 

■ 

Twelve, fourteen, fifteen. 

duvadasa and duva[la]s[d] ; chadasa. The ordinals chawtdasa and (Allahabad- 
Kosarn), pamnadasd^pamnalctsd correspond to Skt. chaturdaii and paiidtadaiu 

Twenty, &c. 

visati, pamnavuaii) sadnvtsati> satavhatL 

Hundred thousand. 

Loc. plur. sata-sahasesu* 



E.— CONJUGATION 
I. Present. 

(i) Bases. 
First Sanskrit class* 

■ 

Root *argh (= Skt* arft) : laghaihti for *alaghamti ; cf. Skt. argha and Pali agghaii^ and see 
Liiders, SPAW, 19 13. 993, 

Root tksh : pativekhami) anuvekhamane* 

Root d5r£f : dekhmti. 

Root ££w : huvati (sixth class). 

Root paliyovadatha. 

Root raA : avahamu 

Root : vadhaiu 

Second Sanskrit class, 

Roottfj; athi. 
Root i: eiL 
Root ya : yati. 

Root /or : anus\a\sami (subjunctive). 

Third Sanskrit classp 
Root dha : vidaham% upadahevu (which follows the 0-conjugation). 

Fourth Sanskrit class. 

Root pad : anupaiipajamtu % &c- 

Root push. The gerundive pisitaviya Is formed from the Sanskrit present pushyaii* 

Fifth Sanskrit class. 

Root ap : papova. 

Sixth Sanskrit class. 

Root tsft. The aorist ichhisu and the gerundive ichhitaviye are formed from the Sanskrit 
present icfickhati. 

Root kship : nikhipatha* 

Root sriji absolutive nisijitu (from the Sanskrit present msryaii)* 



GRAMMAR OF THE PILLAR-EDICTS 



cxxi 



Ninth Sanskrit class. 
Root graft follows the ^-conjugation : anugahinevu* 

Root jna. The future jdnisamH and the infinitive djdnitave are formed from the present 
janatu 

Tenth Sanskrit class, 

(a) With aya : abhytmtndmayeham^ saihpatipddayamti, paymmna (from payati — pdyett\ see 
Childers, Pali Dictionary^ s.v, pivati), palibkasayisam (future of the causative of Pali bhassati — 
Skt bhraiyaii ; see Michelson, IF, 33. 265), aladhayevii> dvdsayiye, vivdsayatka, patl\pedayamti*\ 
pavatayevii, visvamsayitave* 

(b) With paya : jhdpayitaviye and jkapetaviye (from root ksltai)* The long vowel of the roots 
jud> dd, dhyai is shortened in dnapayait 9 vimnapayitaviye^ samddapayitave^ nifhapayisamti f nijhapa- 
yiidj nijhapayitave. 

(c) With dpaya : kdldpita, [sa]mnathdMpayiyd and sanamdhdpayiiu (from root *nadh — Skt, 
nah) t likhdpita^ vd\sa\peiaviy\e\ , vivdsapaydiha, sdvdpaydinu 

(d) With papaya : lopdpita, itsapdpite ; cf. Ardhamagadhl usaviya (= *nchchhrapita) in 
Pischel's Grammatiki § 64, and Skt uchchhrdpayatu Similar forms are vinndpdpeti in E, Miiller's 
Pa/z Grammar > p. i» f thapdpeti in Geiger's § 38a, and davdvei in Pischel's Grammaiik f 

§ 553. 

(e) With dpapaya : hhdndpdpitani % likhdpdpita* 

(f) Denominatives: and (from Skt* tirayati), mhkayiie^ $ttkhayand> $ukkiya?td } 
dukhiyan\a\, mahiyite. 

(a) Moods. 
(a) Indicative. 

t, sing- pativekhdmi % mdahdmu 

3. sing, dekhati, hoti> vadhath athz> eti % ydti Y dnapayati* 

3. plur. laghamii, dekhaihti, sa?hpatipddayamti 3 pati\yedayaihi0\. 

(b) Subjunctive. 

1. sing, dvahdmi, amislalsdmi* sdvdpaydmL 
3. sing, huvdti (Sarnath, 1. 6). 

3, plur. nikhipaiha, paliyovaddtha^ vivdsdydtha^ vivdsdpaydthd. 

(c) Optative. 

x, sing, abkyumndmayeham ; cf. above, pp, lxxxii, cixj 

3. sing, siyd and siya, ami[pd]tfpajeyd s pdpovd and pdpova (from the strong base prapno*\ 
vadheyd. 

3. plur.j^zw, upadahevu, anugahimvu* dlddhayevu, pavatayevu* 

(d) Imperative. 
3. sing, /wto ; 3, plur, amipatipajamtu. 

II. AORIST. 

3. sing, middle : huthd, vadfiit&d. 
3. plur. active : jtaw, ichhisu. 

III. Perfect, 

3, sing. dha % dhd> aha, the last of which is unreduplicated ; see Michelson, IF, 43, 344. 
mi3 a 



cxxii INTRODUCTION 

IV. FUTURE. 

i. sing, palibhasayisaiiu Cf. likkdpayisam at Giniar. 

3. sing, abhymhnamisatii vadhisati and vadhlsaii^ anupaUpajisati (from the present *pajjati — 
Skt. padyate), sampaiipajisati and °pajlsati> chaghati (from root ckak — Skt bh\a\khaii 
(— Skt. bkankshyati), kachhati (see above, p. lxxxiii, n, 1). 

3, plur. patichalisamti, vadhisamA^ kosamti and hohamH^ paliyovadisamti, viyovadisamti, pavi- 
thalimmii (from root dahamii, chaghamti> kachhamti^ janisamti (from the present janati)^ 
nijhapayisamiu 

V. Passive. 

3- sing, indicative khddiyati, mlakhiyaii, gamyati (Queen's edict, 1. 4). 
3. plur. indicative anuvidhlyamii and "dkiyamti* 



VI. Participles. 

(1) Present participle. 

Active : samtam^ anupaftpajamtam. 
Middle: anuvekhamane> payamtna. 

(2) Past passive participle. 

(a) In -taz mata (Delhi- Topra) and muta (= Skt. mata), kata s viyapaia^ tllita and tillta, 
mahtyita, suhhayita} dnapita^ kalapita, savapiia, lopdpita, khanapapita, likhapita, likhapapita, 
atikamta, dyata (i.e. dyattd)^ nikhita (=nikshipta)> viyata (=vyakta)> yuta (—yukta), badha 
(i.e. b add ha), niludha (= niruddhd)^ aladha (= *ar add/id), pat a ( = praptd), apakatha ( = apakrishia\ 
asvatha (= dsvastd), &c. 

(b) In -11a \ anup\a\tipamna^ patyd&amna and paiiydsamna^ dithna (for *didna ; see PischeVs 
Grmnmatiki p. 386). 

(3) Future passive participle. 

(a) In -iavyax hmhtaviya, viketaviya* vataviya, kataviya, ichhitaviya (from the present 
ichchhatt)t pusiiaviya (from pttshyati) % vimnapayitaviya, jhdpayitaviya and jhdpetaviya (from the 
causative of kshai), vd\_sa\petaviya. In ntlakhiiaviya (= *nirlakshayitavya) the causative character 
aya is neglected. 

(b) In <-ya: dekhiya (from the present dehhati), l\a\hiya (from root tabh), avadhya and 
avadkiya f dupativekha^ dusampatipddaya^ avasayiya (for *avdsayyd)? 

VII. Infinitive. 

bhetave (from root bhid) 7 palihatave, patichalitave, djdnitave, dlddkayiiave, visvamsayitave^ 
samddapayitave, nijhapayitave* 

VIII. Absolutive. 

(a) In -tvdz sutu (=Skt. srutvfi)^ nisyitu (from the present nisrijati) ) sanamdhapayitu. 

(b) In -ya : dgdcha (= dgatyd), \sd\mnamdhdpayiyd? 



1 In this form the causative character aya of the present sukhayati is retained, as in anapayiie 
at Kalsl, \anapayii\e at Mansehra, and dndp\ay\i[td\ at Dhauli. 

2 The correct Sanskrit form would be dvdsya; ct the preceding note. 

8 Cf. the two last notes and Panini, VI, 4, 57, who allows both prapayya and prdpya to be 
formed from prdpayatu 



cxxiii 



CHAPTER XI 
GRAMMAR OF THE MINOR ROCK-INSCRIPTIONS 

The language of most of these inscriptions strongly resembles the Magadha dialect of the 
pillar-edicts and of the Dhauli and Jaugada rock-edicts. But, for practical reasons, it appears more 
convenient to treat the grammar of the minor rock-inscriptions in a separate chapter. The three 
Mysore edicts (Brahmagiri, Siddapura, and Jatinga-RamesVara) exhibit a number of dialectical 
peculiarities and are therefore considered in a special sub-division. 

- 

■ 

I. THE FIVE ROCK-INSCRIPTIONS AT RUPNATH, ETC., AND THE 

THREE BARABAR HILL CAVE-INSCRIPTIONS 

A. — PHONETICS 

(i) Vowels. 

The vowel a becomes n after m in tnmisa, and i after y in the future vadkisiii (Rupnath and 
Maski) = vadhisaii (Sahasram and Bairat) ; cf- 3aurasenl hhavissidi, &c, in Hemachandra, IV, 475, 
and in the southern manuscripts of Indian dramas. For the e of Jieta (Sahasram) and for the i of 
munisa see above, p. lxx. The abstract gdlava (= Prakrit and Pali gdrava) presupposes the 
adjective gaht (= Skt, gurt^ in which a corresponds to Skt u ; see above, p. lvi. For 0 = Skt. 
u in hhoy see ibid, and n. ss. The diphthong an becomes o in moneya, 

ri becomes (1) a in kata, dakkitaviye, vadhi\ (3) u in musa (— Skt. mrisha), sun\e\yu ; (3) i in 
adhigichya (= Skt. adhikritya), diseya (optative of drisyate). In adhatt\y\a (= Pali addhatiya 
and Skt. ardkatrittya) the syllable tri is lost, as in Ardhamagadhl addhaijja ; see Geiger's Pali, 
§ 65, 2, and cf. Pali addhuddha = Skt. ardkachaturtha. 

Interconsonantal a and i are lengthened in -\a\ihata (?) and chila-tkittke* Final a is lengthened 
in evd and va (= Skt. eva) t c7id y fief a, afid y \likhdpd\ydthd y fz[d]md 3 eteni(nd) } apaladhiyena y &c. 
(below, p. cxxvi). Final i and u are lengthened before iti in samghast ti % hosatt ii y janamtu U% 
and final u which stands for ur in ttpadhdl\a\ yeyu. 

Initial a is shortened in ahdle (Rupnath) ; interconsonantal % and n in misibhutd (Maski), 
Jamhtdipasi (— °dipasi at Sahasram), pa\%d\mam\t\mend (cf. palakamamlnend at Sahasram), 
ekimavisaii (Barabar) ; final a and z in laja (Barabar) ~ lajd (Calcutta-Bairat), sata (Rupnath) = 
satd (Sahasram), Pr\i]yadas\i\ (Calcutta-Bairat) = Piyadasi (Barabar). 

Initial vowels are dropped in pi (= Skt apt), stmii (for *smi — Skt. asmi), hakam (for ahakam 
— ahavi), it (= zrf), fcimti and %iU> ddni (= zddmm), va and z/2 (= £z/#). 

(a) Simple Consonants. 

Intervocalic £ is softened in ad/iigicAya (Skt. =5 adtekritya) and -appears to have become 
y in diyadhiya (— *dvikdrdhya)± gh is preserved in Ldghuta (= Rdhula) and suggests that this 
name of Buddha's son is derived from the ancient hero Rqghu. In fe/^i (Barabar) = Skt. gtthd, 
* a cave k and Aft at first sight appear to correspond to Skt. g and Ju But each of the two words 
may have a distinct origin. While guild is connected with the root gti/i f < to hide *, kiibhd may be 
related to kumbha, £ a pot * (originally f a cavity J ), and Greek icfy/9i;, fi a (hollow) boat'. 2 

Lingual » is replaced by dental 11 throughout, but is improperly used at Calcutta-Bairat in 
Aliya-vasdni (~ Skt. Arya-vani£dli) t 



1 Cf. diyadha and diadha, above, pp. lxxi and lxxxv. 

3 The same root has assumed the slightly different meaning of 1 a round projection ' in Ancien 
Persian haufa y fi a mountain Avestan kaofa, ' a mountain, the hump of a camel \ and Skt, kdkubK 
6 a peak * ; cf kakitd^ ' a peak, a hump 

<1 2 



cxxiv 



INTRODUCTION 



Dentals are lingualized in tidala (= Pali ulara and Skt. ttddra), duvddasa % and after ri in kaia, 
vadhu i is palatalized in adhigichya (= Skt- adhikritya). dh seems to be preserved in ka(ht)dha 
(— idha at Girnar ?), but has become h in \iiigohd\ (= Skt. nyagrddhd) m 

Intervocalic p becomes v in pdv\a\t\a\w (Sahasram), the infinitive of *prdpati (= Skt prdpnoti)* 
b/i becomes k in hotu> homily luist^ deve/ii, \ajtvt\kehu 

y is dropped at the beginning of avatake (from Skt. ydvat), am and e (= yai). The syllable 
ya becomes i in \itigoha~\ (— nyagrddhd). aya and ^jtf become e in lekhapeta, la{li)khapetavaya> 
drodheve (read drddhetave) and [tf]/tf^tf/#[V|£, tfM&W&[^]7jtf7# # 

As in the Magadha dialect, r becomes l\ but it is preserved at Rupnath in drodheve (read 
drddhetave\ chira-thittke y cAha(sa)vac/ihare 9 sati\rd\kekani (read sdiirehdni) y and at Maski in pure t 
\sdt\ire\ke\ 

v becomes p in apaladhiyend (Rupnath) = aval\a\dhiyend (Sahasram). It is developed out of 
u. in vivutha (Sahasram) = vy\tt\tha (Rupnath). ava and avi become o in ~ovdde y hotu 3 hosait. 

/and sk have generally become s. But s is preserved at Maski in &ake Skt, Sdkyalt) and 
is improperly used at Bairat in svage (= svage at Rupnath) ; sh is preserved at Maski in vaska\ni\* 
In \cha~\fcye and chakiye^ s is represented by ; cf. above, pp. ci and cxiii. 

h is prefixed in ha(hz)dha (?), Asia, Jtevath* 

Final consonants are dropped, a (for as) is shortened in samia and (Sahasram, 1. % f.). 
^ becomes ^; see pure 1 (—Skt puras) t ve (— vas\ bhikhuniye (nom, plur.), athe^ &c. It is 
represented by a in *j5 (nom. sing* neut.}, and by a in \d\thata (?), *j<z (nom. sing, neut), ydvataka 
and vdlata (Rupnath). 

Final a is nasalized in chain (Calcutta-Bairat, 1. 3), while final Anusvara is omitted in ima y iya, 
iupaha (for tziphdkam)^ diyadhiya (Rupnath), prakasa t [ba\dka y vadfiifecc^ yiptda, sagk\a\ (ace). 
The nom. sing, of neuters in -a generally follows the analogy of the masculine and ends in ~e ; see 
pkale, &c. The termination -am is replaced by 4 in badhi (Rupnath, 11. i, a) ; cf. ayi for ayam at 
Shahbazgarhu 3 The long nasal vowel dm is shortened in the termination (-am) of the acc. sing, of 
feminines in -a (below, p. cxxvi), and tm becomes t in ddni (= Skt, iddmm). 

(3) Sandhl 

Final m is preserved and doubled in hevammeva (Calcutta-Bairat, L 8). 

a+a becomes a in ^vasabhistta, sdiilehe y sddhi\ke\ ap\^bddhatam i ja\lagli\o\sdgamd\ (?), The 
a which results from the contraction is shortened before a group of consonants in \dgamd\thdia (?) s 
apaladhiyend and aval[d\d/iiyend, diyadhiyath^ but the length is preserved in diyddhiyam (Sahasram), 
Final a is elided before «, e y 0 in chu (= cha + «), ekunamsaii y ma\Jid[tameva^ Laglml-ovade, 

(4) Groups of Consonants. 

The only groups which occasionally remain unassimilated are &y 9 ty (which becomes chy)^pr y 
rv, vy % sv. 

A long vowel preceding a group is shortened in aliya (—Skt. drya), pa\ld\kamamiu (=pardkra°) t 
palahamamlnendy \j?alakd\m\t\e, viahata- (= mahdtman), Sake and (= £dkyafc) } abhikhinam 

(= abhikshnam). But the length remains in p\a\l\a\kame (Sahasram), p\d\poiave (from prdpiidti)^ 
laii (= rdtri), sute (= siiiram). A short vowel preceding a group is lengthened in v\a\tave 
(infinitive of vach). 

The long nasal vowel am is shortened before consonants in \jalaka\7h\i\e 3 and Devdnainpiya 
(Rupnath and Maski), but remains in Devdndmpiya (Sahasram and Bairat). In bhainte, a Buddhist 
term of address which stands perhaps for bhaddamtt^ ~ Skt. bhadram te, * happiness to you the 
syllable dda is elided. The nasal vowel im is replaced by a length in ekunavzsatL Anusvara is some- 
times omitted after a ; see the infinitive adhigatave (Maski), atd (Rupnath) = aintd (Sahasram and 



1 The same form is used in Ardhamagadhi and Pali. Cf. also [p\ule at Kalsl, 1, 1. 3. 

2 Also Pali saddhim — Skt, sdrdham, &c. ; see Geiger's Pali, § 32. 

3 The Anusvara is omitted at the same time \npakate (= Skt. prakrdntah). 

4 See Childers, Pali Dictionary \ s, v, bhadanto* According to Hemachandra, IV, 287, bhantte is 
the Magadhi voc. sing, of bhadanta. 



GRAMMAR OF THE RUPNATH EDICT, ETC cxxv 

Bairat), ih\abK\e (but tka[m]bkasi and tkam[bk]a) t pakamatu (3. plur.>, [pala]kamatu (Bairat) 
= pa\ld\kamamtu (Sahasram), vayajanena (—Skt. vyanjanena), Aliya-vasant ( = Arya-vaihsalj) y saghe 
(= savtgha1£) % chha{sa)vachhare and sav\d\chhale (— samvatsaralj). The final *r of the first member 
of a compound is nasalized at Sahasram in \i?i\isam-deva and aimnisam-\de^)d (read ami 0 ). 

The auxiliary vowel which is developed within some groups is u before labials in duve t 
duvddasa, s\ti\ag\e\> sumi ; <s in alakami, ld{li)khapetavaya, vayajanena ; and frequently i , as will 
appear from the subjoined list of Sanskrit groups and of their equivalents in the rock-inscriptions 
at Rupnath, &c. 

ht becomes t in abhisita t &c. 

ky remains in \chd\kye (Bairat), but becomes My in chakiye^ sakiye, and k in sake (=: Skt 
sakyaft)) Sake and (= Adkyak). 

kr becomes k in pakamasi, pa\ld\kamamtti % &c. 

ksh becomes kh in hkudaka^ bhik1m % bhikhuniye^ dakkitaviye* 1 

hsfm becomes khin in abhikhinam* 

khl becomes kh in kho — Skt. khalu ; see above, p, lvi and n. 2. 
gr becomes^ in \iiigohd\ (— Skt. nyagrodhd). 
jit becomes jin in %V«a- 

becomes mn in sapaiJmd = Skt. shaipanchaiat ; cf. paihnadasd, &c, in the pillar-edict V. 

becomes j> in sapamna. 
tk becomes k in samukase* 
tin becomes t in mahatu- (= Skt. makdtmatt). 
ty becomes cAy in adhigichya (= Skt. adkikritya). 
tr becomes t in Arto, lati, sUU t heta. 
iv becomes / in viahatata (— Skt. mahatmatvat). 
ts becomes chh in ckha{sa)vackkare and sav\a^ckhal . 
MS& becomes tk in [«/A5/3#//*]. 3 

becomes d in kkndaka, b1ta[dak]e. 
dv becomes duv in rfwztf, duvadasa ; in Jambadlpasi^ diyadkiyanu 
pn becomes p \np\a\potave (from Skt prdpnoti). 

pr remains in prakdsa (Rupnath) and in abkipreta?h 9 prasade^ Pr\f\yadas\z\ (Calcutta-Bairat), 
but becomes p in Piyadasz, &c, and perhaps ph in pkdsu — Vedic pram (?) ; see Geiger's 
Pali, § 63, 1. 

^ becomes in svage. 

rtk becomes tk in atha, and perhaps in -\a\tkata (?), 

?aEft becomes rfA in adhati[y\dm^ vadhisati and vadhisitu 

rdhy becomes dhiy in apaladhiyena and aval[a\dhiyend ; in diyadhiyam, 

rm becomes in dhamma (spelt dhama at Maski, 1. 5). 

becomes in aliya (= Skt <zrj/tf) ajidpaliydya, 
rv remains in sarve (Calcutta-Bairat, 1. 3), but becomes v in pavata and pavatis\ti\* 
rs becomes s in Piyadasu 

rsh becomes sk in va$Aa[nz] (Maski, 1, s) s itivasa and samukase, 
rh becomes lah in alahami* 
Ip becomes p in ap\a\badJiaiam* 

vy remains in vy{?i\thend, but becomes viy in dahhitaviye^ vataviyd, vivasetavd{vi) [yd] , and vay 
in ld(li)khdpetavaya and vayajanena. 

hi becomes .s/y; in pasine (= Skt. prasnak)* 
sy becomes s in the optative passive diseyd. 
sr becomes s in misa and sdvane. 

slit becomes tit in ^{V^jfta (Rupnath) ; tk in vivutka (Sahasram). 
slim becomes ph in tupaka (read perhaps tupkakam^ as at Sarnath). 

becomes j in Upatisa> munisd> vadhisati and vadhisiti^ hosati* 
st becomes tk in atki and (Sahasram) ; tk in (Rupnath). 

sth becomes tk in chira-thitike and chila-tkitike* 



1 See above, p. Ixxiv, n. 5. 2 C£ above, p. ciii. 

1 q 3 



cxxvi 



INTRODUCTION 



sm becomes sum in sumi (= Skt. asmifo s in the loc. sing, in -asi. 

sy becomes sty in siya (= Skt. sydt) \ s in the gen. sing, in -as a. 

sv remains in svage (spelt Svage at Bairat), but becomes su in «s[w]3?j>] (Sahasram). 



Singular, 

Nom. masc. aihe f &c; mvX.pkak^ &c- 
Acc, masc. sanigkam, &c; neut. mpulam, &c. 
Instr. Budhma^ &c. 
Dat. kalaya, athdya, atlt[a\ye. 
Abl. mahaiaid. 
Gen. 

Loc. Budhasi) &c. 



B,— DECLENSION 

(i) Masculines and neuters in -a. 

Plural 

Masc. devd, &c, ; neut. bhaydni^ &c. 



d&vehu 
\ajivi\kehi. 



pavatesu. 



In the nom. sing, masc* ydvatdka and the nom. sing. neut. ld{li)khdpetavaya y vivasetava{vt) [ yd\ 
at Rupnath, -a is perhaps only a clerical error for -e* 

In the acc. sing- masc. sagh\a\ (for samgham) and the acc. sing. neut. vipula at Rupnath, the 
final Anusvara is omitted 

The final a of the instr. sing, is lengthened in apaladhiyend, aval\a\dkiyena> -ahhtsitena, 
pa\kd\mam\t\nena) palakamammena, vayajanetia, vy\ti\ikend. 

At Barabar we seem to have a loc. sing, in -e : su[p\i[y\f 9 

The final a of the nom. plur, masc. is shortened in -deva (Sahasram, I. 3). 

The Sanskrit masculines paryaya, va?hsa 9 samvatsara form the nom. and acc, plur. paliydydni, 
vasdniy \savachhaldni\ with the termination of the neuter. The nom. plur- neut. has the ending -a 
at Sahasram (I, 6 f.) in lati-satd vivutHd ; at Rupnath (1. 5 f.), we have sata instead of said. 

(%) Feminines in -a. 

Nom. sing, kubhd, dind\ acc, sing. ap\€^bddhatam % phdsti-viMlatam ; nom. plur. ttpdsikd, gdihd. 

(3) Feminmes in -f and 
Acc. sing, vadhi\ nom. plur Bhiklmniye; loc. plur. pavatis\ti\?- 

(4) Masculines in -at. 

Nom. sing. kalamtam% instr. sing. ihagavatd\ nom. plur~ samta (for either samtd or sarnie). 

(5) Masculines in -an. 
Nom. sing. instr. sing. lajina> ma[hd\tan\a\. 

(6) Masculine in -in. 
Nom, sing Piyadast, Pr\f\yadas\i\ ; instr. sing. Piyadasma. 



C. — PRONOUNS 

(1) Pronoun of the first person; 



Nom. sing, haham* 

Instr- sing. wia?naya } hamiydye f \ine\. 

Gen. sing. h\d\md t me. 



1 The feminine parvati (= parvata) occurs in the Taitiiriya-Samhitd \ see Bohtlingk's 
Worterhuch) s.v. 



GRAMMAR OF THE RUPNATH EDICT, ETC cxxvii 

The genitive h\&\ma is a compromise between the usual form mama or mama and the noiru 
*Iiam (for Skt afiam). With the instr. hamiydye cf. mamiydye at Jaugada. 

(a) Pronoun of the second person. 

Dat plur. ve (— Skt. vah\ which is used for the nom. at Maski (L 7) ; gen- plur, tupaka 
(Rupnath), which is probably a clerical error for iuphakmh (Sarnath). 

{3) Base tcu 

Nom. sing. masc. and neut se ; acc- sing. neut. ta[m] t se ; nom, plur. masc. te. 

(4) Base eta. 

Nom. sing. neut. esa, esd, e[s\e \ instr. sing. \etena\ y etem{na) y etina ; dat, sing. etdye f etiya ; acc. 
plur. neut. etdtiu 

With the forms etina and etiya at Rupnath cf. the gen. sing, etisa in the two KhardshthT 
versions of the rock-edicts, and etishd at Kalsl. 

(5) Demonstrative idarn* 

Singular. 1 Plural. 

Nom. masc, iya\m\ 9 iya \ neut iyavu 
Acc. masc. ima ; neut. imam. 
Dat. \i\maya* 

Nom, sing. fern. iyam. 

(6) Interrogative pronoun. 

The base ki forms part of the conjunction khhti or feiti, and the base ha of the indefinite kechi 
(nom. sing. neut.). 

(7) Relative pronoun. 

Nom. sing. masc. and neut. e ; acc. sing- neuter, am ; nom. plur. masc. ya % which follows the 
analogy of the nouns in -a, and [jvj. 

(8) Base sarva* 

Nom* sing. neut. sarve* 



Neut imam. 



D. — NUMERALS 

Two : nom. neut duve. 
Twelve: duvdtfasa. 
Nineteen: ekunavtsatu 

Fifty-six : sapamnd. For pannd — Skt,pa7icfidsat } see PischeVs Gramvtatik^ § 445 
Hundred : said and saia (nom- plur.). 



E.~ CONJUGATION 

(1) Present. 

(a) Indicative. 

1. sing, alahdmii sumi s ichhdmh Hkka\j>a\ymni. 
3. sing, athu 

(b) Subjunctive. 

3. plur. \ltkhdpd\ydthd* 



cxxviii INTRODUCTION 

(c) Optative. 

3. sing. adkigachh[e\yd 7 siyd, diseyd (passive). 

3, plur. sun[e]yn (= shtme[y\u at Kalsl), npadhdl\a\yeyu* 

(d) Imperative. 

3, sing. hotu. 

plur, lekhdpeta^ \likhdpayatha\. 
3, plur. pakamatu (for ^mamit^palakamamiiiijdnamtu. 

(a) AORIST ; 3. plur. 

(3) Perfect : 3. sing. aha. 
(4) Future. 

3. sing- hosati, vadhisati and vaiihisiti, 

(5) Participles. 

(a) Present Participle. 

Active : kalamtam, samta (nom. plur.). 
Middle : , patakamamina* 

(b) Past passive participle. 

In -fo: kata } pakata (= Skt. prakrdntd), vy\ti\tha and vivutha (from vUvas)^ &c. 
In -a<z : diV/a (i. e. dinnd) ; see above, p. cxxii. 

(c) Future passive participle. 

In -tavya : dahhitaviya r vataviya, ld{U)kkdpetavaya, wvasetava(v£)[ya\. 
In -jw : sakiya and jtf&z, [er^dfjiytf and c/iakzya. 

(6) Infinitive* 

adhigatave, v\a\tave (from root vacfy % p\a\fotave (from Skt. prapnoti), pdv\a\t\a\ve (from 
*prdpati ; see Fischers Grmmnatik^ § 504), arodheve (read drddhetave) and 

■ 

(7) Absolutive. 
ff5^tf^*&]«07« ; cf. Fischers Grammatik y § 585. 



II. THE THREE ROCK-INSCRIPTIONS IN THE MYSORE STATE 

A, — PHONETICS 



(1) Vowels. 

For vadkisiti and munisd, see above, p. cxxiii. Skt. # is represented by 0 in ;ar« ( = gttru). 
For 0 = Skt. flf in M?, see above, p. Ivi and n. a. becomes (1) £ in pakitl (= prakritih), 
pitisu {=pitrisku) ; (a) & in pitusu ; (3) in drahyitavyam (from drikyati). an becomes 0 in 
par and. 

Interconsonantal 0 or z are lengthened in adhdtiya (= Ardhamagadhl addhdijja > see above, 
p. cxxiii), upayita (— Skt. »gft?to)> ckira-thifike, Suvamnagiriie^ and final ^ which stands for w, in 
^^2/?. Initial a and * are lost in pi s hakam> tu 



GRAMMAR OF THE MYSORE EDICTS 



cxxix 



(a) Simple Consonants. 

The three Mysore inscriptions agree with the Girnar, ShahbazgarhT, and Mansehra rock-edicts 
in retaining the letter r 9 which has become / in the Magadha dialect. 

Skt n is preserved in gwpa, paka\ifi\i . . nena (read pakamaminend) y for ana, prdnesth maha- 
matanam, H\J>t]karma, Suvamnagirtte^ savane^ but is replaced by dental n in adhatiyani, 
hhuddkena^ vasanu It is used instead of 11 in Devdnampiya (Brahmagiri and Jatinga-RamesVara) 
— \Dev\d\nd\mpiya (Siddapura) and corresponds to Skt //I in dnapayatu 1 

k appears to have become y in diyadhiya (= *dvikdrdhya) 9 bk becomes h in hoti t fatsaiii, 

devehu 

y is developed out of i in itpayiie and becomes v before u in a\gli\dvuse. ayi becomes e 
in aradhetave. ava becomes e? in hoti. 

$ and sh have become s throughout ; but s is improperly used for s in \d\char\i\yasa (Jatinga- 
Rames* vara) and sa\chd\m (Siddapura). h is prefixed in hevam and hemeva. 

Final as becomes e in Suva7huagirtte i at/ie, &c., but a in esa (nom, sing. neut,). Final 
Anusvara is omitted in iya and bddha* 

(3) Sandhi. 

Final m is preserved, and the syllable va is dropped* in kenieva (= Skt. evamtevd)* Final a is 
elided before u in chu {~cka + u) t and before e in mahdtpemeva^ i+i become I in hlyam (Brahmagiri, 
X 4). 

■ 

(4) Groups of Consonants. 

- 

The only groups which occasionally remain unassimilated are ky, tm (which becomes tp) } dr, 
pr y vy, sv s hy* 

A long vowel preceding a group is shortened in ayaputasa, dcfiariya, avaradhiyd, diyadhiyam 9 
e\t\dyathdym> but the length remains in dnapayati, dz[gji\dmise % pdpotave (from Skt, prdpnoii), 
mahdmdia^yathdrahanu A short vowel preceding a group is lengthened in vyuthena. 

The long nasal vowel dm is shortened before consonants in \Dev\d\tid\mpiyei prdkamie and 
pakamfe. Anusvara is omitted after a in aid and savachharaiiu 

hi becomes t in vataviya* 

ky remains in sakye (Brahmagiri), but becomes k in sake (Siddapura). 
kr becomes k in pakama, prakamie and pakmhU* 
ksh becomes kh in khudaka. 

hhl becomes kh in hho = Skt* khalu ; see above, p. lvl and n. %. 

gy becomes giy in drogiyam. 

jn becomes it in ndtika ; n in dnapayatu 

As in atpa- (= Skt* dtman) at Girnar, tm becomes ip in mahatpa ( s mahatma?z). 

ty becomes eh in sachanu 

tr becomes t in ayapuiasa, mahdmdta. 

is becomes chh in smhvachhara* 

dr remains in drafiyitavyam, but becomes d in klmdaha. 
dv becomes d in Jambudipasi and diyadhiyam. 
pn becomes/ in pdpotave (from Skt. prdpnoti). 

pr remains in prakamte (Brahmagiri, 1. 3), but becomes p mpahamt$ } &c. 

rg becomes g in svage* 

rgh becomes^// in di[gli\dvuse. 

rn becomes mn in Suvamnagirite. 

rt becomes t in pavatiiaviya \ t in kataviye. 

rth becomes ih in atha. 



Cf P Prakrit anaved% and anapemU anapita, &c. at Shahbazgarh! and Mansehra. 



cxxx 



INTRODUCTION 



rdh becomes dh in adhdiiydni and vadhisitu 

rdhy becomes dhiy in avaradhiyd ; dhiy in diyadhiyant. 

rm becomes mm in dhamma* 

ry becomes riy in dchariya; y in ayaputasa. 

rsk becomes s in vasdnu 

rh becomes raJt in yatharaham* 

vy remains in vyuthena and drahyitavyam f but becomes viy in the remaining gerunds in 

-taviya (— Skfc -tavya). 

becomes s in misa, sdvane, savite, sdvdpite, susfts\%\taviye. 

sht becomes th in vyuthena. 

shy becomes s in munisa and vadhisitz* 

sth becomes th in chira-thitike* 

. » 

sm becomes s in the loc. sing* in -asL 
sy becomes s in the gen. sing, in -asa. 
sv remains in svage. 
hy remains in drahyiiavyanu 



B.— DECLENSION 



(i) Masculines and neuters in -a. 



Singular. 

Nom. masc. athe, &c; neut* phafe) &c. 

Acc. masc. ekam t savachharam \ neut. arogi- 

yam t &c. 
Instr. kdlena l &c. 
Dat, athdya. 
Abl. avaradhiya. 
Gen. ayapuiasa^ pakamasa. 
Loc. Isilasij Jambudipasi* 



Plural. 

Masc. ndtikd } &c; neut. vasani, &c. 



devehi. 



mahdmdtdnam. 
jiatikesU) prdnesu. 



The termination of the nom. sing. neut. is -am in \likhita\m (Jatinga-Rame^vara) = likhite 
(Brahmagiri), vataviyam 9 sacham. 

(a) Feminine in -a : nom. sing, par ana. 
($) Feminine in 4 : nom. sing, pakitt. 

(4) Masculine in -u : loc, plur. garu[su]. 

(5) Masculine in -ri 1 loc. plur. pitisu (Brahmagiri) and pitusu (Jatinga-RameSvara). 

(6) Masculine in -an. The Sanskrit base makdtman follows the ^-declension : instr. sing. 
mahdtpen\a\ ; nom- plur. mahdtpd. 

(7) Masculine in -in : instr, sing, amievdsind. 



C— PRONOUNS 

(1) Pronoun of the first person. 
Nom. sing, hakam ; instr. viayd, me ; gen. mat (read me)* 

(2) Base ta, 
Acc. sing, neut- se ; nom, plur. masc. se+ 

{3) Base eta. 

Nom. sing. neut. esa \ dat. sing. e\i\dya \ nom. sing. fern. esd. 



GRAMMAR OF THE MYSORE EDICTS cxxxi 



(4) Demonstrative idavu 

Singular. 
Norn. masc. iyam ; neut iyam, iya. 



Acc. masc, imam. 
Instr. imifia* 



Plural* 



Masc. ime. 



(5) Relative pronoun. 

Acc. sing, neut. ya y yam+ 



R— CONJUGATION 

(1) Present* 

(a) Indicative: 3. smg. hoti 9 anapayatu 

(b) Optative: 3. yAwr. pakantefitjjaneyu (which follows the /z-conjugation). 

{%) Aorist : 1. sing, husam* 
(3) Perfect : 3. sing, aha* 
{4) Future: 3. sing, vadhisitu 
(5) Participles. 

(a) Present middle participle : paka\iii\i . m na (read pahamamlnd) % samana (from root as). 

(b) Past passive participle : upayiia (from upa-i), prakamta and pakamta (= Skt. prakranld) % 
vyutha (from vi-va$) t &c. 

(c) Future passive participle: vatamya % kaiaviya y drahyitavya (from the present drihyaify 
apachayitaviya^ pavatitaviya^ susus\z\taviya (from the desiderative of Jru). 

(6) Infinitive, 
papotave (from Skt. prapuoti), avadhetave. 



TEXTS AND TRANSLATIONS 



FIRST PART: THE ROCK-EDICTS 



I. THE GIRNAR ROCK 

FIRST ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 

1 (a) 3?i *i*ffV*tft ^n^ffa^ 

2 ftn^ftHT TJ&X ^Tftin (B) ^Ef 

4 (c) 5T ^ ^amt (d) ^ f| 

e (e) ^ftj fir f ijw wmi wgKm \*m- 

10 (g) % to ^ *wf<*ift ftrftm ift ^ ttt- 

11 'in ^ttopi ft^n tj% *pt* sfi fa ! j ^ 

12 unt 5T (h) ft ^ wm w ^ wtfror; 

1 (A) iy[am] dhamma-Iipt Pevanampriyena 

2 Priyadasiaa rafia lekh[a]pita (B) [ijdha na kirh- 

3 chi jTvam arabhitpa prajuhjtayyai^ 

4 (C) na cha samajo katavyo (D) bahukam hi dosam 

5 samajamhi pasati Devaiiaifap^ raja 1 

6 (E) asti pi tu ekacha samaja sadhu-mata Devanam- 

7 priyasa Priyadasino raiio (F) pura mahanas[amhi] 2 

8 Devanampriyasa Priy[a]dasino rafio anudivasam ba- 



1 Before raja a. superfluous ra seems to have been struck out by the writer. 

fi The first syllable of mahanastt looks almost like me, and sa like se. Originally makdnase 
may have been written, to which mhi was added subsequently without correcting the se into sa. 
As noted by Biihler (EI, 3, 449, n. io) a a second mhi was added at the very end of the line; 

1610 B 



2 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



9 huni prana-sata-sahasrani arabhisu supathaya 
10 (G) se aja yada ayam dha[ih]ma-lip[I] likhita ti eva gra- 
il na arabhare supathaya dvo mora eko mago so pi 
12 mago na dhruvo 1 (H) ete pi tri prana pachha na arabhisare 



TRANSLATION 

(A) This rescript on morality s has been caused to be written by king Devanam- 
priya Friyadarfiin. 

(B) Here 3 no living being must be killed and sacrificed. 

(C) And no festival meeting 4 must be held, 

(D) For king Devanampriya PriyadarSin sees much evil in festival meetings. 

(E) But there are also some festival meetings which are considered meritorious by 
king Devanampriya FriyadarSin. 6 

(P) Formerly in the kitchen of king Bevanampriya Priyadarfiin many hundred 
thousands of animals were killed daily for the sake of curry. 6 

(G) But now, when this rescript on morality is written, only three animals are being 
killed (daily) for the sake of curry, 7 (viz.) two peacocks (and) one deer, (but) even this 
deer not regularly, 

(H) Even these three animals shall not be killed in future* 

SECOND ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 
1 (a) IfHtff fMsfTTfti? ^^T'ffipra ftpR^'Tt TJ^t 



1 dhuvo Senart and BUhler. There are two distinct strokes at the bottom of the dh, one of 
which is n f while the upper one is probably r* Cf. the r of [Ayndkra in the Girnar edict XIII, L 9, 
and of aprakaranamhi in edict XII, L 3. 

3 The literal meaning of dhainma-lipi (or dhrmna-dipi in the two Kharoshthi versions) is 
( a writing on morality'. To retain the sense of * writing', I use the translation 'rescript on 
morality f instead of 1 religious edict * as the term was rendered by Biihler, 

8 viz. 1 in my territory Cf. the rock-edict XIII, Q and R. and the Rupnath rock-inscription, K. 

4 Buhler (ZDMG, 37. 93 f.) s D. R. Bhandarkar (JBBRAS, «■ 395 ff. ; IA, 43. 355 ff.), and 
Thomas (JRAS, 1914. 39a ff.) have shown by quotations that this is the actual meaning of the 
word samafa, whichTischel (GGA, 1881. 1334 f.) had translated by 'battue', 

5 This remark seems to refer to the, representations mentioned in the rock-edict IV, B. 

0 D. R. Bhandarkar (IA, 42. 357) quotes Mahabharaia, III, 208, 8-10, where 'we are told that 
3,000 animals and 3,ooo kine were slain every day in the kitchen (mahanasa) of king Rantideva, and 
that by doling out meat to his people he attained to incomparable fame.* Cf. also XII, 39, 127 f., 
and VII, 67, 16-18: 'On the nights which guests spent with Rantideva, the son of Sarhkriti, 31,000 
kine were killed. Then the cooks, who wore ear-rings of bright jewels, were shouting: "Eat ye 
a lot of curry (sfipa) 1 There is not so much meat to-day, as formerly I n ' 

7 Evidently on behalf of some members of the royal household who refused to turn strict 
vegetarians. 



SECOND ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 3 

8 (D) XJ^^ht ^ ^TfiliTT TOT ^ ^TTTftlfrT Tjft%TPT ^p^Orf 

1 (A) sarvata vijitamhi Devanampriyasa Piyadasino 1 rafio 

2 evamapi_^achamtesu yatha Choda Pada Satiyaputo Ketalaputo a Tarixba- 

3 pamni Aintiyako Yona-raja ye va pi tasa Amtiy[a]kas[a] 2 samip[am] 3 

4 rajano sarvatra Devanampriyasa Friyadasino rafio dve chiklchha kata 

5 manusa - chiklchha cha pasu - chiklchha cha (B) osuclhaiu cha yani 

m[a]nusopagan[i] cha 

6 paso[pa]gani cha yata yata nasti sarvatra 4 harapitani cha ropapitani cha 

7 (C) mulani cha phalani cha yata yatra 5 nasti sarvata 6 harapitani cha 

rop[a]pitani cha 

8 (D) pamthesu kupa cha khanapita vrachha cha ropapit[a] paribhogaya pasu- 

manusanam 

TRANSLATION 

(A) Everywhere in the dominions of king Devanampriya Priyadarfiin, and 
likewise among (his) borderers, such as the Chodas, the Pandyas, the Satiyaputa, 7 
the Ketalaputa, 8 even 9 Tamrapamji, 10 the Tona king Antiyaka, 11 and also the 



I Priya° Buhler. 

3 Thus Senart and Buhler, EI, a. 449 ; Amiiyokasa Biihler, ZDMG, 37. 95, 

3 Buhler (ZDMG, 37. 95) would read saminam, which he considered to be a clerical error for 
samamtd, the reading of the' other versions of this edict. It is quite possible that samamta was the 
original reading of the rock, and that it was subsequently changed by the writer into samlpavi 
(or samlpa ?). 

* sarvata Senart, sarvatra Buhler. 

5 yata Buhler. 

e sarvatra Buhler. 

7 Buhler (ZDMG, 37* 98 ff.) rejected Kern's identification of this term with the Satpura range, 
and explained it by c the king of the Satvats \ whom he located in Western India. D. R. Bhandarkar 
(JBBRAS, %i* 398) compares Satiyaputa, for which the Kalsi version reads Satiyaputa, With 
Satpute, a surname current among the present Marathas. Liiders (ZDMG, 58. 693 f.) has shown 
that the YzMputta (= Skt pufra) at the end of compounds frequently means 'belonging to a tribe \ 
He quotes as examples Andhakavenhuptttta % Videhaputta % Bhojaptitta^ Mildchapntta^ devaputta 
(cf. the feminine devadhtta) r and Skt* rajapiitra* 

8 Ketalaputa is perhaps a mistake for the reading of the Mansehra version: Keralaputra, 
i.e. the king of Kerala or Malabar, the KrjpoftoOpos of Ptolemy; see Lassen's Ind* AIL, vol. I 
(sec. ed.), p. 188, note, and vol. Ill, p. 193. 

9 The syllable a cannot be the preposition 5. * as far as \ because the latter would require after 
it the ablative Tamiapamniyd y as at Mansehra, XIII, Q, Liiders therefore explains it as an 
Ardhamagadhi form of the Skt relative ; see SPAW t 1914. 831. 

10 Tamraparm (Tavibapannt in Pali) is one of the ancient names of the island of Ceylon. It 
occurs in the Dipavamsa^ and was known already to Megasthenes in the form Tampo$&vr\ ; see IA, 
6. 159 afi d 348. Besides, Tamraparni is the name of a river in the Tinnevelly district, which was 
known to the author of the Ramdyana (Bombay edition, IV 3 41, 17). 

II Kalsi and Mansehra read Amiiyoga % the remaining versions Amiiyoka. Antiochus II Theos 

E 2 



4 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

kings who are the neighbours 1 of this Antiyaka,— every where two (kinds of) medical 
treatment 2 were established by king Devanampriya Priyadarsin, (viz.) medical 
treatment for men and medical treatment for cattle. 

(B) And wherever there were no herbs that are beneficial to men and beneficial to 
cattle, everywhere they were caused to be imported and to be planted. 

(0) Wherever there were no roots and fruits, everywhere they were caused to be 
imported and to be planted. 

(D) On the roads wells were caused to be dug, and trees were caused to be planted 
for the use of cattle and men. 



THIRD ROCK-EDICT : GIRNAR 

1 (a) ^n^rftrat fiw<Ri <n i itf to (b) ^^wiTtf*^ *wt w& ^rf*m 

2 (c) *r3?i WW to ^ xx^k ^ iif^%%^ ^n^g 

3 arR f^wrg wf$& ^ronr ^ftr hhi^uRkM T^n ^rt- 

5 s^raym st^ <st*t TRwi* w% ^mk$t ^pftoit ^xrisht 

1 (A) Devanampiyo 8 Plyadasi r[a]ja evam aha (B) dbadasa-vasabhisitena maya 

idam an[a]pitaih 

2 (0) sarvata vijite mama yuta cha rajuke cha pradesike cha pamchasu pamchasu 

vasesu anusam- 

8 y[a]na[m n]iyatu etayeva athaya imaya dhammanusastiya yatha ana- 

4 ya pi kammay[a] (D) [s]adhu matari cha pitari cha susrusa m itr a-sams t ut a-na tlna m * ^ 

bamhana- 

5 samananam sadh[u d]anam prananam sadhu anarambho apa-vyayata apa-bhadata 5 

sadhu 

6 (E) parisa pi yute anapayisati gananayam hetuto cha vyamjanato cha 



of Syria (361-246 B.c) is probably meant; see Lassen's IwLAlt., vol. II (sec. ed.), p. 355, and 
Senart 3 IA, 30. 343. 

1 For samamta, 'neighbours', and its equivalent sdmipam, literally 'neighbourhood', see 
JBBRAS, ai. 398, I A, 34, 345, and AJP, 30. 183 ff. The 'neighbours' of Antiochus II were 
probably the four kings named in the Kalsi edict XIII, Q. 

2 D. R. Bhandarkar (JBBRAS, ai. 398 f.) remarks that chikitsa means neither 'hospitals' 
(Biihler) nor 'remedies' (Senart) ; he translates it by 'provision or provident arrangement', 

3 °priyo Biihler. 

4 miira- looks almost like mita- ; see EI, 2. 450, n, 47. 

5 apabhwidata Senart apabhamdata Biihler, 



FIRST AND SECOND ROCK-EDICTS: GIRNAR 



Page 4 




Scale One-sixth 



THIRD ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 5 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya FriyadarSin speaks thus. 

(B) (When I had been) anointed twelve years, the following was ordered by me. 

(C) Everywhere in my dominions the Yuktas* the Rajiika* and the Prddesika* 
shall set out on a complete tour (throughout their charges) * every five years for this 
very purpose, (viz.) for the following instruction in morality as well as for other 
business. 5 

(D) 'Meritorious is obedience to mother and father- Liberality to friends, 
acquaintances, and relatives, to Brahmanas and £ramanas is meritorious. Abstention 
from killing animals is meritorious. Moderation in expenditure (and) moderation in 
possessions are meritorious/ 6 

(E) The council (of Mahamatras) 7 also shall order the Yuktas to register (these 
rules) both with (the addition of) reasons and according to the letter. 8 

FOURTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 

i (a) ^fiwiifi ^frt ^ffH ^ragrrrf* ^rfsat i& unmtSt fafferr ^ 

a 4tmHn- Stfhftat sift v*ratit frmregwr sftaR^ro 



1 For yitta — Sanskrit yukta, 'an officer', which occurs in the Kautillya, see Thomas in 
I A, 37. ai, JRAS, 1909. 467, and 1914. 387 ff., and cf. the terms ayuktaka and vmiyuktaka in the 
Valabhl inscriptions (Fleet's Gupta Insets* p. 169, notes 4 and 5). 

a Buhler (ZDMG, 47. 466 ff.) showed that this term means originally 'a field-measurer* (from 
rajj\ 1 a rope'), and is the designation of a revenue settlement officer. In the Kautiliya, the two 
terms chora-rajju (p. 60) and chora-rajjuka (p. 332) seem to mean*something like 'police' and 
( police officer \ respectively, Cf. I- J. Sorabji, Notes on the Artftaidstram, p. 10 £ t and Jolly in 
ZDMG, 71. 238. 

3 Thomas (JRAS, 1914, 383 ft, and 1915. na) compares this term with pradeshtri in the 
Kautiliya, which is, however, a nomen agentis of the verb pradisati, 1 to direct while prddesika is 
derived from the substantive pradefa. Kern (JRAS, 1880. 393) translated prddesika by ' a provincial 
governor'. In Kalhana's Rajataranginl (IV, 126) prddesikesvara means *a provincial chief*. 
A reference to the first separate edict (Dhauli, Z-CC ; Jaugada, AA-DD) suggests that the 
Prddesika of the third rock-edict may have belonged to the class of the Mahamatras, and that 
PradeHka-mahamatra would mean 1 a provincial high officer \ 

* Cf. Fleet in JRAS, 1908. 8ai- 

5 Cf. the Dhauli separate edict I, CC, 

e This sentence has been successfully explained by Thomas, IA, 37. 20. 

7 Buhler translated parisd by 1 school \ and in edict VI by fi committee '. K. Jayaswal (I A, 
42. 283) has drawn attention to the occurrence of the term mantri-pariskad^ 'the council of 
ministers \ in the KauiiHya. This meaning fits admirably both here and in the rock-edict VI, F. 

8 I follow Luders (SPAW, 1914. 839) in the translation of the difficult words ganandyam 
heinto cha vyamjanato c/ta. For vyanfana cf. my note on the translation of the Sarnath pillar-edict, 
section I. 



6 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

4 srft^nfVr SWlfa ^ f^Sfrfa ^trfH ^Rftrcn SI*! (C) irfkB SfgR? 

7 ^J^TT t^pT (D) ^ ^ ^fft^ V^R^I (E) SFSfagfiT 

8 flPl^fa TOT VRr&M *A ( F ) 1^1 ^ ^ TWtWT ^ ^iRfira*? 

+ 

10 (G) ff ^ W 1 WI^SR (H) fq 51 VI^ffT S^ft?**? 

(i) h ^Frf»w ^raf*§ 

12 ^ <*t3cf*IT (K) lI^TOTf^^ ^PTftl^ fiPR^ W «t 

1 (A) atikatarii amt[a]ram bahuni vasa-satani vadhito eva pranarariibho vihimsa cha 

bhutanam fiatlsu 

2 a[s]ampratipatl bra[m]hana-sramananam asarhpratlgati 1 (B) ta 2 aja Devanam- 

priyasa Priyadasino 8 raiio 

3 dhamma-charanena [bhe]ri-ghoso aho dhaihma-ghoso vimana-darsana 4 cha hasti- 

da[sa]na cha 

4 agi-kh[a]thdhani cha [a]nani cha divyani rupani dasayitpa janaih (C) yarise bahuhi 

v[asa]-satehi 

5 na bhuta-puve tarise aja vadhite Devanampriyasa Priyadasino rano 

dhammanusastiya anararh- 

6 [bh]o prananam avihisa 6 bhutanam natlnam sampatipatl bramhaQa-samaiaanam ha-'Tn llaow 

sampatipati matari pitari , . 

7 [s]usrusa thaira-susrusa (D) esa ane cha bahuvidhe [dha]mma-charane va[dhi]te 

(E) vadhayisati cheva Devanaihpriyo 

8 [Pri*]ya[da]si c raja dhamma-[cha]ranam idaih (F) putra cha [p]otra cha prapotra 

cha Devanampriyasa Priyadasino rano 

1 The syllable fa was inserted subsequently. 

2 This syllable was inserted subsequently. 

3 The syllable da was inserted subsequently- 

4 -dasana Senart and Biihler. 

5 The syllable hi was inserted subsequently. 

c The first syllable of lines 8 and 9 {pri and prd) is invisible on my materials and is taken from 
the plate facing ASWI, a. 103. 



FOURTH ROCK-EDICT : GIRNAR 7 

9 [pra*]vadhayisarhti 1 idaih [dha]mrna-charanaih ava savata-kapa 2 dhammamhi 
silamhi tistamto [dha]mmam anusasisathti 

10 (G) [e]sa hi seste^kamme ya dhammanusasanam (H) dhamma-charane pi na 

[bha]vati asilasa (I) [ta] imamhi athamhi 

11 [va]dhi cha ahirn cha sadhu (J) e[t]aya athaya 3 ida[m] lekhapitam imasa atha[sa] 

v[a]dhi yujarhtu hini 4 ch[a] 

12 [no] 6 lochetavya (K) dbadasa-vasabhisit ena Devan[a]mpriyena Priyadasina 

rafi[a] idam lekhapitam 

TRANSLATION 

(A) In times past, for many hundreds of years, there had ever been promoted the 
killing of animals and the hurting of living beings, discourtesy to relatives, (and) 
discourtesy to Brahmanas and ^ramanas. 

(B) But now, in consequence of the practice of morality on the part of king 
Devanampriya PriyadarSin, the sound of drums has become the sound of morality, 6 
showing the people representations of aerial chariots, representations of elephants, 
masses of fire, and other divine figures- 7 

(0) Such as they had not existed before for many hundreds of years, thus there are 
now promoted, through the instruction in morality on the part of king Devanampriya 



1 See note 6 on previous page. 

2 samvata- Biihler. 

3 Between tha and ya the rock shows a vacant space which may be due either to a natural 
fissure or to an erasure. 

4 There is a vacant space between hi and nu 

5 Instead of no the plate facing EI, 3. 45a shows the syllable ma y which seems, however, to be 
due to retouching. Kern (I A, 5* 261 and 262) preferred to read nalochetavya* 

6 For former translations of these words see my remarks in JRAS, 1911- 785 ff. I now adopt 
the explanation of D. R. Bhandarkar {I A, 43. 35), who says : 1 The sound of a drum invariably 
precedes either a battle, a public announcement, or the exhibition of a scene to the people. But 
since ASoka entered on his career of righteousness, it has ceased to be a summons to fight, but 
invites people to come and witness certain spectacles ; and as those spectacles are of such a character 
as to generate and develop righteousness, the drum has thus become the proclaimer of righteousness/ 
Cf, the Girnar edict X, A, and the third note on the translation of it, 

7 D. R. Bhandarkar fp. 36 £) suggests that the aerial chariots were exhibited in order to induce 
people to practise morality and thereby to become qualified for such celestial abodes. The 
elephants {hathini at Dhauli) he explains as representations of Buddha in the shape of a white 
elephant ; but we may also think of the celestial elephants, which are the usual vehicles of the 
four Maharajas or Lokapalas- In the * masses of fire ' Bhandarkar finds an allusion to the 
iire-pit of the Khadirahgara-jdtaka. But according to Childers, Pali Dictionary \ p. 1 8, aggikkhandha 
is * used figuratively of a person of brilliancy and distinction \ To the three quotations which he 
gives from the commentary on the Dhammapada may he added Mahavagga^ 1, 16-18, where the 
guardians of the four directions, with Indra and Brahma, are stated to resemble * great masses of 
fire ' (mahanta aggikhhandhfy. Consequently, the expression * masses of fire * {agikhamdhani) in 
the fourth edict has perhaps to be taken in the sense of * radiant beings of another world \ Thomas 
(JRAS, 1914. 395) would render agniskandhah by 'bonfires' ; but this meaning is precluded by 
the subsequent words 'and other divine figures'. In editing edict IV, Prinsep (JASB, 7. 266) 
quoted Mahdvaihsa > XII, 34, where Buddha's sermon on the parable of aggikkhandha (Ahgtittara- 
ftikaya, ed. Hardy, part IV, p. 128 ft) is referred to. With divyani rupani cf. deva in the Rupnath 
edict, E, See also above, p. 2, n. 5. 



8 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



Priyadarsin, abstention from killing animals, abstention from hurting living beings, 
courtesy to relatives, courtesy to Brahmanas and ^ramanas, obedience to mother (and) 
father, (and) obedience to the aged. 

(D) In this and many other ways is the practice of morality promoted, 

(E) And king Devanampriya Priyadar£in will ever promote this practice of 
morality, 

(F) And the sons, grandsons, and great-grandsons of king Devanampriya Priya- 
darsin will promote this practice of morality until the seon of destruction (of the 
world), 1 (and) will instruct (people) in morality, abiding by morality (and) by good 
conduct. 

(G) For this is the best work, viz. instruction in morality. 

(H) And the practice of morality is not (possible) for (a person) devoid of good 
conduct. 

(I) Therefore promotion and not neglect of this object is meritorious. 

(J) For the following purpose has this been caused to be written, (viz. in order 
that) they 2 should devote themselves to the promotion of this practice, and that the 
neglect (of it) should not be approved {by them). 5 

(K) This was caused to be written by king Devanampriya Friyadar&in (when 
he had beert) anointed twelve years. 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT : GIRNAR 

1 (A) ^sffiwt fiw^r Trq ^ (B) §sfit (0) ^ 

2 (D) W^^|TOn!iqi?f (E) WTO^T^^^^t^^'I^OT^ 

mm shrew ^^frwft mi 

3 ^fi?T WfrT (F) ^ if Tin fa ^TOflfrT # ^n *fimf?T (G) ^it 

urt (h) sgrfNirw ^iiK 

4 rt VOTf mm HTO (I) rf TRT ^^Tfaf^T WTOfffiim 

^RHT (J) ft S Wtfl^ ^ITOrTT VT*fTOMTO 

ft 3iITOrlT (K) JTrlTWg 



1 See Fleet's remarks in JRAS, 191 1, 485, n. 1. B6htImgk J s Abridged Dictionary (vol VII, 
addenda) quotes samvarta-kalpa from the MaMvyutpatti (§ 453, No, 62). 

3 Hereby the successors of Aidka appear to be meant ; cf. section F, above. 

3 In the rock-edict XIII, section X, lochetu at Kalsi corresponds to roclietu (from Skt, rdchayati) 
at Shahbazgarhi. Here, however, we find forms of the verb hcheti m all versions- Probably these 
are pure Magadhisms at Girnar, Shahbazgarhi, and Mansehra, where forms of rocheii would have 
to be expected. The same applies to section E of the rock-edict XIV, where \a\Iochetpa at Girnar 
and ahcheti at Shahbazgarhi correspond to alochayitu at KalsL 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT : GIRNAR 9 

1 

9 S w*5TOm (o) ism wi «*4nfe« fa%n 



1 (A) D[e]vaiiampriyo Piyadasi raja 1 evarh aha (B) kalanam dukaram (O) y[o 

adikaro] kalan[a]sa 2 so dukaram karoli 

2 (D) ta maya bahu kalanam katam (E) t[a] mama puta cha pota 3 cha pararii cha 

tena y[a] me [ajpacham ava samvata-kapa anuvatisare tatha 

3 so sukatam kasati 4 (P) yo tu eta desaih pi hapesati so [du]katam kasati 

(G) sukaram hi papa[m] (H) atikatam amtaram 

4 na bhuta - pruvam 6 dhamma - mahamata nama (I) ta m[a]ya traidasa- 

vasabhi[s]i[teiia] dhamm[a]-mahamata kata (J) te sava-pasamdesu vyapata 
dhamadhistanaya 6 

5 [dha]mma-yutasa cha Yona-K[a]mb o[j a>Gamdharanam 7 Ristika- 

P[e]tenikanam ye va pi a[m]n[e a]parata 8 (K) bhatamayesu va 

6 ...... [su]kha[ya dhamma] - yutanam apar[i]godhaya vyapata te 

(L) ba[m]dhana-badhasa 9 patividhanaya 

7 [p]raja 10 katabhikaresu va thairesu va vyapata te (EC) Patalipute 

cha bahirasu 11 cha 

8 [y]e va pi me ane natika sarvata vyapata te (N) yo ayarii dhamma- 

nisrito ti va 

9 [t]e [dha]mma-mah3mata (O) etaya 13 athaya ayam dhamma-lipl likhita 

10 



1 There is a vacant space before and after the syllable rd. 

2 yea kalanesa Senart and Buhler, 

5 ^/r£Buhlen 

4 The Kalsi and Dhauli versions read correctly se mkatant kachkamti* As Michelson 
(AJP, 32. 441) suggests, the Girnar reading may be a corruption due to the Influence of the 
next sentence. 

6 Read -purvam^ which is Senart's reading ; -pmrvam Buhler. 

e The other versions read dhammMJn. 7 Yona- Buhler. 8 apardia Buhler. 

9 The na of baiiidhatta- was inserted subsequently. 

10 [py&fa looks exactly like [fi\qfd. Cf. the r of iraidasa-* in Hne 4, and above, p. 4, n. 4. 

11 Read bdhirestt % which is Senart's and Biihler's reading, 
18 The syllable ya was inserted subsequently. 



IO 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadar^in speaks thus. 

(B) It is difficult to perform virtuous deeds. 

(C) He who starts performing virtuous deeds accomplishes something difficult 

(D) Now, by me many virtuous deeds have been performed. 

(E) Therefore (among) my sons and grandsons, and (among) my descendants (who 
shall come) after them until the aeon of destruction (of the world), those who will conform 
to this (duty) will perform good deeds. 

(F) But he who will neglect even a portion of this (duty) will perform evil deeds. 

(G) For sin is easily committed, 

(H) In times past (officers) called Makamatras of morality {JDkarma-mahdmalrd) 
did not exist before. 

(I) But Makamatras of morality were appointed by me (when I had been) 
anointed thirteen years. 

(J) These are occupied with all sects in establishing morality • . of those 

who are devoted to morality (even) among the Tonas, Kambojas, and Gandharas, 1 
the Ristikas and Eetenlkas, 3 and whatever other western borderers 8 (of mine 
there are). 

(K) They are occupied with servants and masters 4 . for the 

happiness of those who are devoted to morality, (and) in freeing (them) from desire (for 
worldly life). 6 

(L) They are occupied in supporting prisoners* (with money) 7 (if one 

has) children, or with those who are bewitched (i. e* incurably ill ?), 8 or with the aged. 

1 i,e, the Greeks, Kabulis, and north-western Panjabis; see ASSI, i. 133, n. 1, and, for the 
Kambojas, Weber, Indische Streifen r 3. 353 and JRAS, 1911. 801 f„ X913. 355ff. f 1915* 171. 

2 Biihler (ZDMG, 37* %6i) identified the Ristikas with the Ijlishtikas of the Ramayana. But 
Ristika is probably a Clerical mistake for Rastika ; see my note on the translation of the Shahbazgarhi 
edict V, J* According to Michelson (IF, 34, 5% fF„) f Petenika stands for *Paitrayanikd. Dhauli 
reads Piienika s and the two Kharoshthi versions read Pitinika* The same tribe is mentioned in 
the rock-edict XIII, R ; see my note on the translation of the Kalsl version of that passage. 

3 In Senart's and Biihler -s translations the word apara, 1 western is disregarded ; but it 5s 
noticed by Senart in I A, no. 340. For atitta see the Kalsl, edict II, L i, and XIII t 1. 6; Rupnath, 
Sahasram, and Bairat, H ; Brahmagiri and &ddapura, I ; and the second separate edict at Dhauli 
and Jaugada* Later on Aparanta became the designation of a tract of land on the western coast, 
the capital of which was Sopara ; cf, EI, 11. 42a 

4 The m between bhata (Sanskrit bhrita) and aya (Sanskrit arya) is euphonic ; see 
Franke in GN, 1895. 533 f., and cf. Kuhn's Pali- Gra?nmatik 9 p. 63 f., and Windisch, Berichte der 
Sacks. Gesettsckaft der Wissenschaften t 1893. 340 f. 

B Instead of aparigodha other versions read apalibodha, for which see my note on the 
translation of the corresponding passage at Kalsl. Thomas has traced the substantive paligodha, 
1 desire and the participle paligitddha ( — parigriddha), * desirous in Buddhist Sanskrit works; 
see his valuable article in JRAS, 1 915, 99 if. 

6 Cf- bamdhana-badhanam munisanam in the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict IV, L, which renders 
Buhler's translation of this passage very improbable. 

7 Cf. hiramna-patividhatw in the Girnar edict VIII, E, and Luders in SPAW, 19 14. 840. 

8 With katdbhikara Senart compares dbhikriivarik* '(female demons who are) bewitchers', 
and abhiniskkdrin, 'devising (against others) \ in the Atharvavidq. Biihler (EI, 3, 468) translated 
* overwhelmed by misfortune 1 ; cf. his remarks in ZDMG, 48. 55. 



THIRD TO FIFTH ROCK-EDICTS: GIRNAR 



Page io 




Scale One-sixth 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 



it 



(HI) They are occupied everywhere, both in Fataliputra and ia the outlying 
and whatever other relatives of mine (there are). 

(N) These Makamatras of morality . whether one is eager for 

morality 1 

(0) For the following purpose has this rescript on morality been written 

SIXTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 

i (a) fa ^ m% (b) ^firam ^mt 

8 m^tit vfo^tm 3 j-pN tff to> (g) *rar w^rftfr (h) rftfw fs 

ii g f<jUlgrirm (!■) ^ ^ f%ftr wwifc f%frr igrn^f 
14 s=nprrt ««ic$tafinvni ( N ) ^st 5 ^ ^sfr mj**ta 

1 (A) [Deva] [sj raja evads aha (6) atikr£t[a]ih amtara[m] 

2 na bhuta-pru[v] „ 8 [s] . [v] . . . [1] . 5 atha-kamme va padvedana. va (0) ta maya. 

evam katarit 

3 (D) s[a]ve kale bhuihj[a]manasa me orodhanamhi gabhagaramhi vachamhi va 

4 vinitamhi cha uyanesu cha savatra pativedaka 4 stita athe me [ja]nasa 

5 pativedetha id (E) sarvatra cha janasa athe karomi (F) ya cha ktmchi mukhato 

6 anapayami svayarh dapakam va. sravapakam va, ya va puna mahamatresu 

7 achayi[ke] 5 aropitaih 6 bhavati taya athaya vivado nijhatt v[a s]amto parisayaih 



1 nisrito — Pali nissito and Skt. *ni£ritah (Senart). For fa ay am cf. my note on the translation) 
of section L of the Kalsl version of this edict. 
3 Read -purva ; -puva Senart, -pnrva Biihler. 
3 Restore save kale. 

*, An '■■ apparent w-mark is attached to the bottom of ft. 
6 achayika Senart and Biihler. 8 aropitaih Buhler., 

C 2 



12 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



8 anamtaram pat[i]vedeta[v]yam me sa[r]vatra sarve kale (G) evam maya anapitam 

(H) nasti 1 hi me to[s]o 

9 ustanamhi atha-samtiranaya va (I) katavya-mate hi me sa[rva}loka-hitam 

10 (J) tasa cha puna esa mule ustanam cha atha-samtirana cha (K) nasti hi kammataram 

11 sarva-loka-hitatpa (L) ya cha kiihchi parakramami ahaih kimti bhutanam anamnam 

gachheyam 

12 idha cha nani sukhapayami paratra cha svagarh aradhayamtu ta 3 (M) etaya athaya 

13 ayam dha[m]ma4ipi lekhapita kimti chiram tisteya iti tatha cha me putra pota cha 

prapotra cha 

14 anuvataram 3 sava-Ioka-hitaya (N) dukaram [t]u idarh afiatra 4 agena parakramena 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadarsin speaks thus. 

(B) In times past neither the disposal of affairs nor the submission of reports 
at any time did exist before. 

(C) But I have made the following (arrangement). 

(D) Reporters are posted everywhere, (with instructions) to report to me the 
affairs of the people at any time, while I am eating, in the harem, in the inner apart- 
ment, 5 even at the cowpen, 6 in the palanquin, 7 and in the parks, 

(E) And every where I am disposing of the affairs of the people. 

(P) And if in the council (of Mahdmatras) 8 a dispute arises, 9 or an amendment is 
moved, 10 in connexion with any donation or proclamation 11 which I myself am ordering 



1 An ancient fissure of the rock, which extends from 1. 8 to L i r, must have existed already at 
the time when the inscription was incised. This would account for the spaces which were left 
vacant by the engraver after nasti in L 8, ~foka- in 1. 9, kammaid in L io, and anamnam in L 11. 

2 Read H. 

3 Senart and Buhler correct anuvateranu Pischel (GGA, 1881. 1331) and Buhler read anuva- 
taram, which the former considered to be an imperative like duhrdm in the Atkarvaveda* Cf. 
Johansson's Shdhbazgarhi^ a. 89 £ The ra certainly resembles ra ; but the same applies to the ra 
of pakarane in the Girnar edict IX, 1. 8, and of samachairam in XIII| 1. 7, where the reading 
ra is impossible. 

* ahata Senart and Buhler, d C£ Molesworth's Mardthi Dictionary \ s. v. gab/tar. 

c The locative vachamhi (= vrackaspi in the two Kharoshthi versions) is generally rendered 
by* in the latrine 1 . But Skt. varckas does not mean *a latrine*, but 'ordure 1 . As, in the rock- 
edict XII, M, vacka or vracha probably corresponds to Skt. vrqja, 'a cowpen it may be taken 
here in the same sense. Establishments for cattle-breeding are kept up by Rajas and their govern- 
ments even in the present time. 

7 With vintta cf. Skt. vinitaka and vaimtaka ; see Buhler, ZDMG, 37. 377. 

8 See above, p. 5, n. 7. 

9 samto is a nominative singular absolute. Cf. my note on the translation of the Kalsi rock- 
edict VI, F. 

10 Buhler (ASSI, 1. 133) rendered nijhail by 'fraud'. This translation seems to be due 
to an oversight ; it would suit the former misreading nikatt^ but not the actual reading nijhatu 
Liiders (SPAW, 1913. 1019 £) has shown that the Sanskrit equivalent of this word would be 
*nidhyapti } * inducing to meditate i. e. in the present case, 1 moving a repeated consideration 

11 C£ the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, K and M. 



SIXTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 13 

verbally, or (in connexion with) an- emergent matter which has been delegated to the 
Makamairas* it must be reported to me immediately, anywhere, (and) at any time. 

(G) Thus I have ordered. 

(H) For I am never content in exerting myself and in dispatching business. 2 

(I) For I consider it my duty (to promote) the welfare of all men. 

(J) But the root of that (is) this, (viz,) exertion and the dispatch of business. 

(K) For no duty is more important 3 than (promoting) the welfare of all men. 

(L) And whatever effort I am making, (is made) in order that 4 I may discharge 
the debt (which I owe) to living beings, (that) I may make them 5 happy in this (world), 
and (that) they may attain heaven in the other (world). 

(EE) For the following purpose has this rescript on morality been caused to be 
written, (viz.) that it may last long, and that my sons, grandsons, and great-grandsons 
may conform to this for the welfare of all men. 

(N) But it is difficult to accomplish this without great zeal. 

SEVENTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 

1 (A)^trjftift Xm *pt?T 3$frT S% *JTCfeT (B) S% % ^ 

2 HT^jfti ^ s$fw (c) sif?t $ ^i^Ti^t swi«m<h71 (d) W ^ ?mfft 

3 (e) ftgft g ft i« life vn^f^m -at ^ ^rfrrm ^ 

1 (A) Devanampiyo Piyadasi raja sarvata ichhati save pasamda vaseyu (B) save te 

sayamam cha 

2 bhava-sudhirii cha ichhati (O) jano tu uchavacha-chhamdo uchavacha-rago (D) te 

sarvarii va kasarhti eka-desaih va kasa[rh]ti 

3 (E) vip[ul]e tu pi dane yasa nasti sayame bhava-sudhita va kataihnata va dadha- 

bhati[t]a cha nicha badham 



1 K* Jayaswal (IA t 42. 283) quotes the KautiHya y p. 29* I 12: mitflRfa iTf^ifft 

irf^lR?^ WIRM fJ*N< * * n * e case °* an emergent matter the ministers and the council of 
ministers shall be called and told 

* With atha-samtirana cf, ftlita-damda in the pillar-edict IYj L- 

3 I adopt Buhler's explanation of kammaiarark as a comparative of karman* 

4 Franke (GN, 1895. 537) has shown that both in the Asoka inscriptions and in literary Pali 
kimti means c that, in order that \ Cf. my note on the translation of the Dhauli separate edict I s B, 
and the rock-edict XIV, D, where kimti at Girnar, Dhauli, and Jaugada corresponds to yena at 
KalsT, Shahbazgarhi, and Mansehra, 

6 The form nani occurs again m the pillar-edict V, C, and in the Queen's edict, I 4 ; n& in the 
Kalsi edict XII, C. The pronoun na may be derived from Skt ena % and s/ia t which corresponds 
to it in the two KhardshthI -versions, from eska* 



14 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devan ampriya PriyadarSin desires (that) all sects may reside every- 
where. 

(B) (For) all these desire both self-control and purity of mind. 
(0) But men possess various desires (and) various passions. 

(D) Either they will fulfil the whole, or they will fulfil (only) a portion (of their 
duties). 

(E) But even one who (practises) great liberality, (but) does not possess self- 
control, purity of mind, gratitude, and firm devotion, is very mean. 1 

EIGHTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 

i (a) ^tFhto mt xmr^t f^Rirai (b) wvm %mfk ^ 
3 (d) tiiwTaT (e) tth4 ttfir i^gqwffwgra ^eto ^ q& ^ %r 

1 (A) atikatarh amtaraih rajano vihara-yatam nayasu (B) eta magavya afiani cha 

etarisani 2 

2 abhiramakani ahumsu (C) so Devanaihpriyo 3 Fiyadasi raja dasa-varsabliisito * 

samto ayaya Sambodhim 

3 (D) tenesa dhamma-yata (E) etayam hoti bamhana-samanana ih dasane cha dane cha 

thairanaih dasane ch[a] 

4 hiramna-patividhano cha janapadasa cha janasa 6 daspanam fl dhammanus[a]stl cha 

dhama-paripuchha cha 

5 tadopaya (P) esa bhuya rati bhavati Bevanampiyasa Priyadasino rano bha[g]e 

amne 

TRANSLATION 

(A) In times past kings used to set out on pleasure-tours. 7 

(B) On these {tours) hunting and other such pleasures were (enjoyed) 

1 The translation of this section follows LUders in SPAW, 1914. 844* He identifies nicha with 
the Vedic adverb ntcJuz. The variant mche at Dhauli and Jaugada may correspond to Skt nickaik 
or nickak. 

* Read °sanu 3 » Buhler. 

* -vasd° Senart and Buhler. 6 janasa Buhler. 
0 Read darsanant^ which is Senart's reading ; dasanam Buhler. 

7 Michelson (J AOS, 31. 345) explains nayasu = *nyaya$uk in the sense of nirayasulu See also 
Fleet in JRAS, 1908. 488, n. 



SIXTH TO EIGHTH ROCK-EDICTS : GIRNAR 



Page 14 




Scale One-sixth 



EIGHTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 15 

(C) But when king Bevanampriya Friyadarfiin had been anointed ten years, 
he went to Sambodhi. 1 

(D) Therefore these tours of morality (were undertaken). 2 

(E) On these (tours) the following 3 takes place, (viz,) visiting Brahmanas and 
6ramanas and making gifts (to them), visiting the aged and supporting (them) with 
gold, 4 visiting the people of the country, instructing (them) in morality, and questioning 
(them) about morality, as suitable for this (occasion). 5 

(F) This second period 6 (of the reign) of king Devanampriya Friyadar&in 
becomes a pleasure in a higher degree. 7 

NINTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 
1 (A) ^|T5fMt flR^fa W ^ m$ ( B ) 3Rt WT& 

3 (C) TTH ^ *%TOt ^ ^ ^ ^ fkV* ^ SfiftfT (D) ff 

(H) W ^rf^J ftrTT ^ 



1 D. R. Bhandarkar (IA, 42. 160) suggests that this word may refer to the sacred spot 
(at Bodh-Gaya, south of Patna) on which the Buddha attained to perfect knowledge- Anoka's 
visit to the bod/ii-tree is described in the Divyavadana (ed- Cowell and Neil), p. 393. His visit to 
the Buddha's birth-place is recorded by himself on the Rummindel pillar. 

2 The singular esa dhammayata seems to be used in the sense of the plural, just as vihara- 
fdtdm in section A. 

3 Buhler (EI, 4, 457, n. 95) explained eiayam by eta iyam. As ayam is used for the neuter 
idam in the Girnar edict IX, F, and XII, N, it may as well stand for eta ayam \ cE Michelson in 
JAOS, 31, 238. 

4 Cf. above, p. io, a 7. 

fi With tadopaya Senart compares the Pali words tadupiya and opdyika* Franke (VOJ, 9. 345) 
connects it with opaga in the rock-edict II, B, and in the DeIhi~Topra pillar-edict VII, R. Previous 
translators (except Liiders in SPAW, 1914* 845) have construed this word with the next section. 

6 Hitherto the two words bhage amne and bhage amne at Kalsi and Dhauli have been taken as 
locatives = Pali apara-bhage* As Liiders (SPAW, 1913, 990) remarks, this is impossible, because 
in the eastern dialect the two locatives would end in -asu 

7 The word thuya (= bhuye in the remaining versions) is perhaps an adverb, as bhuye in the 
Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, KK and NN. Lfiders (SPAW, 1914. 846) takes bhuya-rati to be 
a Karmadharaya compound, which he connects with esa, and bhage amne to be locatives. But 
esa need not be a nom. sing, fern., but may be a nom. sing, masc., as in the Girnar edict XIII, I, 
and may as such be connected with bhage amne y as-[*]j? at Kalsi and eske in the two Kharoshthi 
versions. 



i6 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

fk mtm (i) ^rfa ^ fir 

1 (A) Devanarhpiyo Priyadasi raja eva 1 3ha (B) astt jano uchavacham mamgalam 

karate abadhesu va 

2 avaha-vivahesu va, putra-labhesu va pravasariimhi va etamhl cha anamhi cha jano 

uchavacham mamgalam karote 

3 (C) eta tu mahi^ayo bahukarh cha bahuvidham cha chhudam cha nirathfam] cha 

mamgalam karote (D) ta katavyameva tu magalam 2 (B) apa-phalam tu kho 

4 etarisaih* mamgalaih (F) ayaih tu mah[a]-phale marhgale ya dhamma-maihgale 

(G) ta[te]ta 4 dasa-bhatakamhi samya-pratipatl gurOnam apachiti sadhu 

5 panesu sayamo sadhu bamhana-samananarh sadhu danaih et[a] cha an[a] cha 

etarisaih dhamma-maihgalaih nama (H) ta vatavyaih pita va 

6 putena va bhatra va svamikena va idarh sadhu idarh katavya 5 mamgalam ava tasa 

athasa nistanaya (I) asti cha pi vutaih 

7 sadhu dana 6 iti (J) na tu etarisaih asta 7 danam va ana[ga]ho 8 va yarisarh dharhma- 

danarii va dhamanugaho 9 va (K) ta tu kho mitrena va suhadayena [v]a 

8 fiatikena 10 va sahayana 11 va ovaditavyarh tamhi tamhi pakarane 12 [i]dam kachaih 

idarh sadha la iti imina sak[a] M 

9 svagarh aradhetu id (L) ki cha imina katavyataram yatha svagaradhi 15 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadarfiia speaks thus. 

(B) Men are practising various ceremonies during illness, or at the marriage of 
a son or a daughter, 16 or at the birth of a son, or when setting out on a journey ; 
on these and other (occasions) men are practising various ceremonies, 

(C) But in such (cases) women are practising many and various vulgar and useless 
ceremonies. 



I evam Buhler. 

' Read mamgalam t which is the reading of Senart and Biihler. s Read etarisanu 

4 fata Senart and Buhler ; but the te can be clearly distinguished on the back of the estampage, 
and is supported by the other versions. 

6 haiayvam Biihler. e Read danam ; danaih Buhler. 

7 Read a sti^ which is the reading of Senart and Buhlen 

8 Read anugaho. 9 dkammanugaho Biihler. 10 Read nat?. 

II Read °ysna* 13 The syllable ra looks almost like ra. 

15 Read sadhu. u sakam Biihler. 15 °rad/ti Buhler. 

10 For avafta and vivaha cf. Jdtaha^ Translation, vol. V, p. I45t n- I. 



NINTH ROCK-EDICT; GIRNAR 



17 



(D) Now, ceremonies should certainly be practised. 

(E) But ceremonies like these bear little fruit indeed. 

(P) But the following practice bears much fruit, viz, the practice of morality. 

(G) Herein the following (are comprised), (viz.) proper courtesy to slaves and 
servants, reverence to elders, 1 gentleness to animals, (and) liberality to B rah m anas 
and £ramanas ; these and other such (virtues) are called the practice of morality. 

(H) Therefore a father, or a son, or a brother, or a master ought to say : — ! This 
is meritorious. This practice should be observed until the (desired) object is attained/ 

(I) And it has been said also : f Gifts are meritorious/ 

(J) But there is no such gift or benefit as the gift of morality or the benefit of 
morality. 2 

(K) Therefore a friend, or a well-wisher, or a relative, or a companion should 
indeed admonish (another) on such and such an occasion : — * This ought to be done ; 
this is meritorious. By this (practice) it is possible to attain heaven/ 

(L) And what is more desirable than this, 3 viz. the attainment of heaven ? 

TENTH ROCK^EDICT: GIRNAR 

1 (A) ^irftirit fini^fa 

trfl^fsircn (F) its g^it 

1 (A) Devanampiyo * Priyadasi raja 5 yaso va kiti va na mahathavah[a] manate 6 

anata tadatpano 7 dighaya cha me [ja]no 

2 dhamma-susru[m]sa 8 susrusata 9 dhamma-vutaih cha anuvidhiyatam (B) etakaya 

Devanampiyo Piyadasi r§ja*yaso va kiti va i[chha]ti 



1 The word sadhu after apachiti^ sayamo^ and -samananam is missing in the other versions. It 
seems to have crept into the Girnar text, because the person who drafted the latter had in his mind 
passages like the rock-edict III, D. 

2 Biihler (ZDMG, 4& 57 f.) has traced the two terms dhamma-dana and dhammdnuggaha in 
the Itivitttaka* 

3 A number of instances in which a comparative is construed with the instrumental (instead of 
the ablative) have been collected by Pischel, GGA, 1881. 133a. 

4 °priyo Biihler. 

5 An obliterated de is visible between the syllables si and rd, and an obliterated va between ra 
and Jdn 

6 mamiiate Biihler. 

7 Read, with Kern {Jaarielling y ^ 87), taddtpane* 

8 susumsa Senart, -susrusd Biihler. 9 0 sat dm Senart and Biihler, 

101D D 



»8 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



3 (C) ya[m] tu kich[i] 1 parik[a]mate 2 Devanam 3 Priyadasi raja ta say am paratrikaya 

kimti sakale a[pa}-parisrave 4 asa (D) esa tu parisave* ya apurhnarh 

4 (E) dukararh tu kho etam chhudakena va janena usatena va anatra agena 

parak[r]amena 0 savam parichajitpa <F) et[a] t[u] kho usatena dukaraih 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Bevanampriya FriyadarSin does not think that either glory or fame 7 
conveys much advantage, except (on account of his aim that) in the present time, and 
in the distant (future), 8 men may (be induced) by him to practise obedience to morality f 
and that they may conform to the duties of morality- 0 

(B) On this (account) king Devanampriya Priyadarfiin is desiring glory and fame. 

(C) But whatever effort king Devanampriya Priyadarfiin is making, all that 
(is) for the sake of (merit) in the other (world), (and) in order that all (men) may run 
little danger, 

(D) But the danger is this, viz. demerit 

(E) But it is indeed difficult either for a lowly person or for a high one to 
accomplish this without great zeal (and without) laying aside every (other aim). 10 

(If) But among these (two) it is indeed (more) difficult 11 to accomplish for a high 
(perspn). 

ELEVENTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 

s irrcira m% (b) m firm ^ ^ ^ fkm^- 

4 (E) # rTOT ^35 ^cft^rTO W^t ©ft TO ^ OTW ^5?f Vftfft 

I kbhchi Biihler. 2 Read parqkamat$\ parakamate Senart,/£m£n;«tfte Buhler, 
3 Add °priyo % * &ppa- (probably a misprint) Buhler. 

5 partsrave Biihler. 6 parakayiena Senart and Buhler. 

7 i. e., as shown by Buhler (ZDMG, 37. 575), glory in this life and fame after death. 

a Instead of tadatpatw{ne) dighaya cha the Jaugada version has the synonymous expression 
tadaivaye ayatiyc c£a 9 which occurs also in the Kautiliya, p. 348> 1. 9 {tadatve cha ayatyam cha) % and 
p. 340, 1. a. For numerous examples of abstracts formed with the Prakrit affix -ivana or -ttana, see 
Fischers Grammaiik, p. 405, 

9 With this passage cf. the Girnar edict IX, E, F, and XI, B, and the ShahbazgarhT edict 
XIII, P : c And this conquest is considered the principal one by Devanampriya, viz, the conquest 
by morality 1 . 

10 I adopt Fleet's translation of the last words in JRAS, 1909* 1014, n. 4. The usual translation, 
* renouncing everything \ is improbable because Asoka nowhere advocates absolute poverty, though 
he recommends * moderation in possessions 1 in the rock-edict III, D« 

II The Jaugada version reads dukalatale for dukaranu 



ELEVENTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 



19 



1 (A) Devinampriyo 1 Fiyadasi raja ev[a]m aha (B) nasti etarisam danam yarisarh 

dhamma-danam dhamma-samstavo va dhamma-samvibhago [va] 3 dhamma- 
sambadho a va 

2 (C) tata idam bhavati dasa-bhatakamhi samya-p[r]atipatl matari pitara 4 sadhu 

sus[r]usa mita-[sa]stuta-natikanam bamhana-s[r]amana[nam] 5 sadhu da[nam] 

3 prananam anarambho sadhu (D) eta Vatavyam pita va putrena va bhat[a] va mita- 

sastut[a]-nat[i]k[e]na va ava pativesiyehi 0 ida 7 sadhu ida T ka[tav]ya[m] 

4 (E) so t[a]tha karu 8 ilokachasa aradho hoti parata cha amnamtam 9 puinam 10 

bhavati tena dhaihma-danena 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya PriyadarSin speaks thus. 

(B) There is no such gift as the gift of morality, or acquaintance through morality, 
or the distribution of morality, or kinship through morality. 11 

(C) Herein the following are (comprised), (viz.) proper courtesy to slaves and 
servants, obedience to mother (and) father, liberality to friends, acquaintances, and 
relatives, to Brahmanas and 3ramanas, (and) abstention from killing animals, 13 

(D) Concerning this 13 a father, qr a son, or a brother, or a friend, an acquaintance, 
or a relative, (or) even (mere) neighbours, Ought to say : 1 This is meritorious. This 
ought to be done/ 14 

(E) If one is acting thus, 15 the attainment ,& of (happiness) in this world is (secured), 
and endless merit is produced in the other (world) by that gift of morality. 



1 Read &evauam° 3 which is the reading of Senart and Buhldn 

2 va Buhler. 

3 Read -sambavidho. 

4 Read pitarij which is the reading of Senart and Biihler. 

5 -samananam Senart and Buhler, 

6 pa£i° Senart and Buhler. 
T idam Buhler. 

8 Read kdrmh f as in the Girnar edict XII, R 

9 Read anamtam. 

10 pmhnam Senart and Btihler. 

11 The two expressions dhamma-dana and dhamma-smhvihhaga occur in a passage of the 
Iiivuttaha\ see Biihler, ZDMG, 48- 57 f. 

12 The other versions omit the superfluous word sadhu after pitara % -sramananmh^ and ana- 
rambho ; cf. above, p. 17, n, 1. 

13 Cf. the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, C, I, and RR. 

14 Cf. the Girnar edict IX, H and K. 

15 Senart and Buhler take kartwt as a nominative absolute. According to Michelson (JAOS, 
31. 344) it is a participle formed of a stem which is a compromise between karo- and kttru-* 

10 In the Girnar version aradho seems to be used as a substantive, just as aradhi in the Girnar 
edict IX, L, and aladhi in the Dhauli separate edict I, S, and the Jaugada separate edict I, T. In 
the other versions of the rock-edict XI the wording is slightly different. 



d 2 



20 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

TWELFTH ROCK-EDICT; GIRNAR 

UMUHUr (C) qR-anffr % ^|f^lT. 
4 rrf*S <rrf*C STOl (E) ^ff*IF g CTTOKfer ffa TR TO^5T (F) ^ ^ 

8 (k) $ ^ m hw tott frf? (l) <«n^rftiifir *rt w ^tW ^ ^ ^ 

1 (A) Devanampiye Fiyad[a]si raja sava-pasamdani cha [pa]vajitani cha gharastani 

cha pujayati d[a]nena cha vivadhSya 1 [cha] pujaya pujayati ne 

2 (B) na tu tatha danaih va pu[ja] va D[e]vanampiyo maihnate yatha kiti sara-vadhi 

asa sa[va-pa]samdanam (C) sar[a]*vadhl tu bahuvidha 

3 (D) tasa 2 tu idam miilam ya vachi-gutl kithti atpa-pasamda-puja va para-pasamda- 

garaha 3 va no bhave aprakaranamhi 4 lahuka va asa 

4 tamhi tamhi prakarane (E) pujetaya tu eva para-pasamda tena tana 6 prakaranena 

(P) evaih karurii atpa-pasamdarh cha vadhayati para-pasamdasa cha upakaroti 

5 (G) tad-ariinatha karoto atpa-pasadam 6 cha chhanati para-pasamdasa cha pi apakaroti 

(H) yo hi kochi atpa-pasaihdam pujayati para-pasamdam v[a] 7 garahati 



1 Read vimdhdya % which is the reading of Senart and Bixhler. 

2 The writer had originally written tasa tasa, but he scored out the first sa and the second ta* 

3 The syllable sam of -pdsamda- was inserted subsequently. 

4 The syllable pra looks almost like ha \ the horizontal stroke attached to pa is probably 
intended for r, Cf. abhipretam near the end of the Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscriptioa 

fi Read tena. 0 -pasamdam Buhler. 

7 ^Buhler. 



TWELFTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 



6 savarh atpa-pasamda-bhatiy a 1 kimti atpa-pasamdam dipayema iti so cha puna tatfaa 

karato 2 atpa-pasamdajm] badhataram upahanati (I) ta samavayo eva sadhu 

7 kimti [a]namariinasa 3 dhathmam srunaru 4 cha susumsera 6 cha (J) evam hi 

D[e]vanampiyasa ichha kimti 6 sava-pasamda bahu-sruta cha asu kal[a]nagama 
cha [a]su 

8 (K) ye cha tatra tata 7 prasariina tehi vatavyam (L) Devanampiyo no tatha danam 

va pujaih 8 va mamnate yatha kimti sara-vadhi asa sarva-pasadanam (M) 
bahaka* cha etaya 

9 atha vyapata dhamma-mahamata cha ithijhakha-mahamata cha vacha-bhumika cha 

ane cha nikaya (N) ayaih cha etasa phala ya atpa-pasaihda-vadhi cha hoti 
dhathtnasa cha dip[a]na 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya FriyadarSin is honouring all sects ; 10 both ascetics and 
householders ; both with gifts and with honours of various kinds he is honouring them. 

(B) But Devanarixpriya does not value either gifts or honours so (highly) as 
(this), (viz.) that a promotion of the essentials of all sects should take place* 

(C) But a promotion of the essentials (is possible) in many ways. 

(D) But its root is this, viz, guarding (ones) speech, 11 (i.e.) that neither praising 
one's own sect nor blaming other sects should take place on improper occasions, or 
(that) it should be moderate in every case 

(E) But other sects ought to be duly honoured in every case. 

(P) If one is acting thus, he is both promoting his own sect and benefiting 
other sects* 

(G) If one is acting otherwise than thus, he is both hurting his own sect and 
wronging other sects as well, 

(H) For whosoever praises his own sect or blames other sects,*— all (this) 12 out of 
devotion to his own sect, (L e.) with the view of glorifying his own sect,-^if he is acting 
thus, he rather injures his own sect very severely. 

(I) Therefore concord alone is meritorious, (i. e.) that they should both hear and 
obey each other' s morals. 

(J) For this is the desire of Devanampriya, (viz.) that all sects should be full 
of learning, and should be pure in doctrine. 

. - — — — J — ^ - ■ i— -r. — - i j _■ - - . ... — — -r 

■, 

1 -pasada- Buhler. * Read karato* 8 Senart, mhna° Buhler, 

* Pischel (GGA, 1881. 1336) proposed to read sruneru. But the form srunaru is probably an 
imperative ; see Introduction, chapter VI, 

5 susumsera Senart, sususera Buhler. 

6 The syllable ti was inserted subsequently* 7 fate Buhler. 
8 pujd Senart and Buhler. * Read bahuka. 

10 The cha after sava-pasamdani is superfluous ; see Buhler, EI, 1. 19, n. 42. It is missing in 
the other versions. 

u Instead of vachi-gutl the other versions read vacha-guti. With vachi cf. the Ardhamagadhi 
from vat in Pischel's GrammaUk f § 413* 

12 The readings shave at Kalsl and savre in the two Kharoshthi versions show that savant at 
Gimar is the nom. sing* neut. ; sge Franke in KZ, 34. 4%%. 



22 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

(K) And those who are attached to their respective (sects) ought to be spoken 
to 1 (as follows). 

(L) Bevaiiampriya does not value either gifts or honours so (highly) as (this), 
(viz.) that a promotion of the essentials of all sects should take place, 

(US) And many (officers) 3 are occupied for this purpose, 8 (viz,) the Mahamatras 
of morality, the Mahamatras controlling women* the inspectors of cowpens, 5 and other 
classes (of officials). 0 

(N) And this is the fruit of it, (viz.) that both the promotion of one's own sect 
takes place, and the glorification of morality, 

THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 

i (a) — iftpTT • * # ^% g n mpmH tt^t 

3 TOQW ^ sum w&t * * * * * v* * * * m *nfir firaft 

4 ^firon* n ttmm (h) itf m v 

5 * * * far fN^KraT ^RW * * # * * f»i? *R HTftj 

^l^ST* U.«hri<n< HHUflg * JWT^ (K) iIRrRfit ^ft rRT 

(m) m ^ ft toWi* ^Pift^m fafiaft mfir 

1 Biihler (ZDMG, 37. 586) noted other instances of the dative plural in -ehi at Jaugada {-sdma- 
nehi 9 III, 1. 3, and mahaniaiehi^ VI, I. 3), and at Kalsl {maftantateki, VI, end of L 18). See also 
Mansehra, VI, 1. 28, and XII, 1. 7, and ajtvikeki in the second and third Earabar Hill cave* 
inscriptions. 

2 As pointed out by LSders (SPAW, 1 914. 849), the two words bakukd cha> which previous 
translators had connected with section Lj are in reality the first words of section M. 

3 For the dative atha (- athaya), see the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, W, and E. Muller s 
Pali Grammar^ p. 67, 

* With ithijhakha cf. ganikddkyaksha^ 6 the overseer of courtesans in the KauiUiya, II, 27. 

6 Biihler (EI, a. 470, n. 18) suggested that vacha ( — vracha at Mansehra) may be a Prakrit form 
of vrqfa, 'a cowpen', and compared gavadhyaksha, * the overseer of cows', in the Kamasutra, 
p. ago, 1. 1. Cf, also godhyahsha in the KautiUya, II, 29. For the hardening of j in vracha cf* 
vrachamti and v\f\acheyam (from Skt. vrajati) at ShahbSzgarhT, XIII, S, and VI, L, 

6 The Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VU r Z, mentions officers whose special duty it was to attend 
to Buddhists, Brahmanas, Ajlvikas, Nirgranthas, and other sects. 



NINTH TO TWELFTH ROCK-EDICTS : GIRNAR 



Page 22 




Scale One-sixth 



THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 23 



8 



9 



10 



trt^^r ^fcnft 3*wtft ^ * *m ^ 
• ■ # * v* TmfewtfH vtttffit Swi n g s ^ra 

1 (A) fio Kalimga [v . j .] [v . dh]e [sa]ta-sahasra-matram 

tatra hatam bahu-tavatakam mata 1 (C) tata pachha adh [u] na 2 ladhesu 
Kalimgesu tl[v]o dharhmavayo 

2 [sa]yo Devanampriyasa [v . j .] [va]dho va maranarh va 

apavaho va janasa ta 8 badharh vedana-mata 4 cha g[u]r[u]-mata 4 cha 
Deva[nampi] . - [sa] 

3 bamhana va samana va ane [s]a matrft] 5 pitari susurhsa 

guru-susurhsa 6 mita-samstata-sahaya~natike[su] 7 dasa-[bha] 

4 abhiratanarh va vinikhamana (H) yesarh va [p J - [h]aya- 

natika vyasanam prapunati tata 8 so pi tesa 9 [u]paghato hati 10 (I) patlbha[g]o 
chesa s[ava] 

5 sti ime nikaya aiiatra Tone[su] u [inh]i yatra nasti 

manusanarh 12 ekataramhl pasamdamhi na nama prasa[d]o (K) y[ajvata[k]o 
j[anota]d[a] 

6 $ra-bhago va garu-mat[o] Devanam naya saka 13 

chhamitave (M) ya cha pi ataviyo D[e]vana2hpiya[sa] 14 pijite l& pati 16 



I matavt Buhler. a adhana Buhler. 

3 tarn Senart and Biihler- 

4 -ntatam Buhler. 

6 mata- Senart and Buhler ; the horizontal stroke on the right of / seems to be intended for r. 

6 -sttsusd Buhler. 

7 Read -samstuta- f which is Buhler's reading, 

8 tata Senart, tatra Buhler. 

9 tesam Senart and Buhler. 

*P Read Jwti % which is the reading of Senart and Buhler* 

II yo nesa Senart ; Mansehra reads Yoneshu quite distinctly. 

12 mam? Buhler. 

13 sakam Buhler. 

14 Two old fissures of the rock, the first after pi and the second, after sa, run on to the next line, 
where they divide the word samachairam into three parts ; °priyasa Buhler. 

15 Read vijite. 10 Read JtotL 



24 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF AS OKA 

7 . chate te[sa]m Devanampiyasa sava-bhutanam 1 

achhatim 3 cha sayamam cha samachairam 3 ch[a] madava 4 cha 

8 . . [Ia]dh[o] . . , . nampriyasa idha [sa]vesu [ch .] 

[Yo]na-raja 5 param cha tena chatparo rajano Turamayo cha [AJmtf ek]ma 0 
cha Maga cha 

9 idha raja-vi[sa]yamhi [Y]o[na]-Kaihbo mdhra- 

Parimdesu 7 savata Devanampiyasa dhammanus[a]stim anuv[a]tare (S) yata 
pi duti 3 

10 [na]rh dhamanusastim cha dhamaih anuvidhiyare 9 . . . 

[v]ijayo savatha puna vijayo pitt-raso sa 10 (U) ladha sa pitl hoti dhamma- 
vijayamhi 

11 , ih[p]riyo (X) eta[ya atha]ya ayam dharhma-[l] 

[va]m vijayam ma vijetavyaih mamna 11 sarasake eva vijaye chhati 12 cha 

12 , , * . kik[o] ch[a pa]r[alo]ki[ko] * ilokika cha paralokika 13 cha 



TRANSLATION 



(A) the Kalingas . * , . 

(B) * one hundred thousand in number were those who were slain 

there, (and) many times as many those who died* 

(C) After that, now that (the country of) the Kalingas has been taken, a zealous 
study of morality u • • « . 

(D) [the Repentance] of Devauampriya . * . . 

(E) , ■ . . slaughter, death, and deportation of people, this is considered 

very painful and deplorable by Devauampriya. 

(G) , Brahmanas or 6ramanas, [or] other . . . obedience to 

mother (and) to father, obedience to elders . - . to friends, acquaintances, 

companions, and relatives, [to] slaves - . . , • or deportation of (their) 

beloved ones. 

(H) [companions] and relatives are then incurring misfortune, 

this (misfortune) as well becomes an injury to those (persons). 

(I) This is shared [by] all ......... . 



1 -bkutanam Buhler. 

2 An old fissure of the rock, between ckha and tun, runs on to the two next lines of the edict, 

3 samackeram Senart, samacheram Buhler. 

4 madavam Biihler* 6 -raja Biihler. 
c Amiakdna Senart, Amtekina Biihler, 

7 The apparent ^stroke attached to dfia is probably meant for r ; mdha-P\t\rimd€su Buhler, 

8 Read duta. 0 dhama Senart ; anuv\t\dh\t]yare Buhler. 
10 sa Buhler. 11 maud Buhler. 

13 chhdH\tn\ Buhler. 

18 Between para and la a rough portion of the rock was left blank by the writer. 
M Instead of dhammavayo Shahbazgarhi seems to read dhrama-iilana % • the practice, or study, 
of morality*. Hence Senart is probably correct in explaining dhammavayo by dharntdvdya* 



THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT; GIRNAR 25 

(J) these classes except among the Yonas 1 

where men are not indeed attached to some sect, 2 

(K) As many people as at that time . , . . part is considered deplorable by 

Devanam[priya], 

(L) what can be forgiven. 

(M) And even the forests which are (included) in the dominions of Devanam- 
priya 

(N) They are [told] of Devanampriya . . ' 

(O) towards all beings abstention from hurting, self-control, im- 
partiality, and kindness, 

(Q,) has been won by [Deva]nampriya here and among all 

the Yona ting, 3 and beyond him fotir kings, (viz.) Turamaya, Antekina, 
Iffaga . , . 

(R) here in the king's territory, [among] the Yonas and KamboQas] 

.......... among the [A]ndhras and Faxindas, — everywhere (people) are conforming 

to Devanampriya's instruction in morality. 

(S) Even where the envoys and the instruction in morality, are 

conforming to morality 

(T) ....... i. . , this conquest, — a conquest (won) in every respect (and) 

repeatedly/ — causes the feeling of satisfaction. 

(U) This satisfaction has been obtained (by me) at the conquest by morality. 

(W) [Devana]ihpriya. 

(X) For the following purpose this [rescript] on morality should not 

think that a [fresh] conquest ought to be made, (that), if a conquest does please 
them, 5 mercy . , . . . 

(Y) , . , .. • in the other world. 

(AA) both in this world and in the other world. 

FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: GIRNAR 

1 (a) *mf<*ift ^T?Tfti^f ftpisfe^n im ^Tftm differ us 

4 ^fT rTO TO^STR Hfrf *PTt TTOT nft^^T 

5 (e) r^sf moma fftfka srtr^r ^ ^xm n 



1 L e. the Greeks. 

2 As remarked by Senart, the last negation of this sentence (na) is redundant. 

3 For the proper names mentioned in this passage see my notes on the translation of the Kalsi 
version, 

4 Cf, the Kalsi version, Q. 

5 Buhler divided sarasake into sara-sdke, which he translated by * possible by arrows \ The 
various readings of Kalsi {shayakashi) and Shahbazgarhl (spa[kaspi]) induce me to consider it as 
a Bahuvrlhi of sva + rasa, 

IBIS £ 



26 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



1 (A) ayam dhamma-lipl Devanampriyena Friyadasina r[a]fia l[e]khapita asti eva 

2 samkhit[e]na asti majhamena asti vistatana 1 (B) na cha sarvam [sajrvata ghatitam 

3 (C) mahalake hi vijitam bahu cha likhitam likhapayisam cheva (D) asti cha eta kam 

4 puna puna vutam tasa tasa athasa 2 madhurataya kirhti jano tatha patipajetha 

5 (E) tatra ekada asamat[a]m likhita[m] asa desam va sachhaya [ka]ranam va 

6 [a]Iochetpa Iipikaraparadhena va 

TRANSLATION 

(A) These rescripts on morality have been caused to be written by king Devanam- 
priya PriyadarSin either in an abridged (form), or of middle (size), or at full length* 

(B) And 3 the whole was not suitable everywhere* 

(C) For (my) dominions are wide, and much has been written, and I shall cause 
still (more) to be written. 

(D) And some of this * has been stated again and again because of the charm 
of certain topics, (and) 6 in order that men should act accordingly. 

(E) In some instances (some) of this may have been written incompletely, either on 
account of the locality,* or because (my) motive was not liked, 7 or by the fault of 
the writer, 

BELOW THE THIRTEENTH GIRNAR ROCK-EDICT, LEFT SIDE 

i 4 %n 

1 . . . . , t[esha] s 

2 [p]i[p]a 9 ■ 

BELOW THE THIRTEENTH GIRNAR ROCK-EDICT* RIGHT SIDE 

^Nfirt fftar s%Jtapnid 

rva-sveto 10 hasti sarva-loka-sukhaharo nama 



1 Read vistatma, 

8 The syllable sa was inserted subsequently. 

3 The other versions read 'for* instead of B and\ The Girnar reading would suit Senart's 
translation of ghatitam by 1 put together \ 

* The other versions suggest that eta ham must not be joined into one word, but corresponds 
to atra kimchit. Cf. also ata k\f\chhi in the Kalsl version, E, 

6 The particle cha is inserted at Dhauli and Jaugada. 

G Thus the two separate edicts were substituted at Dhauli and Jaugada for the rock-edicts 
XI to XIII. Buhler considered sachhaya = sam&hyeyam, and connected it with haranam \ see 
ZDMG, 40. 14a, and 48. 59 f. It seems more natural to take it as a gerund = samksaya or 
saihkhyaya* 

7 Senart translates : 1 perhaps that the sense has been misunderstood \ I take hcheti — Skt- 
rochayaii ; see above, p- 8 ? n. 3. 

8 This word is perhaps a portion of the well-known Buddhist formula hitmh tesham Tathagaid 

hy*avadat | tesham cha &c. 

ff Buhler (VOJ, 8. 320) suggested that this line may have contained the name of the writer, 
I feel tempted to conjecture Upi\karen(fi\ which is the last word of the three Mysore edicts. 
10 Restore sarva*. 




Scale One-sixth 



BELOW THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT : GIRNAR 27 

TRANSLATION 

the entirely white 1 elephant 2 bringing indeed happiness to the whole 

world. 

II. THE KALSI ROCK 

FIRST ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 
A. — East Face of Kaht Rock. 

2 (c) ft sfizf^re (d) ^prr f| ^tt wmm 

fmqft 7FT5n ^rfrr (e) sift ft? ^fRUT wmi BTfflm 
^n*ift*WT ftnr^RT Hifsr^ 

3 (p) ^ n^^mfk ^FrPnwT ftq^flrcn cnf3i% ^rgf^s ^|t% 

tTTrW^Tf^T ^rtfafa§ (G) % ^jfrT ^ *Nfaft 

^TWT Tt^T frtf% iter UTrTlfH ^?^fi=r^t% 

4 ^ tt^wt u% ftFT si fa fan (h) ^mf?r ft ^ ffffa tn^ifa 

1 (A) iyarh dhariima-lipi Devanampiyena Piyadas[i]na, [lekhitja (B) [h]ida no 3 

kichhi jive alabhitu pajohitaviye 

2 (C) no pi ch[a] saraaje kataviye (D) bahuk[a] hi dosa samajasa Devan[am]piye 

Pi[ya]dasi laja, dakhati (E) athi pi ch[a e]katiya samaja 4 sadh[u]-mata 5 
Devanampiyasa Piyadasis[a] lajine 

3 (P) [p]ule mahanasasi Devanampiyasa Fiyadasisa lajin[e] B anudivasarh bahuni 

pata-sahasani 7 alambhiyisu 8 sttpathay[e] (G-) se i[d]ani ya[da] iyarh dhamma-lipi 
lekhita tada tirhni yeva panani alabhi[yaih]ti 9 

4 duve majul[a] 10 eke mige se pi [chu] u mige no dhruve 12 (H) e[t]ani pi ch[u] 13 tini 

pana[n]i no alabhi[y]isa[rh]ti 14 

1 Cf. sabbaseto in Childers's Pali Dictionary, s. v. sabbo. 

3 As stated by Kern (Jaartelling, p. 44), Senart (Inscriptions, vol. I, p. 333 f.), and Biihler 
(ZDMG, 39. 490), the Girnar rock must have borne, like the Kalsl and Dhauli rocks, the figure of an 
elephant representing the Buddha. This figure was probably destroyed during the construction of a 
causeway for pilgrims from Junagarh to Girnar, and along with it those adjacent portions of the fifth 
and thirteenth edicts which are now missing. 

3 na Biihler. * sa\m\aja Biihler. 5 There is a fissure in the rock here. 

6 lajine Biihler. 7 sata- Senart, pdna- Biihler ; read pana-sata-. 

8 aiabhi Biihler. 9 alabht Senart, alabht Biihler. 

10 majali Senart, majula Biihler. 11 ye Senart, cha Biihler. 

12 dhave Senart, dkttve Biihler. 13 cha Biihler. 

14 alabht Senart, alabht' Biihler. 

E 2 



28 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



TRANSLATION 

(A) This rescript on morality has been caused to be written by Devanampriya 
Priyadargin. 

(B) Here no living being must be killed and sacrificed. 
(O) And also no festival meeting must be held. 

(D) For king Devanampriya Priyadar&in sees much evil in festival meetings. 

(E) And there are also some festival meetings which are considered meritorious 
by king Devanampriya Priyadarsin. 

(F) Formerly in the kitchen of king Devanampriya Priyadar&in many hundred 
thousands of animals were killed daily for the sake of curry. 

(G) But now, when this rescript on morality is caused to be written, then only three 
animals are being killed (daily), (viz.) two peacocks (and) one deer, but even this deer 
not regularly. ■ 

(H) But even these three animals shall not be killed (in future). 

SECOND ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 

4 (a) srem fafsmfs ^rctffipTOT fto^ftwr fttfk^ % ^ sim 3f*n ^st 

6 flcTTfarTT 7*faTftTrIT (c) 1£5R^T ^cttfk ^HTfH 

3!rraT frnq mm ^TTnftmr Hfarrftrn (d) wt§ Tgsifa 

4 (A) sav[a]ta vijitasi Devanampiyasja] Piyadasisja] lajine ye cha ariita [a]tha 

Choda Pam[di]ya Satiyaputo Ke[lala]puto Tamba[pa]mni 

5 Amtiyoge [n]ama Yona-laja. ye cha aihne tas[a Ajmtiyogasa sa[ma]mta lafj]ano 

[sa]vata Devanampiyasa, Piyadasisa. lajine duve chikisaka kata manusa- 
chikisa cha pasu-chikisa cha (B) osadhln[i] 1 manusopagani cha pasopagani cha 2 
a[ta]ta n[a]th[i] 

6 , [sa]vata [hjalapita cha lo[p]apit[a] cha (C) [e]vameva mulani cha phalani cha 

a[ta]t[a] nathi savata halap[i]ta cha lopapita [ch]a (D) ma[g]e[s]u [lu]khani 3 
lopitani ud[u]pana[n]i cha khanapitani patibhogaye pasu-munis[a]nam 

TRANSLATION 

(A) Everywhere in the dominions of king Devanampriya Priyadar&in and (of 
those) who (are his) borderers, such as the Chodas, the Pandyas, the Satiyaputa, the 



1 osadhani Senart and Biihler. 

8 There is a fissure in the rock here. 



2 elm Senart and Biihler. 



SECOND ROCK-EDICT : KALSI 



29 



Kelalaputa, 1 Tamraparni, the Yona king named Antiyoga, and the other kings 
who are the neighbours of this Antiyoga, — everywhere two (kinds of) medical 
men were established by king Devanampriya Priyadarsin, (viz.) medical treatment 
for men and medical treatment for cattle. 

(B) Wherever there were no herbs beneficial to men and beneficial to cattle, 
everywhere they were caused to be imported and to be planted. 

(C) Likewise, wherever there were no roots and fruits, everywhere they were 
caused to be imported and to be planted. 

(D) On the roads trees were planted, and wells were caused to be dug for the use of 
cattle and men. 

THIRD ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 

6 (a) ^roW ftrosfa wm IN wit 

7 (b) §*i3*ranftrf3frT $ i?i 9iFraf*ft (c) srem f¥5Tfrt% tft $m 

7*^% trftr%3i tN^j s^N* faw^ tzhi% -*n 

^RTf WJ^fa*IT W 3l*TT^ fa (D) mv 

tnTPl ^FTTc^H HT^ 3TCfWrTT ^IT^TTT W% (E) ^f^TT fq ^ 

6 (A) De[va]nampiye Piyadasi laja h[e]vam aha 

7 (B) du[v]adasa-v[a]sabhisitena me iyam anapayite (C) savata vijitasi [mama] 

yuta laj[u]k[e] 2 padesike pa[ih]cha[s]u parhchasu vasesu [a]nusa[m]yanam 3 
nikham[am]tu etaye va a[th]aye imaya * dhammanusathiya yatha ath[naye] pi 
kammaye (D) sadhu 

8 mata-pitisu sususa. mita-samthuta-natikyan[arh] cha bambhana-sama[na]narh [cha] 

sadhu d[a]ne pananath analambhfe] sadhu [a]pa-v[i]yata 5 [a]pa-[bha]m[da]t[a] 
sadhu (E) palisa, pi cha yutani [gajnanasi anap[a]yisamti hetuvata cha 
viyarhjanat[e] cha 6 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadarsin speaks thus. 

(B) (When I had been) anointed twelve years, the following was ordered by me. 

(C) Everywhere in my dominions the Yuktas, the Lajuka, (and) the Pradesika 
shall set out on a complete tour (throughout their charges) every five years 
for this very purpose, (viz.) for the following instruction in morality as well as for 
other business. 

1 As the Kalsi dialect replaces r by /, this form is the correct equivalent of Keralaputra at 
Mansehra. 

2 lajaki Senart, lajuhe Biihler. 3 anusiyanam Senart, a?ms[a]yamm Biihler. 
* atkaye imay\_e\ Biihler. 

5 The other versions read "yata or yata. There is a fissure in the rock here. 

6 cha Senart and Biihler. 



30 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



(B) 'Meritorious is obedience to mother and father. Liberality to friends, 
acquaintances, and relatives, and to Brahmanas and £ramanas is meritorious. Absten- 
tion from killing animals is meritorious. Moderation in expenditure (and) moderation 
in possessions are meritorious.' 

(E) And the councils (of Mahamatras) also shall order the Yuktas 1 to register 
(these rules) both with (the addition of) reasons 2 and according to the letter. 

FOURTH ROCK-EDICT : KALSI 

*nf?mr ^m^f^qfir oth^rth TOtifttifff (b) § %^ifaren 
io fftrfsr g rfMwTfe totRt f^anfa c^nft *t*m (c) wF^er 

w^mRiuTri (o) f| %% w ^n^fr^R (h) fir 
5ft ftfir 4iRicWU (i) % otst ^fa wffft htv (j) Tj?rre 

is ^rht ^mt ^fk i^fg fffir tit ^cft^fa^ (k) ^w^mrfnftitaT 

9 (A) atika[rh]tarh a[rh]ta[la]rh bahuni vasa-satani v[adh]it[e] va pa[na]larhbhe 
vi[h]isa cha bhutanarh natina 3 asarh[pa]tip[a]ti samana-b[am]bhananam 
asarhpatipati (B) s[e] aja Devanampiyasa Fiyadasine lajine dhamm[a]- 
chal[an]ena bheli-ghose aho dhamma-ghose vimana-dasan[a] 
10 [ha]thini agi-kathdh[a]ni arhnani cha 4 divyani lup&ii dasayitu jana[sa] (G) [a]disa 5 
ba[h]u[hi v]asa-[sa]tehi na huta-puluve tadise aja vadhite Devanampiyasa 
Piyadasine [l]ajina dh arhmanus athiy e a[n]alarhbhe pananam avihisa bhutanarh 
nati[nam] 6 



1 Luders (SPAW, 19 13. 993 ff.) has been the first to remark that in the eastern dialect 
the accusative plural of masculines ends in -anL Cf. yutani in E with yuta in Cj and Kaligyani 
in XIII, D, with Kaligya in A; also XII, A, and pulisani in the pillar-edict IV, G. 

* Buhler (ZDMG, 37, 108) explained hetuvaia by heiumata vakyena, u e. c by a syllogism \ 
The other versions read hetnto or ketute* 

3 natinam Buhler. * There is a fissure in the rock here* 

5 adisam Senart, adis\e\ Buhler. 6 natisam Senart, natt\sti\ Buhler. 



FOURTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 3* 

11 sampatipati bambha[na-sa]mananam sampatipati mata-pitisu sususa (D) ese 1 cha 

aihne cha ba[h]uvidhe dhamma-chalane vadh[i]te (E) vadhiyisati cheva 
Devanampiy[e] Piyadasi laja 3 ima[m] dha[m]ma-chalanarh (P) puta cha kaih 
natale cha panatikya ch[a] Devanampiyasa Piyadaeine lajine 

12 [pa]v[a]dhayisarht[i ch]ev[a] dhamma-chalanaih i[mam] 3 ava-kapa[ih] dhammasi 

s[i]lasi 4 cha chithit[u] dhammam anusSsisamti (G) ese hi sethe kamm[aih] am 
dhammanusasanarh (H) dhamma-chalane. pi cha no hoti asilasa (I) se im[a]s[a 
a]thasa v[a]dhi ahini cha sadhu (J) etaye [ajthaye iyam likhite 

13 imas[a] a[tha]s[a] vadhi yujamtu hini ch[a] ma alochayisu (K) duv[a]das[a]- 

va6[a]bhisitena Dev[a]namp[i]yen[a] Fiyada&ina lajina lekhita 5 

TRANSLATION 

(A) In times past, for many hundreds of years, there had ever been promoted 
the killing of animals and the hurting of living beings, discourtesy to relatives, (and) 
discourtesy to Sramanas and Brahman as. 

(B) But now, in consequence of the practice of morality on the part of king 
Devanampriya Priyadarfiin, the sound of drums has become the sound of morality, 
showing the people representations of aerial chariots, elephants, masses of fire, and 
other divine figures* 

(C) Such as they had not existed before for many hundreds of years, thus there are 
now promoted, through the instruction in morality on the part of king Devanampriya 
PriyadarSin, abstention from killing animals, abstention from hurting living beings, 
courtesy to relatives, courtesy to Brahmanas and Sramanas, (and) obedience to mother 
and father, 

(D) Both in this and in many other ways is the practice of morality promoted, 

(E) And king Devanampriya PriyadarSin will ever promote this practice of 
morality. 

(P) And the sons, 0 grandsons, and great-grandsons of king Devanampriya 
Priyadarfiin will ever promote this practice of morality until the aeon (of destruction of the 
world), (and) will instruct (people) in morality, abiding by morality and by good conduct 

(G) For this is the best work, viz* instruction in morality. 

(H) And the practice of morality also is not (possible) for (a person) devoid of 
good conduct. 

(I) Therefore promotion and not neglect of this object is meritorious. 

(J) For the following purpose has this been written, (viz. in order that) they should 
devote themselves to the promotion of this practice, and that they should not approve 7 
the neglect (of it). 

(K) (This rescript) was caused to be written by king Devanampriya FriyadarSin 
(when he had been) anointed twelve years. 

m ^^^^^^^^ + 

1 eska Biihler. 2 laja Biihler. 8 There is a fissure in the rock here* 

4 sTlasi Senart, silasi Biihler. 6 kkhitam Biihler. 

0 The two syllables clia ham seem to have the same meaning as the simple cha. They occur 
twice again at Kalsi (XI, E, and XIII, Z), once at Shahbazgarh! (IV, F), three times at Mansehra, 
and once at Brahmagiri (L 11). Cf, kam after nA> stl, kl in the Rigveda. 

7 See above, p. 8, n. 3. Here, and in three other versions, the augment a- is retained after the 
■particle ma, while Shahbazgarhi has lo[c/i]e[s/i}u in accordance with Sanskrit grammar. 



32 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

FIFTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 

13 (A) ^WTTtftft fq^fe f^TUT (B) Wtt 1 (C) TJ W%5% 

% Igtift ^&fw (D) § WIT ^| ^Tffi ^ (E) TIT TRT ^WT 

(F) TT ^ %fTT "^H ft! tffaraffT % ^ ^frT (G) ^ ft HTO ^T 
(H) % srfTRirr 3ffl<* W^fTTOf *t*RT (I) r>^T- 

*n fa gft 3jq<£wr (k) irtr^ f^s^ 

16 TOfMnc% fir frr ^ fkomt % (m) ff^r ^if|^ ^t 

■feferfa tot ^?ri« fiRPrcr i> MOTfrom (o) tzht^ srere 

17 wftyft" ft fa ti i f^<*fat?mr fig tto ^ * to ^pnqj 

13 (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja aha. (B) kayane dukale 1 1 (C) e adikale 

kay[a]nasa se dukataih. kaleti (D) se mamaya bahu kayane kat[e] (E) t[a 
ma]m[a 2 puta] ch[a] nat[ale cha] 

14 palam [cha] tehi [ye] apatiye [m]e ava-kapam tatha anuvatisa[m]ti s[e] s[u]katam 

kachham[t]i (P) e chu het[a] desam pi hapa[y]i[sat]i 3 s[e] dukataih kachhati 
(Gr) p[a]pe hi nama 4 supadalaye (H) se atikamtaih amtalam no huta-puluva 8 
dham[ma]-mahamata a nama 7 (I) t[e]dasa-vasabh[i]sitena mamaya dhamma- 
mahamat[a ka]t[a] (J) [te] sav[a]-pasam[de]su viya[pa]ta 

15 dham[m]adhitha[naye ch]a dhamma-vadhiya hi[da]-sukhaye va 8 dhamm[a]-yutas[a] 

Tona-Kamb[o]i a- Gamdhalanam e va [pi] amne apalamta'{K) bhatamayesu 
bambhanibhesu anathesu [vjudhesu hida-sukhaye dhamma-yutaye apalibodhaye 
viyapata 8 te (L) bamdha[na-badha]sa patividhanay[e] apalibodhaye mokh[a]ye 
cha eyam anubadh[a] 10 pajava ti v[a] 

16 [katabhikajle ti va m[ah]a[la]ke ti v[a] viy[a]pata te (M) hid[a] ba[h]ilesu cha 

naga[l]esu s[a]ves[u olodha]n[esu] bha[tina]m cha ne bh[agi]ni[na] e va [pi] 
amn[e] natikye savata viya[pa]ta (N) e iyam dhamma-nisite ti va dana-suyute 11 

■ 1 

I Senart and Buhler omit this sign, which marks the end of the section. 

3 mama Buhler. 8 *samti Buhler. 4 nama Senart and Buhler. 

5 -fuluva Senart and Buhler. 6 -mcrfidmala Senart and Buhler. 

7 noma Buhler. 8 vi Senary cha Buhler. 0 viyapata Buhler. 

10 anubamdha Senart, a?mba\dham~\ Buhler. 

II ^sayute Senart, -samyuU Buhler. 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 



33 



ti [v]a sav[a]ta v[i]jitas[i] mama [dha]mma-yutasi viyapata te dharhma- 
m[a]ham[a]ta 1 (O) etaye athaye 
17 [i]yam dhamma-lipi lekhita chi[la]-thitikya hotu [tatha] cha me [pa]ja [a]nuva[ta]tu 2 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya PriyadarSia speaks (thus). 

(B) It is difficult to perform virtuous deeds, 

(C) He who starts performing virtuous deeds accomplishes something difficult. 

(D) Now, by me many virtuous deeds have been performed, 

(E) Therefore (among) my sons and grandsons, and (among) my descendants (who 
shall come) after them until the aeon (of destruction of the world), those who will 
conform to this (duty) will perform good deeds. 

(F) But he who will neglect even a portion of this (duty) will perform evil deeds. 

(G) For sin indeed steps fast. 8 

(H) Now, in times past (officers) called Mahdmatras of morality did not exist before, 

(I) Mahdmatras of morality were appointed by me (when I had been) anointed 
thirteen years. 

(J) These are occupied with all sects in establishing morality, in promoting 
morality, and for the welfare and happiness 4 of those who are devoted to morality 
(even) among the Yonas, Eambojas, and Gandhalas, 5 and whatever other western 
borderers (of mine there are). 

(K) They are occupied with servants and masters, with Brahmanas and Ibhjyas, 6 
with the destitute; (and) with the aged, for the welfare and happiness of those who' are 
devoted to morality, 7 (and) in releasing (them) from the fetters (of worldly life), 8 

(L) They are occupied in supporting prisoners (with money), in causing (their) 
fetters to be taken off, and in setting (them) free, if one has children, or is bewitched, 
or aged, respectively. 6 

(M) They are occupied everywhere, here 10 and in all the outlying towns, in the 
harems 11 of our brothers, of (our) sisters, and (of) whatever other relatives (of ours there are). 

I °mata Senart and Biihler. 2 anuvatamiu Senart and Biihler. 

3 Biihler (ZDMG, 37. 267) explained snpadalaye (for which Mansehra reads supadarave) by 
supradaryam* Girnar and Shahbazgarhi read instead of it sukaram* ( easily committed \ Perhaps 
padalaya is formed from pada; * a step \ as mahalaka (1, 16) Prakrit mahalaya from mahat, 

4 Here and in K the Dhauli version reads kiia- instead of hida-* 

5 Here the remaining, versions insert the names of two other tribes. 

6 Le. VaiSyas; see Biihler, ZDMG, 37. 369. The readings of the Dhauli and Mansehra 
versions, ibhiya and ibhya, show that ibha at Kalsl and Shahbazgafhi is meant for ihbha* The same 
follows from the Jdtaka, No. 544, where, as noted by Biihler (VOJ, 13. 76), the compound brahman- 
ibbha occurs several times. 

7 The reading dhamm a~yu taye seems to be a mere corruption of that of the Girnar version, 
dhamma-yuiananu 

8 According to Childers's Pali Dictionary palibodha means 1 obstacle, hindrance, drawback, 
impediment \ Liiders (SPAW, 19 14. 841) has shown that its original meaning was f fetters, to be 
fettered \ As its equivalent at Girnar {parigodha\ the word seems to be used here in a metaphorical 
sense, while it has its original meaning in the next section. 

0 Biihler (ZDMG, 37. 269) took eyam amibadha = Skt. etam anubandham in the sense of 
etad-artham* But eyam may stand for e ayam (cf. e iyam in section N — yo ayam at Girnar), and 
anabadhd for the ablative anubandhat y £ in succession, respectively V 

10 Instead of 'here* the Girnar version reads 'both in Fataliputra \ 

II The Dhauli version inserts * of myself*. 

1013 F 



34 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



(N) These Mahamatras of morality are occupied everywhere in my dominions 1 
with those who are devoted to morality, (in order to ascertain) whether one is eager for 
morality 3 or properly devoted to charity. 3 

(O) For the following purpose has this rescript on morality been caused to be 
written, (viz. that) it may be of long duration, and (that) my descendants 4 may conform 
to it. 

SIXTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 

17 (a) ^TRfift &mvi m%t (b) ^rfrrsrr ztim «ft |?r^<5% 

^ ^mft m mQe^hi (c) % i&m sN ^ (d) wi mri 

is wc#tvrftf WTT^jrfH R Purify ^n?r% mm v^^a wt 

— tt (e) mm m *ptot ^ti ?mfti ^ (p) fa 

mm (h) f| Sr $h ^TOfw^rra d) ^f^^ 
^pt w^ymf^ (m) i urn^ft ^ wfisrfa ftftnn fro- 

21 (n) ^ ^4 ^n*TT McW4?TT 

17 (A) Dev[a]nampi[y]e Piyadas[i] laja hevarh aha (B) atikamtam amtalam no 

huta-puluv[e] sav[a]m kalam fi atha-k[aih]me [v]a [pat]i[veda]na va (C) s[e] 
ma[may]a hevarh kate (D) s[a]vam kalam adamanas[a] 6 me 

18 olodhanasi gabhagalas[i] va[chas]i vinptasi u]y[anasi sava]t[a pative]daka athajm] 

janasa .... vedetu 7 [m]e (E) sa[va]ta [ch]a 8 ja[nas]a atham kachhami hakarh 
(F) yam pi ch[a k]i[chhi m]u[kha]t[e anapaya]mi [ha]kam da[pakam] v[a 
savakam] va ye va puna mahamat[e]hi 9 

1 The Dhauli version reads 1 on the whole earth \ 

s Other versions insert ' or established in. morality \ - 

3 In the translation of this sentence I differ from Biihler and follow on the whole Senart 
Instead of dana-suyute the Mansehra version reads dana-samyitie^ which might mean ■ furnished 
with gifts \ The distribution of gifts was one of the duties of the Dharma-Mahamairas ; see the 
Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, CC and DD. 4 See Luders in SPAW, 1914. 841 £ 

6 kalam Senart and Biihler. 0 adam\a\nasa Biihler. 

9 Restore pativedemiu^ which is Buhlei^s reading. 

8 Senart and Btihler omit cha> 9 *matehi Biihler. 



SIXTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 



35 



19 a[tiyayike aldpite 1 h]o[t]i ta[ye{h]a[ye] vivade n[i]jhati v[a] samtam palis[a]ye 

anarh[ta]l[i]yena pat[i] viye 2 me sav[a]t[a] savarii kalam (G) hevarh 

anapayite m[a]maya (H) nathi hi me dose 3 uthan[a]sa a tha-sa m t il[a]n aye cha 
(I) kat[a]viya-mute hi me s[a]va-loka-hi[te] (J) t[asa ch]a 4 [p]u[n]a es[e] mule 
uth[ane] 

20 [a]tha-samtilana cha (K) [na]thi hi kam[ma]tala sava-lo[ka]-hitena (L) yam cha 

kichhi fi palakamami hakarh kiti bhutanam [a]naniyam ye[ham hi]da cha [ka]ni 
sukhayami palata cha svagarh aladhayitu 6 (M) s[e] eta[y]ethaye iyarh dhama-lipi 
Iekhita chila-thitikya hotu tatha cha me puta-dale palakamatu sava-loka-hita[ye] 

21 (N) dukale ch[u] 7 iyarh anat[a] 8 agena palakamjVjna 

■ 

TRANSLATION 

+ 

(A) King Devanampriya FriyadarSiri speaks thus. 

(B) In times past neither the disposal of affairs nor the submission of reports at 
any time did exist before, 

(Cj But I have made the following (arrangement). 

(D) Reporters have to report to me the affairs of the people at any time (and) 
anywhere, while I am eating, in the harem, in the inner apartment, at the cowpen, in 
the palanquin, (and) in the park. 

(E) And everywhere I shall dispose of the affairs of the people, 

(P) And also, if in the council (of Makamatras) a dispute arises, 9 or an amend- 
ment is moved, in connexion with any donation or proclamation which I am ordering 
verbally, or (in connexion with) an emergent matter which has been delegated to the 
Makamatras, it must be reported to me immediately, anywhere, (and) at any time. 

(G) Thus I have ordered, 

(H) For I am never content in exerting myself and in dispatching business* 
(I) For I consider it my duty 10 (to promote) the welfare of all men, 

(J) But the root of that (is) this, (viz,) exertion and the dispatch of business. 

(Kj For no duty is more important than (promoting) the welfare of all men, 11 

(L) And whatever effort I am making, (is made) in order that I may discharge the 

debt (which I owe) to living beings, (that) I may make them 13 happy in this (world), and 

(that) they may attain heaven in the other (world). 



I °pitam Biihler. 2 Restore paiivedetaviye* 

3 Jaugada reads tose ; Biihler adds va. 4 Biihler omits cha. 6 hichi Biihler, 

6 Read dladhayamiu. 7 cha Senart and Biihler. 

8 amnata Senart, anata Biihler. 

9 The form samtam corresponds to samto at Girnar, and must be a nominative singular, just as 
in the Kalsi edict VIII, C, and as kalamtam in XII, H ; see also kala\nitd\^ XI, E, and halaia % XII, 
F and G, and cf. my note on the translation of the Dhauli separate edict I, X. 

10 muta for mata occurs also in the Kalsl edict XIII, E (vedaniya-mute gulu^nmte cha). The 
change of a to u is due to the preceding labial, as in uchavitcha (Kalsl, VII f C, and IX, B) for 
nchavacha (Girnar). 

II For the use of the instrumental with the comparative see above, p. 17, n. 3, 

13 As kani corresponds to nahi at Girnar, and to sha or she in the two Kharoshthl versions, it 
seems to be used as a demonstrative. The same meaning fits in the; pillar-edict IV, H and M; 
V, C ; VI, C ; and VI I, H. The singular ham occurs in the Jaugada separate edict I G, and II, C. 

F 2 



36 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

(M) Now, for the following purpose has this rescript on morality been caused to be 
written, (viz, that) it may be of long duration, and (that) my sons and wives 1 may 
display the same zeal for the welfare of all men. 

(N) But it is difficult to accomplish this without great zeal. 



21 



SEVENTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 

fts^fa wm «w sjsft *nprwte 



vimtfk s^fir (c) srS ^ ^T^rrai ^^if^on^ (b) h 

*R TJ^FT ft ^ifrf (E) ftt|% ft ^ ^ ^WT 
22 ffW Hl^jft RhHM T f^SHfHHT ft^ ^Tg 

21 (A) Devanaihplye Piyadasi laja [savat]a [i]chhati sava-[pasa]mda vas[e]vu 

(B) [sa]ve hi te sayama[m] bhava-sudhi cha ichhaihti (O) jane [ch]u 
uchavucha-chh[a]mde uchavucha-la[g]e (D) te savam eka-des[a]rh pi 
k[a]chham[t]i (E) vipule pi chu dan[e] 3 asa nathi 

22 sayame bha[va]-sudh[i] kitanat[a 3 d]idha-bhatita cha ni[che] badham 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadar£in desires (that) all sects may reside everywhere. 

(B) For all these desire self-control and purity of mind. 

(0) But men possess various desires (and) various passions. 

(D) They will fulfil (either) the whole (or) only a portion (of their duties). 

(E) But even one who (practises) great liberality, (but) does not possess self- 
control, purity of mind, gratitude, and firm devotion, is very mean, 

EIGHTH ROCK- EDICT: KALSI 

22 (a) ssrffrfcr ^mc^^r^tf^T fafr<**rm ^vr fWfcg (b) %t fanfw 

23 (d) ^^m *ftwnn (e) |m ^ ttfa s*w«i*WH ^ ^ ^ fUR- 

'M'fo^M xTT rTiTtW (F) ^ c^lf?T frfff "^Tff fq?RIT "fo^feST 

22 (A) atikamtam a[m]talam Devanaifapiya [vihala-yatam nama] nikhamisu (B) hida 

migaviya amnani cha hedisana 4 abhilamanp] husu (C) Devanampiye Piyadasi 
laja das[a]-vasabhlsite samtam nikhamitha 5 Sambodhi 

23 (D) tenata dharhma-yata (E) [h]eta iyaih hoti s a mana-b aihbhanan am dasane cha 



1 The other versions render it probable that -dale is a clerical mistake for -natale^ ' grandsons \ 
3 dan\ani\ Biihler. 3 Read u nata* 

* Read °sani t which is the reading of Senart and Buhler. 
5 "mitha Senart and Buhlen 



EIGHTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 37 

dane cha vudh[a]narii dasa[n]e ch[a] hilarhna-pati[v]idhane cha jja]napadasa 
[ja]n[a]sa das[a]ne dhammanusathi cha dhama-palipuchha cha 1 tatopa[ya] 
(P) [e]se bh[u]ye lati 2 hoti Devanaihpiyasa Piyadas[i]sa lajine bh[a]g[e] amne 

TRANSLATION 

(A) In times past the Ddvanantpriyas* used to set out on so-called pleasure-tours. 

(B) On these (tours) hunting and other such pleasures were (enjoyed). 

(C) When king Devanampriya Priyadardin had been anointed ten years, 4 
he went out to SambodhL 

(D) Therefore tours of morality (were undertaken) here. 5 

(E) On these (tours) the following takes place, (viz.) visiting Sramanas and 
Brahmanas and making gifts (to them), visiting the aged and supporting (them) with 
gold, visiting the people of the country, instructing (them) in morality, and questioning 

i 

(them) about morality, as suitable for this (occasion), 

(P) This second period (of the reign) of king Devanaihpriya FriyadarMn 
becomes a pleasure in a higher degree. 

NINTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 

24 (a) ^nnfa^ fta^fa cTt^t (b) *r s^r^r wx& *fiwfw ^Fireft 

^niffe f^RT^fa trwfa^R vffmfa Timy vftmn 

ft«3ftlT ^ TFm ^fir^frT 

25 (d) % ^2ft %c *§t wm (e) toxr^ ^ Tit to (p) v% 1 * ^^rm 

(H) % ^ffftit fqf?Rn fa "tgrTT fa HlfrFTT fa ^g^Tfa%*T fa ftrT- 
S^T Tlf^f^^T fa 

% (k) fg 4 <j V farti % % (l) ^ tpn v*(*vx& ^rrft^r (m) ^% 

ft If TO * fiAfrft* V* WT TOH I^T XRHfrT (n) 5% rT 

1 cha Buhler. a Read lati. 

3 Instead of this title of Aioka's predecessors theGirnar and Dhauli versions have the word 6 kings'. 

4 For the form samiath see above, p. 33, n. 9. 

5 viz. f in my territory*; cf. above, p. a, n. 3. The Girnar version reads tenesa, but Shah- 
bazgarhl and Mansehra read tmada % which seems to stand for tenatra. Therefore Buhler 
(ZDMG, 37. 436) was probably right in explaining tenatd at Kalsi and Dhauli by tern ata. 

■ 



38 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



24 (A) Devanampiye Piy[a]da[s]i la[ja] aha (B) jan[e] uch[av]ucham mamgalarh 

ka[l]eti abadhasi av[aha]si vivahasi pajopadane 1 pavasasi e[ta]ye arhnaye cha 
edisaye jane bahu magala[th] k[a]leti (G) heta [ch]u abaka-jani[yo] bahu 
cha bahuvidham cha khuda [ch]a nilathiya 2 cha magalam kaQa]mti 

25 (D) se katavi * cheva kho mamgale (E) apa-phale [ch]u 4 kho [e]s[e] (P) [i]yarh chu 

kho mah[a]-ph[a]le ye dhamma-magale (G) he[ta] iyaih dasa-bhatakasi s[a]mya- 
patip[a]ti 5 guluna apachiti [p]a[n]an[aih] samyame 0 s[a]man[a]-bambhananam 
dane ese amne cha hedise | 7 dhamma-magale nama (H) se vata[v]iye 
pitina pi putena pi bh[a]tina pi suvamiken[a] 8 pi mita-rsamthuten[a] ava° 
pativesiyena [p]i 

26 iyam sadhu iyaifa kataviye [ma]g[a]le Sva [ta]sa athasa ni[v]utiya imam kachhami 

ti 10 (I) e hi i[ta]le u magale sa[m]sayikye se 12 (J) siya va tarn atham mvatey[a] 
siya puna no (K) hi[da]lokike chev[a] se 13 (L) iyam puna dhamma-magale 
akaliky[e] (M) hamche pi tarn atham 14 no ni^eti 15 hida atham 16 palata anamtam 
puna pavasati 17 (N) hamche puna 18 tarn atham nivateti hida 19 tato ubhaye[sa]m 

27 ladhe hoti hida cha se athe palata 20 cha anamtam puna 21 pasavati tena dhamma- 

magalen[a] 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Friyadarfiin speaks (thus). 

(B) Men are practising various ceremonies during illness, at the marriage of a son 
or a daughter, at the birth of a child, 32 (and) when setting out on a journey; on these 
and other such (occasions) men are practising many ceremonies. 

(0) But in such (cases) mothers and wives 23 are practising many and various 
vulgar and useless ceremonies, 

(D) Now, ceremonies should certainly be practised. 

(E) But these (ceremonies) bear little fruit indeed. 

(F) But the following bears much fruit indeed, viz. the practice of morality. 

(G) Herein the following (are comprised), (viz.) proper courtesy to slaves and 
servants, reverence to elders, gentleness to animals, (and) liberality to 6ramanas 
and Brahmanas ; these and other such (virtues) are called the practice of morality. 

(H) Therefore a father, or a son, or a brother, or a master, (or) a friend or an 
acquaintance, or even a (mere) neighbour ought to say : — ' This is meritorious. This 

■ 

I This word cannot be correct, because in the Kalsl dialect the locative of upadana would end 
in -asL Read therefore (with Dhauli and Jaugada) *daye, which is the actual reading of Senart and 
Buhler, 8 ntiathiyath Senart, nilathiymh Buhler. 

3 Read kataviye. 4 vu Buhler. 6 -patipdti Buhler. 6 sdyamme Senart, sayame Buhler. 

7 Instead of this mark of punctuation Senart and Buhler read tam. 

8 *ken\£\ Buhler. 0 ava Buhler. ka[thd\miti Buhler. 

II ivate Buhler- 12 Buhler adds {hott\. 13 cha vase Senart and Buhler, 

u atham Buhler. 15 Read, as at Mansehra, nivateti. 16 Read (with Shahbazgarhi) atha. 
17 Read pimmam pasavati 18 suka Senart, puna Buhler. 19 hida Senart and Buhler, 
30 °td Senart and Buhler. *i Read punmam, which is Buhler's reading. 

22 Buhler (ZDMG, 37. 431 f.) derived the locative npadayefxom a supposed Sfct feminine *utpad. 
Shahbazgarhi reads npadane y which either corresponds to Skt utpddane, or is a mistake for the 
Mahsehra reading, upadaye. 

23 Buhler (ZDMG, 37. 433) proposed translating f nurses and mothers \ Cf. ambika-madukekim 
in the Mrichchkahatika, act VIII, verse 19, 



NINTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 



39 




practice should be observed until the (desired) object is attained, (thinking) : 1 I shall 
observe this '* 

(I) For other a ceremonies are of doubtful (effect). 

(J) One may attain his object (by them), but he may not (do so). 

(K) And they (bear fruit) in this world only* 

(L) But that practice of morality is not restricted to time. 

(M) Even if one does not attain (by it) his object in this (world), then endless 
merit is produced in the other (world). 3 

(N) But if one attains (by it) his object in this (world), the gain 4 of both (results) 
arises from it ; (viz.) the (desired) object (is attained) in this (world), and endless merit is 
produced in the other (world) by that practice of morality. 

TENTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 

27 (a) ^rftrc fww vft f^fir *rir <h^fh tptRt ^rut 

% ffc ^ ^tfr^ fir (b) vrart fxra^ft 

28 TST^T *rat fifrffT ^5 (C) fifife c^RffT ^aRfift fvpafk 

7%w\ rT tpi mTtfimw m fififir wm 3rou<*ra% finrrfir fir 

(D) ^ ^| !TfH«% Tt (E) ^ ^ ^%?f Vh*l ^1 

29 

27 (A) Deva[nam]piye Piy[a]dasha 5 laja 6 y[a]sho va kiti va no [ma]hathava 7 

manati an[a]ta [ya]m pi yaso va ki[t]i va ichh[at]i tadatvaye ayatiye cha jane 
dharhma-sususha susushatu me ti dharhma-vatarh va anuvi[dh]iya[ih]tu 8 ti 

(B) dhata[k]aye 9 Devana[m]piye Piyadasi 

28 laja yasho va kiti va ichha 10 (C) am eh[a] kichhi lakamati 11 Devanampiye 12 

Piyadashi laja ta [sha]va 13 palarhtikyaye 14 va kiti sakale apa-p[a]lashave 15 
shiyati ti (D) [e]she chu palisave e apune 10 (E) dukale chu kho eshe 
khudakena va vagena 17 ushutena va ana[ta] agen[a pa]Iakamena shava[ih] 
palitiditu (F) [h]e[ta chu] klio 

29 [u]shate[na] va dukale 

1 From this word to the end of the edict the KalsT version differs completely from the Gimar 
one, Dhauli and Jaugada agree with Gimar, but the two Kharoshthi versions with KalsL 

2 i[ta\te is the regular equivalent of \t\tare at Mansehra. Shahbazgarhi reads however etake. 

3 The words palaia anamtam fumnam pasavaii occur again in N, and in the Kalsl edict XI, E. 
In these two cases pasavaii is construed with an instrumental, and in the last case it corresponds to 
bhavaii in the Girnar version- Buhler (ZDMG, 37. 580) was therefore right in explaining it by 
pasavvati=Sanskrit prasavyaie* * Cf. above, p. 19, n. 16. 6 Read Piyadashi. 

G laja Senart, laja Biihler. 7 The Girnar version reads mahathavah\a\ 

8 *yata Senart, °yatu Biihler. 

9 Read etakaye, which is the reading of Senart and Buhler. 

10 Read ichhati. 11 Read palakamatu 12 Devanam Senart and Buhler. 

18 savant Senart, stiavam Buhler. 14 paliti Senart, palati* Buhler. 15 Read -palishave* 

16 The syllable ne was entered subsequently; apztmne Senart and Buhler. 

17 vagena Senart and Buhler. 



4° 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadarain does not think that either glory or fame 
conveys much advantage, except whatever glory or fame he desires (on account of his 
aim) that in the present time, and in the future, men may (be induced) by him to practise 
obedience to morality, or that they may conform to the duties of morality. 

(B) On this (account) king Devanampriya FriyadarSin is desiring glory and 
fame. 

(C) And whatever effort king Devanampriya Priyadarsin is making, all that (is) 
only for the sake of (merit) in the other (world), (and) in order that all (men) may run 
little danger. 1 

(D) But the danger is this, viz. demerit 

(E) But it is indeed difficult either for a lowly person 2 or for a high one to 
accomplish this without great zeal (and without) laying aside every (other aim). 

(F) But among these (two) it is indeed (more) difficult to accomplish just for 
a high (person), 

ELEVENTH ROCK-EDICT ; KALSI 

29 (a) ^rrefo^r fkvzfa <3i*n ^ (b) ?rfa ^ srf^f wsre i 

TOtrfW* I TOM I (C) rTrf U% ^PTO^ifa 1 W WRwfrl » 

30 tit^tr OTt^ (d) ^ mfzw ftifiRT fq s?N ft *nf?Ri ft? 

29 (A) Devanamp[i]ye PiyadasM [l]aja hevarh ha 3 (B) nathi h[e]dishe dane adisha * 

dha[m]ma-dane | dhama-shav[i]bhage 5 \ dha mm a-shambadh[e] | (0) ta[ta] eshe 
dasha-bhatakashi | shamya-patipati mata-pitishu i shushusha | mita-shaihthuta- 
natikyanam samana-[ba]mbhanana 6 [da]ne 

30 pananam anal[am]bhe (D) eshe vatav[i]ye pi[t]ina pi pute[na] 7 pi bha[t]ina pi 

sh[a]vam[i]kyena 8 pi mita-^amthutana fl ava p[a]tiveshiyen[a] 10 iy [a]m shadhu 11 
iyam kataviye (E) [£]e tatha kalafmta] hidalokikye cha kam aladhe hoti palata 
ch[a] 13 anata 13 puna 14 pasavati tena dhamma-danena 

1 The form skiyati occurs again in the Kalsl edict XII, B, where it is spelt Hydtu C£ also 
siyaH in the Shahbazgarhl edict XII, L, and in the Mansehra edict X, C- 

2 In Sanskrit the word varga means ■ a class ' ; but here and in the two KharoshthT versions it 
corresponds to Jana,**, person', at Girnar. The same is the case in the first separate rock-edict, 
where Dhauli (K) reads jatte, and Jaugada (L) \vd\ge. See also hedisameva vagaih, 'a person of the 
same description 1 , in section A A of the same edict at Dhauli* 

3 Read aha. * yadisam Senart, \a\disham BUhler. 

6 dhammorshmhvibhage Buhler. 6 sanumor and °nanam BUhler. 

7 puts Senart and Buhler ; the syllable na seems to be entered below the line.- 

8 Read slmvami* 9 The ta of mita- stands below the line ; read °teniL 
10 paiivest Buhler. 11 sadhu BUhler.' 

12 cha Senart and Buhlen 13 amnatam Senart, anamia Biihler. 

14 pumna BUhler ; read anathtam pumnam. 



ELEVENTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 4t 

i 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya PriyadarSin speaks thus, 

(B) There is no such gift as the gift of morality, the distribution of morality, (and) 
kinship through morality. 

(C) Herein the following (are comprised), (viz.) proper courtesy to slaves and 
servants, obedience to mother and father, liberality to friends, acquaintances, and 
relatives, to £ramanas and Brahmanas, (and) abstention from killing animals* 

(D) Concerning this a father, or a son, or a brother, or a master, (or) a friend or 
an acquaintance, (or) even a (mere) neighbour, ought to say ; — ' This is meritorious. 
This ought to be done \ 

(E) If one is acting thus, 1 (happiness) in this world is attained, 3 and endless merit 
is produced 3 in the other (world) by that gift of morality. 

r a 

.\ 

-l 

TWELFTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 

tjsrnl (b) ^ Trarr "^rr ^rW *rcfw ^wr fori 
siiMnfe feiTfw ^^ptosr (c) *jr<*refe *n ^|f^vT (d) tto -% 

34 swfe i ^rrftt ^ i pi fir i (k) ii ^ rm *m\ vnm i 

f¥?r TOyrafe fen i tr^xrrfefff i (m) ^bt i iwnnaro \ 
■fawn 

35 (n> sjq ^ vfim i tr^ i ^ ^mur^ift ^tt i ftfr fttwr i 

— - — , — - - - - - — -■■ 

1 For the form kalamtam see above, p; 35, n. 9, 

2 For cha kam see above, p. 31, n. 6* 
s See above, p, 39, n. 3. 

1st* G 



e 
12 



4* THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

30 (A) [Djevanapiye [P]iyadash[i] 

31 laja shava-pasham[dan]i 1 pav[a]jita[n]i gahathani va pujeti danena vividh[aye] 2 

cha | 3 puj[a]ye (B) n[o] ch[u] tatha dane va puja va Devana[m]piye m[a]nati 
atha k[i]ta 4 £[a]Ia-v[a]dhi 6 £iyati £[a]va-pa£adana 6 (C) Sala-vadhi 7 na 
bahuvidha 9 (D) tafia chu inam 10 mule a va[cha]-guti kiti t[i] 11 ata-pa£ada- 
[v]a 13 puja va pala-paSamcla-galaha va M no [Sajya 15 

32 ap[a]k[a]l[a]na£[i] lahaka 16 va liya [ta]gi 1T ta5i pakalan[a]s[i] (E) pujetav[i]ya chu 

p[a]la-pa[£a]da tena tena akalana 18 (P) heva 19 kalata ata-pa£ada 20 badham 21 
vadhiyati pala-pa£ada pi 22 va upakaleti (G) tada 23 anatha 24 kalata ata-pasada 
cha chhanati pala-paiada 85 pi va apakaleti (H) ye [h]i kechha [a]ta-pagada 
punati 20 

33 pala-pashada va \ ga[la]hati \ shave ata-pasharh[da]-bhatiya va kiti \ ata-pashamda 27 1 

[d]ipayema she cha puna tatha | kalamtam i badhatale i up[a]hamt[i] i ata-^ 
pashamdashi | (I) shamavaye 28 vu 20 shadhu kiti | amnamanasha dhammam i 
shune[y]u cha t shushusheyu cha ti | (J) hevam hi Devanampiyasha ichha 
kimti 30 

34 sava-pashaihda | baha-shuta 31 cha kayanaga 32 cha i huveyu ti l (K) e [cha] 33 tata 

t[a]t[a] 34 1 p[a]sh[aih]na 85 1 te[hi vajtaviye | (L) Devanapiye no tatha | danam 
va | puja va i mamnatjTJ | atha kiti sh[a]Ia-v[a]dhi ™ §iya | shava-pashamdatim 87 \ 



1 Read sfwva- ; skava pdskantdani Buhler. 

2 vividhaya Senart, vividJmia Buhler. 

8 Buhler omits this sign. 4 Read kiti. 
5 iala- Senart and Biihler, 

c The syllable na (nam Biihler) was inserted subsequently* 
7 iala- Biihler. 8 The other versions read tu* 

9 The syllable vi was inserted subsequently. 

10 Read iyam s which is the reading of Senart and Biihler. 
V- ta Senart and Buhler. 

12 The syllable ta of ata* is entered above the line ; -paiada Senart, -pasamde Biihler. 

18 Cancel va* 

14 The words pala-pasamda-galaha va are entered above the line ; below them the words ti 
apaialaha va are struck out, 

16 Readies, m R ea d fa/mho. 

17 Read taU, which is the reading of Senart and Biihler. 

19 Read akalena. 19 hevam Senart and Buhler. 

20 -paiada Buhler. 

21 badham Senart and Buhler. 
Ba pt is entered above the line. 

25 The syllable da is entered above the line. 
24 anmathd Buhler ; read tad-anatha* 

26 The syllable pd is entered above the line ; -paiada Buhler. 
2fi puyati SenBxUpwiati Buhler ; read probably pujetu 

One feels tempted to read -pashamdam. But the point after da stands much lower than an 
Anusvara, and a similar point occurs quite below the da in three other cases : ata-pasada in G, 
sava-pashamda in J, and shava-pashamdatim in L. 

28 samd Buhler. 29 Read chu \ va Senart and Buhler. 30 Mi Buhler. 

81 Read balm-, which is the reading of Senart and Buhler. 

82 Read u ndgama. ™ va Senart and Buhler. 

34 tata Senart and Buhler. 85 pashamna Buhler* 

30 shala- Buhler. 8 * Read °danam ti. 



37 



TWELFTH ROCK-EDICT : KALSI 



43 



(EE) bahuka ch[a] | etayathaye i viyapata ! dha[m]ma-mahamata \ ithidhiyakha- 
mahamata | vacha-bh[u]mikya | ane va [n]iky[a]y[a] 1 
35 (N) iyam cha etisha i phale i yam ata-pashamda-vadhi cha | hoti dharhmasha 2 cha 
dipana \ 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Friyadarsin is honouring all sects : ascetics or house* 
holders, with gifts and with honours of various kinds, 

(B) But Devanampriya does not value either gifts or honours so (highly) as 
(this), (viz.) that a promotion of the essentials of all sects should take place. 3 

(C) This 4 promotion of the essentials (is possible) in many ways. . 

(D) But its root is this, viz. guarding (one's) speech, (i.e.) that neither praising 
one's own sect nor blaming other sects should take place on improper occasions, or 
(that) it should be moderate in every case. 

(E) But other sects ought to be honoured in every way. 

(F) If one is acting thus, 5 he is promoting his own sect considerably and is 
benefiting other sects as well. 

(G) If one is acting otherwise than thus, he is both hurting his own sect and 
wronging other sects as well. 

(H) For whosoever praises his own sect or blames other sects, — all (this) out 
of pure devotion to his own sect, (i. e.) with the view of glorifying his own sect, — if 
he is acting thus, he rather injures his own sect very severely. 

(I) But concord is meritorious, (i.e.) that they should both hear and obey each 
other's morals. 

(J) For this is the desire of Devanampriya, (viz.) that all sects should be both 
full of learning and pure in doctrine. 

(K) And those who are attached to their respective (sects), ought to be spoken to 
(as follows). 

(L) Devanampriya does not value either gifts or honours so (highly) as (this), 
(viz.) that a promotion of the essentials of all sects should take place. 

(M) And many (officers) are occupied for this purpose, (viz.) the Mahamatras of 
morality, the' Mahamatras controlling women, the inspectors of cowpens, or other 
classes (of officials). 

(N) And . this is the fruit of it, (viz,) that both the promotion of one's own sect 
takes place, and the glorification of morality* 

THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT : KALSI 

fafsRTT 1 (B) f^ftft I lflTOlti# | % era! \ smt^irfffl* I 

rTfT ^ I ^|m^rl% I (C) rfWt TO I cW* \ I 

frT% I W 

1 nikaye Senart, niia[ya\ Biihler. 2 dhamasha Buhler* 

3 For Hyati see above, p. 40, n. 1. 4 For the pronoun na see above, p. 13, n. 5, 

5 For the form kalamtam see above, p. 35, n. 9. 

G 2 



44 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

ftw I ft fa fafl I qfcjTOlfr I (E) Uffefqlri ft I ftf*R*R 1 ^ 

win i «m "«fr j l *n7% i m i *R*rT 1^1 i 

I ^hPmTO I (F) & ft ^ I Klft I g U 3*Tf ffi 3T I 
37 (G) 1 ffiTT ^rfrf ^R*tf «l "^R 3R HT^fe *pTf^1T ^5 ftftrTT 

^rewzqft MMmOmPri f^rffTHT W ttwt ttfff wnW 

ss (h) ^I^rft ^ft%iR fiR% mr<m.f$i ^ ?tr fiw^ja^^fnffm 
ftwi ta^m wat ft hr^t ttft (i) itfzxft ^ 

Hft 3R ft^iRT SIRiTT 
39 *R^ ifa fftlft 3R*^fa IrTT *Tfa *f^R I l£«htf c*ft 

ft r trroft i *vr vmk \ (k) q sr i w^r srfS^ i 

^ Tfe ^ I » if fit ^ «R I ^rvTFt I 

i?. — South Face of Kalsi Rock. 

3 (o) 335 

6 "^^Rftw $ tRftg^ (a) qf ^ ^^Rft 

6 q%| ^ ^I&f ^ ^ ft aft*RMi)feJ ^fiT ^srfrRt^ TR *rRHT ' ' *H5 

7 ^ffirtWlT Wife 8 H^TR (p«5^ HR 3lftfti% «TR THfiT •TT- 

s n 3r fa<w$<c* im fW ^Sfe q^ n ^r ifttrfon ihi^n (r) 

» Ifer wrstftsRft 3tH«M)r3§ *flwnwfrri§ Hfaftfrifw«Wg 

10 3ronc?^$ wqHT ^Rftw Mw^qft ^•fsiiifrf (s) *ra ft ^riT 

11 ^Rftror % ^ft $ ft ^b^rAh* f^ra^i 

12 jRigaft srgftft^ ^rgftftfastei (t) ^ § 

13 ua%*r lift *ram ftsrc ftft^yS $ (u) nvr *n ftft ftft ftft 

iRft^l- 



KALSI ROCK; EAST FACE 



Page 44 




Scale One-sixth 



THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 45 
14 fa (V) cTpiT ^ ^ faffT (W) ffl<$fjrer3^ TfifHOT *fcffrl \^Hfit3 

i8 fm (z) to ^ ^ facrfw §ta ^mwfir (aa) xk %cflf« 

■ 

« 

35 (A) atha-[va]sba- I bhishita- 1 1 sha [De]ranaiiipiyaslia Piyadashine i lajine i 

Kaligya vijita | (B) diyacjha-mite 3 1 pana-shat[a]-shaha[£]e | ye [ta]pha apavuclhe [| 
i £a]ta-[sha]hasha-mite 8 1 tata hate | bahu-tavatake 4 | va mate (C) tat[o 5 pa]chha \ 
adhuna ladhesha 0 \ Kaligyeshu | tive | dhamma[vay]e 

36 dhamma-k[a]mata i dhammanushathi cha | Devanampiyasha | (D) sh[e] athi 

anushaye | Devanampiya[sh]a i vijin[i]tu 7 | Kaligyani | (E) avijitam hi \ 
vijinamane | e tata | vadha 8 va i malane va | apavahe [va] i jan[a]sha | [sh]e 
badha | vedaniya-mute | g[u]l[u]-mut[e] cha \ Devanam[pi]yasha | (F) iyarh pi 
chu | tato | galu-matatale i D[e]vaiiampiyasha * 

37 (G) [ya] tata 40 vashati b[a]bhana n va shama 12 va ane va paSarhda gih[i]tha va 

yelu vihita [e]sh[a] a[gabhu]t[i]-shushusha 13 m[a]ta-piti-shushusha 14 galu-shusha 15 
mita-shaihthuta-shahaya-natikeshu da^a-bha[ta]kash[i 1G sha]m[y]a-patipati didha- 
bhatita tesham tata hoti [upa]ghate va vadhe va abhilatanam va vinikhamane 

38 (H) yesharh va pi shuvihi[t]anam 17 shinehe avipahine e tanaih mita-£aihth[u]ta- 

sha[h]aya-[na]tikya 18 viyashanam 19 papunata 20 tata 21 she [p]i t[a]namev[a] 2 * 





I" 




I 



cha Devaua[m]piyasha (J) n[a]thi cha. she jan[a]pade yata nathi ime nikaya 
anata 23 T[o>eBh[u] M 
39 bamhmane ch[a] shamane cha nathi cha kuvapi jan[a]padashi [ya]ta n[a]thi 
m[a]nushan[a] 25 | ekatalashp p]i | pashadashi | no n[a]ma pashade I (K) she 
ava[ta]ke 28 jarie \ t[a]da Kali[m]geshu i 27 [ladheshu ha]te ch[a] 28 mat[e] cha I 
[apavudhe cha t] tato 29 shat[e] bhage va I shah[a]sha-bhage va \ aja gulu-mate 
va \ Bevaiia{m]piyasha 



I bJtisita- Buhler. 2 -m\d\te Buhler. » -mate Buhler* 4 -iavamtahe Buhler. 
5 tata Senart and Buhler. ' 6 Read ladheshu, which is Biihler's reading. 

7 This word may be read also vijimii, as both an i and a u are affixed to the last consonant. 
. 8 vadhaiii Buhler. 9 Buhler adds i. x 

10 Read ye tata in accordance with the Shahbazgarhl version, which reads ye taira ; savatd 
Senart and Biihler, who adds I. 

II bambhana Senart and Biihler. 12 Read shamana. 
ia ag\a\bh\itta\ Biihler, 14 mata- Buhler. 

. M -shnsha Buhler ; read -skushusha. 18 -bha\td\kashi BUhler. 

. 17 \skaYnvihitanam Buhler. 18 The syllable na seems to be entered above the line. 

" viyashane BUhler. 20 Read papundti, which is Biihler's reading. 

21 tata Buhler. 22 W Buhler. 23 anamtd Senart and Biihlen 

24 yenesha Buhler. 25 *$hdnam Biihler. 20 avatake Buhler. 27 Buhler omits t. 

28 cha \ Buhler. 29 tata Senart and Buhler. . - * 



46 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

B. — South Face of Kaisi Rock. 

1 

3 . . . . . [neyju (O) ichha 1 

4 sha[va-bhu] 3 [shayama shamacha]liya[rh] madava ti (P) iyam vu 3 

mu 

5 Devanampiyesha 4 ye dha[ih]ma-vijaye (Q) sh[e] cha puna ladhe Devana[m- 

p]i cha s 

6 shaveshu cha ateshu a shashu pi [yojjana-shateshu 0 at[a] Atiyoge nam[a] Yo[na- 

la] . . 7 [pa]Iam cha tena 

7 A[m]tiyogena chatali 4 lajane Tulamaye [na]m[a] Amteki[ne na]ma Maka na- 

8 ma Alikyaslrudale nama nicharh Choda-Pamdiya avarh Tambaparimiya 

hevamev[a] a (R) hevameva 

9 0u]da Ia[ja}v^avashi fi YonarKambojeshu Nabliak[a>Nabliapamtishu 10 Bhoja- 

Pitinikye[sli]u 

H> [A<Uia]-P[a]lade[sIi]u [sha]vata [D]eva[na]ihpi[ya]sha dhammanu[sha]thi 
anuvataihti (S) y[a]ta pi duta 

11 Devana[mp]iyasa no yamti t[e] pi sutu Dev[aaia]mp[i3namya 11 dh[amma]-vutaih 

v[i]dh[a]na[m] 

12 dhaihmanusa[th]i dha[th]ma[th] anuvidhiyama 13 [a]nuvidhiytsarha 13 [ch]a (T) ye 

se [Ia]dhe , 

13 etakena hoti savata vi[ja]ye 14 piti-lase se (U) gadha sa hoti piti piti dhamm[a]~ 

vijaya- 

14 shi (V) lahuka v[u] 15 kho sa piti (W) palamtikyameve maha-phala mamnath[ti] 

Dev[e]nam[pi]ne 10 

15 (X) etaye cha athaye iyam dha[m]ma-Iipi likhita kiti puta papota " me a[su] 

16 nava[rh] vijay[a] ma vljayataviya 18 manishu shayakashi no 10 vi[ja]yashi kharhti 20 

chalaihu-* 1 

17 dathdata [cha] lochetu tameva cha vijayam manatu ye dhamma-vijaye (Y) she 

hidalokikya palalo- .- 

18 kiye 22 (Z) shava cha ka 23 nilati hot[u] uyama-lati (AA) sha hi hi[da]lokika 

pa[la]lokikya 

■m 

I Restore ichhaii* . 2 Restore -bhuiamm* z Read chu* 
* Read *piyasha. 5 Restore °piyasa hidm cha. 

Q There is a fissure in the rock between yojana and skateshu. 

7 Restore -laja. 8 hevameva Biihler, 0 \Bi\da4aja Visa - Vaji- Biihler,, 

10 Nabhaku- Senart, Nabhake Biihler. 

II *piniya Senart, °piya?hya Biihler ; read °p£yasa. 

12 Read yamti 9 which is Buhler's reading. 

13 Read *samti t which is Buhler's reading, 

14 This word is entered above the line. 

15 Read chu. 

16 Read palamtikyameva maha-phalam mamnati Devdnampiye* 

17 papota Senart and Biihler. 18 vijayamtaviya Biihler. 

19 Read perhaps yo (= Prakrit yeva) } as at Shahbazgarhl, 

20 There is a fissure in the rock here. 

sx Cancel the sign of punctuation and join lahu~. sa ki . ye Biihler. 

33 Biihler omits ka ; read ham and see above, p. 31, n. 6. 



THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT : KALSI 47 

• • • 

TRANSLATION 

(A) When king Devanampriya Priyadarfiin Iiad been anointed eight years, 
(the country of) the Kalingyas was conquered by (him). 

(B) One hundred and fifty thousand in number were the men who were deported 
thence, one hundred thousand in number were those who were slain there, and many 

+ 

times as many those who died. 

(0) After that, now that (the country of) the Kalingyas has been taken, 
Devanampriya (is devoted) to a zealous study of morality, to the love of morality, 
and to the instruction (of people) in morality. 

(D) This is the repentance of Devanampriya on account of his conquest of 
(the country of) the Kalingyas. » 

(E) For, this is considered 1 very painful and deplorable by Devanampriya, that, 
while one is conquering 2 an unconquered (country), slaughter, death, and deportation 
of people (are taking place) there, 

(P) But the following is considered even more deplorable than this by Devanam- 
priya. 

(G) (To) the Brahmanas or Sramanas, or other sects or householders/ who are 
living there, (and) among whom the following are practised : obedience to those who 
receive high pay, 4 obedience to mother and father, obedience to elders, proper courtesy 
to friends, acquaintances, companions, and relatives, to slaves and servants, (and) firm 
devotion, — to these then happen injury or slaughter or deportation of (their) beloved ones. 

(H) Or if there are then incurring misfortune 5 the friends, acquaintances, com- 
panions, and relatives of those whose affection (for the latter) is undiminished, although 
they are (themselves) well provided for, 6 this (misfortune) as well becomes an injury to 
those (persons) themselves. 7 

(E) This is shared by all men 8 and 0 is considered deplorable by Devanampriya. 

(J) There is no country where these (two) classes, (viz.) the Brahmanas and the 
Sramanas, do not exist, except among the Ydnas ; and there is no (place) in any 
country where men are not indeed attached to some sect, 10 

■ ■ * 

(K) Therefore even the hundredth part or the thousandth part of all those people 



1 For muta = mata see above, p, 35, ri. 10. 

2 vijinamane is a nominative singular absolute ; see my note on the translation of the Dhauli ! 
separate edict I, S. 

3 Cf. the rock-edict XII, A, and the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, Y. 

4 Bilhler (ZDMG, 37. 59a fc) took agabkuti^agrajanman, 'a member of a higher caste* or 
f a Brahmana * ; but the various reading in the two KhardshthI versions, agrabhttti % suggests that 
the second member of the compound is Skt. bhriti. 

6 papunaii is used in the same way in the Dhauli separate edict I, J, and the Jaugada separate 
edict I, K. 

* For this meaning of mvihiia see Childers, Pali Dictionary, s. v. vidahati. 

7 The correct construction of this section is due to Luders, who showed that effinmh must 
be divided into e tanaiit \ see SPAW, 19 14. 85a. 

8 Le. 'a share of this falls upon all men 1 ; see Thomas in V- A. Smith's Asoka, sec. ed., 
p. I73 5 n. u 

9 The cha after gulit-mate corresponds to the preceding cha after faiibhage* In the same way 
the double nathi cha in the next section co-ordinates the two sentences. 

10 See above, p. 25, n. 3, 



48 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA . 

who were slain, who died, and who were deported at that time when (the country of) 
the Kalingas was taken, (would) now be considered very deplorable by Devanampriya. 

(O) desires towards all beings • self-control, impartiality, 

(and) kindness. 

(P) But this by Devanampriya, viz, the conquest by morality. 

(Q) And this (conquest) has been won repeatedly by Devanampriya both [here] * 
and among all (his) borderers, even as far as at (die distance of) six hundred yojanas* 
where the Ydna king named Antiyoga 3 (is ruling), and beyond this Antiyoga, 
(where) four — 4 — kings (are ruling), (viz, the king) named Tulamaya, 0 (the king) 
named Antekina, 4 (the king) named Maka, 5 (and the king) named Alikyashudala, 6 
(and) likewise 7 towards the south, 8 (where) the Chodas and Fandyas (are ruling), as 
far as Tamraparni. 

(R) Likewise here in the king's territory, among the Tonas and Kamhojae, 0 
among the Uabhakas and Kabhapanktis, 10 among the Bhojas u and Pitinikyas, 12 
among the Andhras 18 and Paladas, 1 *— everywhere (people) are conforming to 
Devanampriya's instruction in morality. _ - 

(S) Even those to whom the envoys of Devanampriya do not go, having 
heard of the duties of morality, 16 the ordinances, (and) the instruction in morality of 
Devanampriya, are conforming to morality and will conform to (it). 

(T) This conquest, which has been won by this . everywhere; causes the feeling 
of satisfaction. 

(IT) Firm 19 becomes this satisfaction, (viz.) the satisfaction at the conquest by 
morality. 



1 viz. * in my territory * ; see section R below, and cf. above, p. 3, n. 3. 

2 The Shahbazgarh? version reads Amtiyoka. For Antioehus II of Syria see above, p. 3, n. 1 1. 

3 The Girnar version reads Turamdya % and the Shahbazgarhi one Turamaya* 
•■♦■The Shahbazgarhi version reads Amiikinu 6 The Girnar version reads Maga. 

* The two Kharoshthi versions read Alikasttdara. The four kings are Ptolemy II 
Philadeiphos of Egypt (B.c. 385-247), Antigonus Gonatas of Macedonia (276-239), Magas of 
Cyrene (c. 300-250), and either Alexander of Epirus (273-c. 255) or, more probably, Alexander 
of Corinth (352-c. 244); see Lassen's Ind* Alt., vol. II, p. 255, and Beloch's Grieckische Geschichie* 
3. 2, 105. 

, 7 The two Kharoshthi versions omit this word. 

8 This is Senart's rendering of nicham (i. e. ntcham). Bfihler {ZDMG, 40, *37) added that the 
Rigveda uses its synonym nyak in the same sense. 0 See above, p. 10, n. u 

10 As remarked by Buhler (ZDMG, 40. 138)1 Prakrit paihU=S\&. fa&ktL 

11 Buhler (ZDMG, 40- 138) connected the Bhojas with the city of Bhojakata in East Berar, 
which is mentioned in a Vakataka grant {Gupta Inscrs*> p. 241) and in the Bharaut inscriptions 
(I A, si. 240). But as, in the rock-edict V, J, the Pitinikas appear among Asoka's western borderers, 
the Bhojas, who are coupled with them here, will have to be looked for in the west as well. 

12 . The Pitinikyas are identical with the Petenikas in the Girnar edict V; see above, p. 10, 
n. 3. The Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra versions read Pitintka m 

13 Andhra is the old name of the Telugu country and people. * 

14 The Girnar version seems to read Pdrhitda^ and the Shahbazgarhi one Palida* Buhler 
(ZDMG, 40. 138) identified this word with Pnlinda and noted that the Andhras and Pulindas are 
mentioned together already in the Aitareya-Brdhmatja^VlI^ 18. But the variants at Girnar and 
Kalsl render this identification very improbable. Parinda reminds us of the Sanskrit pdrtndra f 
* a lion 16 C£ dhamma-vuiam cha anuvidhiyaidm in the Girnar edict X, A, 

10 As suggested by Buhler (ZDMG, 40. i$8),gad6d (instead of which two other versions read , 
ladhd or ladha) may represent *gdddfid t from Pali gddftati, * to stand fast/ 



THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 49' 

■ 

(V) But this satisfaction is indeed of little (consequence). 

(W) Devanampriya thinks that only the fruits in the other (world) are of great 
(value). 1 . ' 

(X) And for the following purpose has this rescript on morality been written, (viz,) 
in order that the sons (anci) great-grandsons (who) may be (born) to me, should not 
think that a fresh conquest ought to be made ; (that), if a conquest does please them, 3 
they should take pleasure 3 in mercy and light punishments; and (that) they should 
regard the conquest by morality as the only (true) conquest 

(Y) This (conquest bears fruit) in this world (and) in the other world. 

(Z) And let all (their) pleasure be the pleasure in exertioa. 4 

(AA) For this (bears fruit) in this world (and) in the other world, 

FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: KALSI 

20 %m ^ifa *?fi^n ^ftr fip&w (b) vfift (c) hqrfr 

ft ft- 

21 f*ft ^| ^ fofig& Swfanfw fcm (d) ssifa Iitt ^ ^nr 

22 ft m mt ^ to tf^raT (e) ^ tn*rr 

19 (A) iyarh dhama-lipi Dev[anamp]i[y]e[n]a [P]iyadasina 5 lajina likhapita athi 

yeya sukhi- 

20 tena 6 [a]thi majhimena athi vithatena (B) no hi savata save [gha]tite n (C) mahalake 

hi vi- 

21 jite bahu cha likhite lekhapeSami cheva nikyam (D) athi chaheta puna pun[a] 8 la[p]i- 

22 t[e] tasha tasha athasha madhuliyaye yena jane tatha patipajeya (E) she shay a 9 

ata k[i]chhi a- # 

23 samati likhite disha va shamkheye 10 kalanam va alochayitu H[p] ikalapaladh ena va 

. — — ■ — 1 — - — i_ " — ■ — ■ ■ ■' — ■ — ■ — - — ■ — — — 

1 maha-phala is perhaps a Karmadharaya, while it may be a Bahuvrlhi in the rock- edict 
IX, F, Cf. the first separate rock-edict, where maha-apaye (Dhauli, R) or makSpay\e\ (Jaugada, S) 
must be a Karmadharaya, as it forms the predicate of the feminine asampatipati\ the preceding word 
maha-phale may be a Bahuvrlhi at Dhauli, but a Karmadharaya at Jaugada. 

■ 2 shay oka may be an adjective formed, of svayam t and having the same meaning as spa[ka] 
(=Skt. svaka) at Shahbazgarhi, and as sarasaka at Girnar, for which see above, p. £&5 a n. 5. 

3 For hcheiu see above, p. 8 t n. 3. 

4 vyama is synonymous with utthana and parakrama in the rock-edicts VI and X, 

6 °daskind Biihler. G Girnar reads samkhitena* 

7 The syllable te was entered subsequently. 8 punam puna, Biihler. 

0 Read s/iiyd, which is Buhler's reading. The syllable ska is entered above the line. 
10 Read probably skamhhaya in accordance, with the Girnar version (sac/i/iaya) and the Shah- 
bazgarhi one {samkhay\a\)* 

wis H 



50 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

TRANSLATION 

(A) These rescripts on morality have been caused to be written by king Devanam- 
priya Priyadarfixii either in an abridged (form), or of middle (si^e), or at full length, 

(B) For the whole was not suitable everywhere. 

(0) For (my) dominions are wide, and much has been written, and I shall 
constantly 1 cause still (more) to be written. . 

(D) And (some) of this has been stated again and again because of the charm of 
certain topics, (and) in order that men should act accordingly. 

(E) But some of this may have been written incompletely, either on account of 
the locality, 2 or because (my) motive was not liked, or by the fault of the writer- 

BELOW THE FIGURE OF AN ELEPHANT ON THE NORTH FACE 

OF THE KALSI ROCK 

gajatame 

TRANSLATION 
The best elephant. 3 



III. THE SHAHBAZGARHI ROCK 

i 

FI RST ROCK-EDI CT : SH AHB AZGARH I 
A. — East Face of Shahbazgarhl Rock. 

H^ftrT^ (C) fa ^ W&l (D) wwfa ^rftro 

2 (b) saftrj ft ^ M&m.. ^ "^rfa^ra fn^ftw T^t (f) ijt 

- ' 1 ■ ■ .. ■ r ■ : ■ i ■ 

^rcftfog ijxR^ (g) ^ ijw 

3 OTf^fir ftjftra 113 -lift ft ^fn *ift gf*i<t f'ft ^ it fir f% 3t 

1 Senart and Buhler consider nikyam a dialectical variant of mtyam. 

2 disvs used in the sense of di£a t unless dterAz is simply a clerical; mistake for the Girnar reading 

3 Cf. the similar labels at Girnar (below edict XIII) and at Dhauli (at the end of edict VI), and 
see above a p> »7, n. 



KALSI ROCK ; SOUTH FACE 



Page 50 




■ 

KALSI ROCK; NORTH FACE 




Scale One-sixth 



FIRST ROCK-EDICT: SHAH B AZ GARH I 51 

■ 

1 (A) [aya] 1 dhrama-dipi Devanapriasa rafio likhapitu 2 (B) hida no kichp] jive 

ara[bhitu p]rayuhotave (C) no pi ch[a] samajja] katava (D) ba[hu]ka [hi] 
dosha sa[maya]spi Deva^apriy[e] 3 PriadraSi ray[a da]khati 

2 (E) [a]sti pi chu ekatia 4 samaye sasu-mate 5 Devanapiasa 6 FriadraSIsa raflo 

(P) pura mahana[sas]i [Devana]pr[i]asa 7 PriadraSisa rafio anudivaso bahuni 
pra[na]-Sata-sahasani 8 [arabhi]yis[u] supathay[e] (G) s[o i]dani yada aya 

3 dhrama-dipi likhita tada trayo vo prana hamnamt[i] majura duv[i] 2 mrugo I so pi 

mrugo no dhruva[m] (H) eta pi prana trayo pacha na arabhiSamti 

' TRANSLATION 

- 

■ 

(A) This rescript on morality has been caused to be written by king Devanam- 
priya. 

(B) Here no living being must be killed and sacrificed. 
(O) And also no festival meetings must be held 

(D) For king Devanampriya Priyadarfiin sees much evil in festival meetings. 

(E) But there are also some festival meetings which are considered meritorious by 
king Devanampriya FriyadarSin. 

(P) Formerly in the kitchen of king Devanampriya Friyadarsin many hundred 
thousands of animals were killed daily fof the sake of curry. 

(Or) But now, when this rescript on morality is written, then only three animals are 
being killed (daily), (viz.) two — 2 — peacocks (and) i deer, (but) even this deer not regularly. 

(H) Even these three animals shall not be killed in future.* 

SECOND ROCK-EDICT s SHAHBAZGARHI 

• - 

3 (a) fsfsfi ^rfcw fv^fm ^ ^ sra m ^tte 

3 (A) sav[r]atra vijite [Dejva[nam]priyasa Priyadrasisa y[e] cha [a]mta yatha 

[Choda] 

4 Famdiya Satiyaputro Keradaputro 9 Tambapaiimi 10 Amtiyo[k]o nama Tona- 

raja ye cha amne tasa Amtiyokasa samamta rajano savratra Devanam- 
priyasa Friyadrafiisa rafio du[vi] 2 chik[i]sa [kr]i[ta] n manuSa-chikisa . . 
pa[£u-ch]ikisa [cha] ■ , 

5 (B) [o]sha[dha]ni 12 manu£opakani cha paSopakani cha yat[r]a yatra nasti savatra 

harapita 33 cha vuta cha (C) kupa cha khanapita pratibh[o]gaye pa£u-manu£anaih 

1 [ajj^m] Buhler. 2 Read probably UkJtapita, as at Mansehra. 

3 dosham sama , . sa Devanapriy\o\ Buhler. f - 

4 cha ekaiie BUhler. fi Read sadhu- ; sresta-mati Buhler- G °priasa Buhler. 
7 Devanampri* Biihler. 8 -\sd\kas\f\ani Buhler- 0 Satiyapuira Keralapuira Buhler. 

Biililer. 12 \oshud/i\ani BUhler. 13 kdr\o\pita Buhler. 
H 2 



10 °pamni BUhler. 11 ki[trd 



52 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

TRANSLATION - 

(A) Everywhere in the dominions of Devanampriya Priyadarsin, and (of those) 
who (are his) borderers, such as the Chodas, the Pandyas, the Satiyaputra, the 
Kera , aputra, Tamraparni, the Yona king named Antiyoka, and the other kings 
who are the neighbours of this Antiyoka,— everywhere two — 2 — (kinds of) medical 
treatment were established by king Devanampriya Priyadarsin, (viz,) medical 
treatment for men and medical treatment for cattle. 

(B) Wherever there were no herbs beneficial to men and beneficial to cattle, 
everywhere they were caused to be imported and planted, 

(C) And wells were caused to be dug for the use of cattle and men, 

THIRD ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 

■ 

+ 

* 

1 

(C) 

5 (A) Bevanampriyo PriyadraSi raja ahati (b) badaya-vashabh[i]Bi[tena] 1 

[a]napi[tam] 8 (C) savatra ma[a] 8 

6 vijite yuta rajuko pradesi[ka * pamchajshu paifachashu 5 vasheshu anusaihyanam 

nik[r]amatu etisa vo karana imisa dhrammanuSastiye [tha] 6 afiaye pi 
krammaye a (d) sadhu mata-pitushu suSrusha mitra-saihst[u]ta-natikanaih 
bramana-[Sr a]mana[naifa] [pra]nanam [anaram]bho sadhu 1 

7 apa-vayata apa-bhamdata sadhu (B) pari 8 [pi] yutani £ga]nanasi 8 anapeSamti hetuto 

cha varhnanato 10 cha 

- TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadarsin speaks 11 (thus), , 

(B) (When I had been) anointed twelve years, [the following] was ordered 
[by me], 

(C) Everywhere in my dominions the Yukias, the Rajuka y (and) the Pradesika 
shall set out on a complete tour (throughout their charges) every five — 5 — years 

1 With Biihler and Johansson (§ $3) I believe that the writer wanted to write badaia-. On the 
Wardak vase the symbols for y and i are often confused \ see Pargiter^s remarks in EI, ii, 203 f., 
and ZDMG, 73. 0,27. 

2 Buhler omitted this word. 3 Biihler omitted tnaa* 

4 pradeHk\e\ Buhler. _ 6 'Readyat/za; d/iramanuf as ti yat/ia Buhler. 

0 hramaye BUhler. 7 Biihler omitted the end of this line. 

8 Read farisha. 9 There is a vacant space between^ and na> 10 vananato Buhler. 

11 Buhler wrote aJta it in two words. But the barbarous form ahati or hahati is guaranteed by 
the edicts V, &c M where it is preceded by evarii, and where consequently H cannot have the 
meaning ' thus \ 



THIRD ROCK-EDICT : SHAHBAZGARHI 53 

for this very purpose/ (viz.) for the following instruction in morality as well as for 

other business. , 

■.1 »■ 

(D) ' Meritorious is obedience to mother and father. [Liberality] to friends, 
acquaintances, and relatives, to Brahmanas and Sramanas [is meritorious]. Abstention 
from killing animals is meritorious. Moderation in expenditure (and) moderation in 
possessions are meritorious/ . - 

(E) The councils (of Mahctntatrai) also shall order the Yukias to register (these 
rules) both with (the addition of) reasons and according to the letter. 

■ 

FOURTH ROCK-EDICT; SHAHBAZGARHI 

srf?R grchftq ftr ^TRW!i?i TOfHtH fif (b) at mm %&ftim 

f^jfH ^ifa SffW (C) *;f^5| ^|f| 7f spr^ 

9 ^HTCPT ^faftqfTT Wff^ffl (I>) 1ST ViffWurosi 

(F) TO fa ^ 3i TTrftt ^ TF#sfi ^ ^ffiftpW flRSfrjH T^t 

■ ■ -ft ^ f ntfn sifs!<w (1) si sfrw ^rffRr ^ 

(j) utto sre^ fafro ^frm ^ra^r sfy ftfa ^ *r 

(K) ^ra^faftfita ^RfjflT fiwsfsR T3T ^pt f^for 

7 (A) atikrataih arhtaram bahuni vasha-^atani vadhito, vo pranajambho vihisa cha 

bhuta[na]rh natina, 1 asampatipati S raman a-bramajjana[m] a[sam]patipati 2 
(B) [so aja Devana]mpriyasa FriyadraSisa [rafioj 

8 dhrama-charanena bheri-ghosha aho dhrama-ghosha vimanana[ih] draSanam 

[a]stina 3 joti-kamdhani anani cha divani nipani draSayitu janasa (C) yadi£am 
bahuhi vasha-£atehi na bhuta-prave tadi£e aja vadhite Devanampriyasa 
Priyadraiisa rano dhrammanu£a[sti]ya anarambho prana[nam] avihisa 
bhutanam natina[th] sariipa[ti]pati 4 [bra]mana- 

9 £ramanana 5 sampatipati mata-pitushu vudhana[m] siisrusha (D) e[ta] anam cha 

bahuvidham dhrama-charanam vadhitam (E) vadhi^ati cha yo Devanampriyasa 
Priyadra£isa rano dhrama-charanam 6 ima[ih] (F) putra pi cha kam 7 nataro 



1 natinam Buhler- 2 [asathpraiij Buhler. 3 \hd\stino Buhler. 

4 sa[mj>rafzj Buhler. 6 sramananam Buhler. 0 -c/iamno Buhler. 

7 hn Buhler. 



54 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

T 

cha pranatika cha Devanampriya£sa] Priyadrafiisa rano pra[va]dh[e]samti 1 
[yo] 2 dhrama-charanam ima[m ava]-kapa 3 dhrame iile cha 
10 tithiti 4 dhramam anusaSiSamti (G) eta h[i s]refham k[r]ama[rh] yam 
dhraman[u]6a§ana[m] (H) dhrama-charana[m] pi cha na bhoti aSilasa (I) so 
imisa athrasa vadhi ahini cha sadhu (J) etaye athaye ima[m] nipistam 5 imisa 
athasa vadhi yujamtu hini cha ma lo[ch]e[sh]u (K) badaya-vashabhisitena c 
Devanampriyena FriyadraSina rafia nanarfa hi[da] nipesitam 7 

TRANSLATION 

(A) In times past, for many hundreds of years, there had ever been promoted the 
killing of animals and the hurting of living beings, discourtesy to relatives, (and) 
discourtesy to £ramanas and Brahmanas. * 

■* T 

(B) But now, in consequence of the practice of morality on the part of king 
Devanampriya Friyadarsin, the sound of drums has become the sound of morality, 
showing the people representations of aerial chariots, elephants, masses of light, and 
other divine figures. 

(C) Such as they had not existed before for many hundreds of years, thus there are 
now promoted, through the instruction in morality on the part of king Devanampriya 
Friyadarsin, abstention from killing animals, abstention from hurting living beings, 
courtesy to relatives, couttesy to Brahmanas and 6ramanas, obedience to mother and 
father, (and) to the aged. 

(D) In this and many other ways is the practice of morality promoted. 

(E) And this practice of morality will be ever promoted by king Devanampriya 
Friyadarsin. 

(P) And also the sons,? grandsons, and great-grandsons of king Devanampriya 
Friyadarsin will ever promote this practice of morality until the seon (of destruction of 
the world), (and) will instruct (people) in morality, abiding by morality and by good 
conduct. 

(G) For this is the best work, viz. instruction in morality. 

(H) And the practice of morality also is not (possible) for (a person) devoid of 
good conduct. 

(I) Therefore promotion and not neglect of this object is meritorious. 

(J) For the following purpose has this been written, 9 (viz. in order that) they 
should devote themselves to the promotion of this practice, and that they should not 
approve 10 the neglect (of it); 

(K) (This) conception (/nana) was caused to be written here by king 

Devanampriya Friyadarsin (when he had been) anointed twelve yeaars. 

_ 

1 ra[no <uadlie\kamti Buhler. 2 Buhler omitted yo. 3 -\kapani\ Buhler. 4 iisHti Buhler. 
5 dipista Buhler. 6 Read badasa^ and cf. above, p. 53, n. 1. 

7 raiia [id]am « . nam dipa\pt\tam Biihler« The da of hida looks like dam, as it does 
frequently at Mansehra. 

8 For cha kam see above, p. 31, n. 6. Mansehra has once cha kam (XI, 14) and twice cha ha 
(IV, 16; XIII, 13). 

9 The participles nipistam and nipesitam in J and K, which correspond to likhite and lekhiia at 
Kalsl, must be derived from ni-pish, « to write which is used in the inscriptions of the Achsemenidan 
kings of Persia, and which is preserved in the modern Persian verb Cf« the Russian micax^ 
c to write*, w See above, p. 8, n. 3. 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 

11 (a) l^rft% fira^ft t& ^.fir (b) (c) ^f<«hl* 

*c*<!W it qrctfa (d) it *w ^| ftg (e) w to ^ ^ 

ft ^Rt (h) a ^rfrr^wt ^rtc it ot*^ to (i) it 

^ ^ !■> «V 

■ 

13 (l) wr^rara wfeftw?^ ^rfa # # inR 

faaft^r * * ftpnu ft (m) w ^ff^ ^ ^ 

^t^3 ^=1 ^ ft TOR ^ ^ ^ ft ^TfrT^i ^ ft**J* 

(w) ^ smfnftjft fir ^ *rof*ra% fir ^ ^rragft fir *r ^ror 
ftfsift w OTfiffti fwre ft ^ji^r (o) vjw ^rfa 

11 (A) Devanapriyo Friyadra£i raya eva[ih] hahati 1 (B) ka[Ia]na[rh] dukara[m] 

(C) [yo] a[dikaro kala]nasa so du[ka]ram karoti (D) so maya bahu kalam 2 
kl[t]rarh (E) tain maa 3 putra cha nataro cha para[m] cha [tena y]e 4 me apacha 
vrakshamti 6 ava-kapam tatha 6 ye an[u]vati6arhti 7 te s[u]kita[m] a kashathti 
(F) yo chu ato . . kam 9 pi hapeSadi 10 so dukataih kashati papam h[i] 
sukaram (H) sa atikrataih atara no* 1 bhuta-pruva dhramma-ma[ha]ma[tra] 12 
nama (I) so todaSa-vashabhisitena 13 

12 maya dhrama-mahamatra kita u (J) te savra-prashariidesh[u] vapata 

dhrarhmadhithanaye 15 cha dhrama-vadhiya lQ hida-sukhaye cha dhrama- 
yutasa Yona-KamboyarGamdharanam 17 Bathiiaiiaih 18 Pitinikanam ye 

1 aha U Buhler. 2 Read halananu 9 ma\Jtd\ Buhler. 4 M Buhler. 

5 \a\chhamti Buhler. In J A (io), 17. 433 ff, Boyer has shown that the KharoshthI uses 
a special form of chh in all those cases where it corresponds to Sanskrit kslu In order to dis- 
tinguish this sign from the real chk, I transcribe it by ksh, but do not want to imply thereby that it 
was actually pronounced like that. 

6 fathom Biihler ; but what he took for an Anusvara is probably the horizontal bottom-line 
which is frequent at Mansehrl. 

7 "vattiamti Buhler. 8 sitkit[r]am Buhler. 

* Restore perhaps ekam ; the other versions read desath or desa* 
10 \Jtap€satt\ Buhler. 11 so atik\rant\iam amtaram na Buhler. 

13 dhrama- BUhler. 13 [tidasa]- Buhlen . . 14 kit[r\a Buhler. , 

JS dhramd Buhler. 16 -vadhiy[e\ Buhler. 17 The rock has a hole here. 

18 Rastikanam Buhlen The th m expressed by the first of the two different forms noted by 
Boyer in JA (io), 17. 439, note. 



56 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



va pi apararhta (K) bhatamayeshu bramanibheshu anatheshu vudheshu [hita]- 
sukhaye [dhram]ma-yutasa 1 apalig[o]dha 8 vap[a]ta te 



13 



prajava kitabhikaro va mahalake 6 va viyapata 0 [t]e 7 (M) ia bahireshu cha 
nagareshu savreshu orodhaneshu bhratuna 8 cha me spasana 0 cha ye va pi 
amne natika . savatf a viyaputa (N) y[e] ayam 10 dh[r]ama-ni£ite 11 ti va 
dhrama[dhitha]ne ti va dana-s[a]yute ti va savata 12 vijite. maa 13 dhrama- 
yu[ta]si 14 viyapata te dhrama-mahamatra (O) etaye athaye [a]yi 15 dhrama-dipt 
nipista 16 cfa[i]ra-thitika bhot[u] ta[tha] 17 cha [m]e 1S p[r]aja anuvatatu 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadarfiia speaks thus. 

(B) It is difficult to perform virtuous deeds. 

(C) He who starts performing virtuous deeds accomplishes something difficult. 

(D) Now, by me many virtuous deeds have been performed. 

(E) Therefore (among) my sons and grandsons, and (among) my descendants who 
shall come 19 after them until the seon (of destruction of die world), those who will 
conform to this (duty) will perform good deeds. 

(P) But he who will neglect even one (portion) of this (duty) will perform evil deeds. 

(G) For sin is easily committed. ' ? 

(H) Now, in times past (officers) called Mahdmatras of morality did not exist before, 

(I) But Mahaniatras of morality Were appointed by me (when I- had been) 

- 

anointed thirteen years. , 

(J) These are occupied with all sects in establishing morality, in promoting 
morality, and for the welfare and happiness* 30 of those who are devoted , to morality 
(even) among the Yonas, Kambdyas, and GandMras, among the Rathikas, among 
the Pitinikas,^ 1 and whatevef (other) western borderers (of mine there are). 

1 \dhrd\ma- Buhler. 2 °b[odhe\ BUhler ; read °godhaye {^godhdya at Girnar), 

3 bamdkemor Buhler* 4 Restore aftubadha ; iyam ($fi\uba\dJi\am Buhler. 

5 mahalaka Buhler. a viyapatra Buhler. % Buhler omitted te. 

8 bhratunam Buhler. 9 Read spastma ; spasunam Biihler. 



yam BUhler. * 11 -nisriie Buhler. 32 savatra Buhler. 



y[am t 

13 ma\ltd\ Buhler. 14 There is a vacant space hert* 

16 ay[am] Buhler. * fl dipist[a] Buhler. 

17 This and the last four words of the edict were entered above the line. 

™ BUhler omitted*?*?. * 
10 vrakshati is the future of vrachati which occurs twice at Shahbazgarhl (VI, L, and XIII, S). 
For Prakrit vactichai^Skt. vrajati see Hemachandra, IV, a 25. 80 Cf. above, p. 33, n. 4* 

21 For Rathika and Pitinika Girnar reads Ristika and Petenika* As Ldthika at Dhauli agrees 
with Rathika at Shahbazgarhl and Mansehra, Ristika at Girnar may be a clerical mistake for 
Rastika, just as parikamate for pardkamate in X, L 3, Devinam for Devdnaiii? in XI, I. i, and duti 
for diita in XIII, V9. Conversely, astd is written for asti in IX, L J>pitard for pitari in XI, 1. 2, 
and vivadhaya for vividhdya in XII, L 1. The Sanskrit original of Rdstika would be Rdshtrika. 
The identifications of this name with Surdshtra (Senart, Inscriptions de Piyadasi, vol. I, p. 12,6) or 
Lata (Lassen, Ind. AIt. s vol. I (sec. ed.), p- 137, n. 4) are improbable because these two provinces 
were included in Anoka's empire; cf- Buhler, ZDMG, 37. s6i. Sir R. Bhandarkar {Early History 
of the Dekka?z, sec, ed., p. 11 ff.) connects Rdshtrika with Maharashtra, the Pali form of which, 
Mahdrattha, occurs in the Dtpavamsa and Mahdvavisa* Could the Rashtrikas be identical with the 
Arattas of the Pan jab (Lassen, Ind. AlU r voh III, p* 76) and with the 'Apdmoi who are mentioned 
in the Periplus (§ 47) together with the 'Apax&vwt and TavB&pm ? * 



FIRST TO ELEVENTH ROCK-EDICTS: SHAHBAZGARHI, LEFT HALF 




Scale One-ninth 



FIRST TO ELEVENTH ROCK-EDICTS : SHAHBAZGARHI, RIGHT HALF 



Between pages 56 and 57 




Scale One-ninth 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 57 

■ 

(K) They are occupied with servants and masters, with Brahmanas and Ibhyas, 
with the destitute, (and) with the aged, for the welfare and happiness of those who 
are devoted to morality, (and) in freeing (them) from desire (for worldly life). 1 

(L) They are occupied in supporting prisoners : (with money), in causing (their) 
fetters to be taken off, (and) in setting (them) free, (if) one has children, or is 
bewitched, or aged, respectively. 

(M) They are occupied everywhere, here and in all the outlying towns, in the 
harems of my brothers, of (my) sisters, and (of) whatever other relatives (of mine 
there are). 

(N) These Makamatras of morality are occupied everywhere' in my dominions 
with those who are devoted to morality, (in order to ascertain) whether one is eager for 
morality, or established in morality, or furnished with gifts. 3 

(O) For the following purpose has this rescript on morality been written, (viz. 
that) it may be of long duration, and (that) my descendants may conform to it. 

SIXTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 
14 (A) ^RflWt ftrasfa Uof ^frT (B) ^ffHRrf SHf* H *N 

to *f«ra ^fel^f $ (e) ^ ^ ^R&fH (p) ^ .fxr ^ 

WlfoS ^ftrf HffiT ifi mA f^frT uftq^ 

^ ^RSR^i ^ ^ -q^T VHgfPTO W^fMi ^cQfMri 3%f?f TO*! 

(G) T£3C ^farT (H) ^ flrtt TOiftC OTtffiTT^ ^ 

(l) ^^RT If $ «4<4taGi?i (j) TO ^ *jc* ^ ^*T?T 3?<WfrU;<!! 

^ (k) ^rfiar f| wntt 

16 3a^cJW|rt?T (L) *T ^ f%fa TOiHftl fafrT ^fT^T 9RlfM SR*! V ^ 

^ g^rfe vr& ^ tot .nil^OH) -xtni sot ^rft ftftrcr 

14 (A) Devanampriyo Priyadrasi ray a eva 3 ahati (B) atikratam amtara 4 na bhuta- 
pruvam sava[m] s kala[m] atha-kramam" va pathredana va (C) ta[m] maya 
eva[m] kita[m] (D) savram kalaih asamanasa me orodhanaspi grabhagaraspi 
vraehaspi vinitaspi uyanaspi savatra pativedaka 7 adiam janasa pativedetu 8 

- 

1 paligodha is a Magadha form of parigodfia, for which see above, p, io, n, 5. 

3 See above, p. 34, n. 3. 3 eva\i?i\ Biihler. 4 amtaram Biihler* 

& savram Biihler, 6 a iha- Biihler. 7 savratra patri* Biihler, 8 pat\f\i° Biihler. 

1013 I 



58 THE. INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

■ 

* 

me (E) savatra cha ja[na]sa ath[r]a karomi (1?) ya[m] pi cha ki[chi] mukhato 
anapayami a[harh] dapapca] 1 va Sravaka 2 va ye 3 va p[a]na mahamatrana 4 
a[cha]yika e a[ro]pitam bhoti taye athaye viva[de] a nijhajYji va satarii 7 
parishaye anamtariyena prativedetavo me 

15 (E) 8 savatra cha atham 9 janasa karomi a[ham] (1?) yam cha kichi 10 mukhato 

anapemi aham dapaka[ih] va Sravaka va ye 11 va pana mahamatranam 
achayi[k]aih aropita[m] bhoti t[a]ye athaye [v]ivade sa[m]tam nijati 12 va 
parishaye anamtariyena pativedetavo 13 me savatra savaih 14 kalafrh] (G-) eva 16 
anapita[m] maya (H) [na]sti hi me tosho uthanasp] atha-sa[m]tiranaye [cha] 
(I) katava-matam 10 hi me sava-loka-hitam 17 (J) ta[sa cha] mulam etra uthanam 
atha-samtirana cha (K) na[sti] hi k[r]amatara[m] 

16 sava-loka-hite[na] 18 (L) yaih cha kichi parak[r]amami ktti bhutanam ananiyarh 

v[r]acheyam ia cha sha sukhayami paratra cha spagram 19 aradhetu (M) etaye 
athaye ayi dhrama 20 nipista 31 chira-thitika bhotu tatha cha me putra nataro 
parakramamtu sava-Io[ka-hita]ye (N) [du]kara 22 tu [kh]o imam anat[r]a 23 
agre u parakramena 

TRANSLATION 

i 

(A) King Devanampriya FriyadarSin speaks thus. 

(B) In times past neither the disposal of affairs nor the submission of reports 
at any time did exist before, 

(C) But I have made the following (arrangement)* 

(D) Reporters have to report to me the affairs of the people at any time (and) 
anywhere, while I am eating, in the harem, in the inner apartment, at the cowpen, in 
the palanquin, (and) in the park. 

(E) And everywhere I am disposing of the affairs of the people. 

(F) And also, if in the council (of Mahamatras) a dispute arises, or an amend- 
ment is moved, in connexion with any donation or proclamation which I am ordering 
verbally, or (in connexion with) an emergent matter which has been delegated to the 
Mahamatras, it must be reported to me immediately, anywhere, (and) at any time. 

(G) Thus I have ordered. 

(H) For I am never content in exerting myself and in dispatching business. 

(I) For I consider it my duty (to promote) the welfare of all men. 

(J) And the root of that (consists) in this, (viz.) exertion and the dispatch of 
business. 

* 

(K) For no duty is more important than (promoting) the welfare of all men. 

(L) And whatever effort I am making, (is made) in order that I may discharge 

I \dd\pakath Buhler. 8 iravakath Buhler. 3 yam Biihler. 

* *iranam Buhler, who added v\p\. 5 There is a fissure between # and cAa* 

6 Buhler added va. 7 samtam Biihler. 

8 E and F (besides the last three words of the latter) were repeated by mistake. 

9 There is a vacant space between a and tham. 

10 There is a fissure between ki and chu 

I I ya Buhler. 12 Read niJAati, which is Buhler's reading. 

13 patri* Buhler. 14 sav[r]a7h Buhler- 16 evam Buhler. 

10 There is a hole between ma and tarn. 11 sav\r~]a- Buhler. 19 s\f\ava~ Buhler* 

19 spagam Buhler. 89 Read dhrama-dipu 21 dipista Buhler. 

23 id\ukara\m\ Biihler. 23 amnaira Buhler. 24 Read agrena* 



SIXTH ROCK-EDICT : SHAHBAZGARHI 59 

the debt (which I owe) to living beings, (that) I may make them 1 happy in this (world), 
and (that) they may attain heaven in the other (world). 

(It) For the following purpose has this [rescript on] morality been written, (viz. 
that) it may be of long duration, and (that) my sons (and) grandsons may display the 
same zeal for the welfare of all men, 

(W) But it is indeed difficult to accomplish this without great zeal. 

- . ■" 

SEVENTH ROCK- EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 2 

2 rising (b) *Rf|i* SR%*rspgfii ^ssfir 

3 (o) sr^t i g^i^^t wit (d) ft ^ t&&$ * 

4 fir ^fw (e) f^nj% fa ^ 3* *m *rftar 

1 (A) Devanampriyo FriyaSi 3 raja savatra ichhati savra- * 

2 [p]rashamda vaseyu (B) save * hi te sayame 6 bhava-3udhi cha ichhamti 

3 (C) jano chu uchavucha-chhamdo uchavucha-rago (D) te savram va eka-de£aih va 

4 pi kashamti (E) vipule pi chu dane yasa nasti sayama bhava- 

5 sudhi kitranata dridha-bhatita 8 niche padham 

TRANSLATION 

* + 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadarsin desires (that) all sects may reside every- 
where. \ 

(B) For all these desire self-control and purity of mind, 

(C) But men possess various desires (and) various passions. 

(D) They will fulfil either the whole or only a portion (of their duties). 

(E) But even one who (practises) great liberality, (but) does not possess self- 
control, purity of mind, gratitude, (and) firm devotion, is very mean. 

EIGHTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 

A. — East Face of Skakbdzgarhl Rock (continued). 

17 (a) ^fri*ri ^mt ^nffiR fNi^R «w ftnfift^ (b) ^^rfk 



frrasfrw t^t ^rftr 

■ 

■ 1 ....... 

1 ska (she at Mansehra) corresponds to, and must have the same meaning as, nani at Girnar 
and kani at Kalsl, Dhauli, and Jaugada. Buhler (ZDMG, 43. 149) derived it from Skt esham % and 
translated it by 1 (some) of them \ 

2 This edict is engraved on the left of the east face, at the top of the rock- The lines are 
therefore numbered separately. 

3 Read Priyadrasu 4 savre Buhler. fi sayama Buhler. 6 didha- Buhler, 

12 



6o - the inscriptions of asoka 

It (A) atikratam ataram 1 Devanampriya vihara-yatra nama nikramishu (B) atra 
mrugaya anani cha edifiani 2 abhiramani abhuvasu 3 (C) so Devanampriyo 
FriyadraSi raja da£a-vashabhisito sat am 4 nikrami Sabodhi 6 (D) tenada 6 
dhramma-yatra 7 (E) atra iyaih hoti gramana-bramananam draSane danam 
vudhana[m] da£ana 8 hirana-p[r]atividhane 9 cha [jana]padasa janasa dra&ana 10 
dhramanuSasti dhrama-pa[ri]p[ru]chha 11 cha tatopayam (F) eshe 12 bhuy[e jra]ti 
bhoti 13 Devanampriyasa Priyadraiisa rano bhago 14 amni 

TRANSLATION 

(A) In times past the Dievanampriyas used to set out on so-called pleasure-tours. 

(B) On these (tours) hunting and other such pleasures were (enjoyed). 

(C) But when kins Devanampriya Priyadarsin had been anointed, ten years, 
he went out to Sambodhi. 

(D) Therefore tours of morality (were undertaken) here. 16 

(B) On these (tours) the following takes place, (viz.) visiting Sramanas and 
Brahmanas (and) making gifts (to diem), visiting the aged and supporting (them) with 
gold, visiting the people of the country, instructing (them) in morality, and questioning 
(them) about morality, as suitable for this (occasion). ,. 

(F) This second period (of the reign) of king Devanampriya Friyadarsin 
becomes a pleasure in a higher degree. 

NINTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 

is (a) ^3RfrRt firasft v* jdi siifw (b) 5r1 ^*%f* wm ^tfH 
^rl ft^l ^i^" irai ^ttr ^rsR ^ itfsfWi 3Rt sine* 

^$fk (d) ^ ^ n ft *mc* (e) wvm 3 fHJ?r (f) g 

ipra ft ^nra ft ft ftHtNgrta ^ nft^faj^r 3*r 

20 s»l (1) ^ ft j*it% ssrft% ii (j) ftpi ft a sre ftN**rfw 
ftre *1 (k) ^src*tsfi * k (l) 35 3* y*m*n* ^f^ffisra 
(m) *rf^ tpr h to ?f fMs 3*'«nr iwr^fir (w) 

. L . 

•* atikratnam amtaram Biihler. 2 \Ji\ediiani Buhler. 8 abhavasu Biihler. 

* jate Biihler. 5 sdbodM{m] Buhler. 

0 tenafhd[a\ Buhler. 7 dhrama- Buhler. 

8 drasane Buhler. 9 -patividha\tie\ ■ Buhler. 1( f drasanam Buhler. 

11 -pa\n\pucMw. Buhler. ?s «*[*] Buhler. 

< I8 7wtf Buhler. " 14 £/*4f[iQ Buhler. I 6 See above, p. 37, n. 5. 



NINTH ROCK- EDICT : SHAHBAZGARHI 6r 

IS (A) Devanampriyo Friyadrasi r[a]ya evam ahati (B) jano uchavuchaih maihgalaih 
karoti abadhe avahe yivahe pajupadane pravase ataye 1 anaye cha edi£iy[e] 3 
jano ha* maihgalaih karoti (C) atra tu striyaka bahu cha bahuvidham cha 
putika * cha nirathiyam 5 cha maihgalaih karo[ti] 0 (D) so katavo cha [va] 7 kho 
mamgala (E) apa-phala[m] tu kho eta 8 (F) imam [t]u kho maha-phala ye 
ma-marhgala 9 

19 (0) [a]tra ima dasa-bha^akasa samma-patipati™ garuna apachiti prananam 

sa[m]yamo 1 f Samana-bramanana 12 dana etam afiarii cha dhrama- 
mamgapam] nama (H) [s]o vatavo pituna pi putrena pi bhratana 13 pi 
spamik[e]na pi mitra-sastutena u ava prativeSiyena imam sadhu [imam] 15 
kata[vo] mamgala[m] yava tasa athrasa 16 nivutiya nivutaspi ya p[u]na 17 

20 imam kasham 1 ® (I) ye hi etake 1 * magale sagayike 20 tain (J) siya vo tarn atham 

nivateyati siya puna 21 no 22 (K) ialoka cha 23 vo tarn 24 (L) ida 25 puna dhrama- 
magalaih akalikam (M) yadi puna tarn atham na nivat[e] 20 ia 27 atha paratra 
anaihtam punam prasavati (N) hamche puna tarn tham 26 nivateti tato 
u[bha]y[e]sa 29 ladham bhoti ia 80 cha so a£ho paratra cha anamtaih punam 
prasavati tena dhramamgalena 31 

TRANSLATION 

■ 

(A) King Devanampriya FriyatiarSin speaks thus. 

(B) Men are practising various ceremonies during illness, at the marriage of 
a son or a daughter, at the birth of a, child, 32 (and) when setting out on a journey; 
on these and other such (occasions) men are practising many ceremonies. 

(0) But in such (cases) women are practising many and various offensive 33 and 
useless ceremonies, . 

(D) Now, ceremonies should certainly be practised. 

(E) But these (ceremonies) bear little fruit indeed. 

(F) But the following bears much fruit indeed, viz. the practice of morality. 

(G) Herein the following (are comprised), (viz.) proper courtesy to slaves and 
servants, reverence to elders, gentleness to animals, (and) liberality to £ramanas and 
Brahmanas ; these and other (virtues) are called the practice of morality. 

(H) Therefore a father, or a son, or a brother, or a master, (or) a friend or an 
acquaintance, (or) even a (mere) neighbour ought to say : c This is meritorious. This 
practice should be observed until the (desired) object is attained, (thinking) : After it is 
actually attained, I shall observe this again \ 

1 Read etaye^ which is Buhler^ reading. 2 Read probably ediiaye, as at Mansehra. 

3 Read balm, 4 putika\vi\ Buhler. 5 nirathriyavt BUhler. - 0 ka\ratne\ BUhler. 
7 Buhler omitted va. 8 eiam Buhler. 0 Read dhrama- ; -mamgala\ni\ Buhler. 

30 -pratipati Buhler. u samyama Buhler* 12 sramana- Biihler. 

13 Read bhratum* which is BUhler's reading. u -sanistutena Buhler. 

16 There is a vacant space here. 16 atkasa Buhler. 17 pana Buhler. 

18 ktfska] Buhler. 19 et[ra]ke Buhler. 20 sa[m]Myifo Buhler. 

21 pana Buhler. 22 Buhler omitted no. m 23 ialokach\e\ Buhler. 

24 iithe Buhler. 25 iya Buhler. 20 Read nivateti, as at Mansehra. 27 [/i]ia Buhler. 
28 Read tarn atham\ Biihler read \a\tham for tarn tham* 

2 * ubhayasa Buhler. so y ia Baffler. ; sl Read dhramormamgahna* 

aa For pajupadane see above, p. 38, n. 2a. ' * 
33 Instead of pfttika, 'foul \ all other versions read kshudra^ * vulgar 1 . 



62 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



(I) For such ceremonies are of doubtful (effect). 

(J) One may attain his object (by them), but he may not (do so). 

(JE) And they (bear fruit) in this world only, 

(L) But that practice of morality is not restricted to time. 

(M) But if 1 one does not attain (by it) his object in this (world), then endless 
merit is produced in the other (world), 

(W) But if one attains (by it) his object (in this world), the gain of both (results) 
arises from it ; (viz.) the (desired) object (is attained) in this (world), and endless merit 
is produced in the other (world) by that practice of morality. 

TENTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 

■ 

*reit f^s n safir s rc ffa ^ ^ vm^st* 3 -fir 

22 lift (<M v tt* ^«ffiA 

fefir srafta% ftrafir (d) in* jj m ^ ^rgsf (e) ^ft g 

(F) SR^f 1 ^ 

■ 

21 (A) Devanapriye FriyadraM raya yafio va kitri va no mahathavaha manatt 

anatra yo pi yafio kitri va ichhati tadatvaye 2 ayatiya cha jane dhrama-sufirasha 3 
suSrushatu me ti dhramma-vutam cha anuvi[dhi]yatu (B) etakaye Devanapriye * 
FriyadraSi raya y aSo 5 kitri va 

22 ichhati (O) ya[m] tu kichi parakramati Devanampriyo FriyadraSi raya tarn 

sav[r]aih paratrikaye va kiti sakale aparisrave siyati (D) eshe tu parisrave yaih 
apunam (E) dukare 6 [tu] kho eshe khudrakena vagrena usa£ena va anatra 
agrena parakramena sava[m] paritijitu (P) at[r]a 7 chu usate \ 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadarsin does not think that either glory or 
fame conveys much advantage, except whatever glory or fame he desires (on account 
of his aim) that in the present time, and in the future, men may (be induced) 
by him to practise obedience to morality, and that they may conform to the duties 
of morality, * 

(B) On this (account) king Devanampriya Priyadarsin is desiring glory and fame. 

(C) But whatever effort king Devanampriya Priyadarsin is making, all that 
(is) only for the sake of (merit) in the other (world), (and) in order that all (men) may 
be free of danger. 

(D) But the danger is this, viz. demerit. 

1 Instead of ( but if % two other versions read • even if, which is preferable. 
. 9 tadattaye BiiWer ; but see his tnd m PaL, § n, C. 
3 Read -susru&havu 4 Devanmhpriye Buhler. 6 Buhler added va. 

6 dttkaram Buhler. 7 etam (which is also possible) Buhler. 



i 

TENTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 63 

(E) But it is indeed difficult for a lowly person or for a high one to accomplish 
this without great zeal (and without) laying aside every (other aim)* 

(F) But among these (two) . . . a high (person). 



ELEVENTH ROCK-EDICT : SHAHBAZGARHI 

— ■ ■ 

23 (A) ^Hfaift flPJSfo V* ^ ^fir (B) ?lftl irf^ *rf^l OT^T 

- 

23 (A) Devana[m]priyo FriyadraSi raya evarh hahati 1 (B) nasti ed[i]Sam danam 

yadiSam dhrama-dana 3 dhrama-saihstav[e] dhjVJama-samvibhago dh[r]ama- 
samba[m]dha 3 (C) tatra etam dasa-bhatakanarh saihmma-patipati 4 mata-pitushu 
su£rusha m i[t]ra-sam s t u t a-nat ikana m Sramana-bramanana 5 

24 dana pranana* anara[m]bho (D) etam vatavo pituna pi putrena pi bhratuna pi 

[spa]mikena 7 pi mitra-samstutana 8 ava prativefiiyena [i]ma[rh] 9 sadhu imam 
katavo (E) so tatha karata[m] ialoka 10 cha a[ra]dheti paratra cha anatarii puna 11 
prasavati 

25 [te]na dhrama-danena 

TRANSLATION 

F 

(A) King Devanampriya Friyadarfiin speaks thus. 

(B) There is no such gift as the gift of morality, acquaintance through morality, 
the distribution of morality, (and) kinship through morality. 

(C) Herein the following (are comprised), (viz.) proper courtesy to slaves and 
servants, obedience to mother and father, liberality to friends, acquaintances, and 
relatives, to 6ramanas and Brahmanas, (and) abstention from killing animals. 

(D) Concerning this a father, or a son, or a brother, or a master, (or) a friend 
or an acquaintance, (or) even a (mere) neighbour, ought to say : ' This is meritorious. 
This ought to be done \ 

(E) If one is acting thus, he attains (happiness in) this world, and endless merit is 
produced in the other (world) by that gift of morality. 

1 alia ti Buhler. 2 ^rowft Bfllxler. z -sambamdlw Biihlen 

A samma-pratipaii Buhler- 6 -bramananam Buhler. 

6 danam prananam Buhler. 7 \sd\mikena Buhler, 

8 Read -sanistutena % which is Buhler^ reading. 

0 There is a fissure in the rock here, 

10 karamtam iaIoka\yi\ Buhler. 11 punam Buhler, 



64 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA . 

- 

TWELFTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 

.. i 

, . . . ■ ■- * 

B. — On a separate boulder. 

(D) TO ^ *j<* ^ *H*j(rT 

irfs x^ot (e) girafsR ^ wm- 
(g) rr^^R ^fn^t ^rairas 

5 ^TJlfrT TRITON ^ ^TM^ClffT (H) ift ff ^fa ^rimi TpffiT T RUtU 

^ sir ^w*5*fw* ftrfh 

6 manti- f^nrfH frr §r n to. ^ta €t ?ro tot 

^OT*m ^ ftra^j (k) $ ^ in? 

i - * r * - - f ■ ... ,. 

1 (A) Devanampriyo Priyadrafii raya savra-prasharhdani pravrajita[ni] 1 

grahathani 2 cha pujeti danena vividhaye cha pujaye (B) no chu tatha 
[da]na s va puja va 

2 Devanampriyo - manati yatha kiti , sa[Ia]-vadhi siya savra-prashamdanaih 

(C) sala-vadhi tu bahuvidha (D) tasa tu iyo mula yam vacha-guti 

3 kiti ata-prasharhda-puja va pa[ra]-pasharhda-garana va no siya [ajpakaranasi 4 
. ; lahuka va siya tasi tasi prakara[n]e (E) pujetaviya va chu para-prasha[m]- 

4 [da] tena tena akarena (P) e[v]aih karatam 6 ata-p[r]asharhdarii vadheti 

para-prashamdamsa 0 pi cha upakaroti (G) tada anatha 7 - ka[ra]min[o] 8 
■ _ ata-p[rashamda]° , ' \ *" ... 

1 " ■ * ' ^ „ - 1 I V fc 

■ . I r '**•%-*.**-*. *§ . 5. "* - ■** ■ , - k» , . . 1 

* - m * 

1 This word was entered above the line ; pravrajita Buhler* 
a grafia\thd\ni BUhler- 3 dana\i}z\ Buhler. 

4 aprakaranasi Buhler- 5 kara[ni\tam Buhler. 

0 Read *dasa f which is Biihler's reading- 7 Read tad-anaiha. 

8 ka\rata cha\ Buhler. * -prashamdam Buhler.* 



SEVENTH AND T WELFTH ROCK-EDICTS : SHAHBAZGARHI 



Page 64 




Scale One-sixth 



1 r ' - . 

TWELFTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 65 , 

^ + 

5 kshanati para-[pra]shadasa 1 cha apakaroti (H) yo hi kachi 3 ata-prashadam pujeti 

[para]-p[r]ashada[m] 3 garahati savre ato-prashada-bhatiya va kiti 

6 ata-prasharhdam dipayami ti so cha puna tatha karamtam so cha puna tatha 

karatam * ba[dhata]ram upahamti ata-prashadam (I) so sayamo vo sadhu kiti 
anamanasa dhramo 

7 Sruneyu cha suSrusheyu cha ti (J) evaih hi Devanampriyasa ichha kiti savra- 

prashaihda bahu-£ruta ch[a] kal[ana]gama cha siyasu (K) ye cha tatra tatra 

8 prasana tesha[rii] vatavo (L) Devanampriy[o] na [tatha da]na[m va] p[u]ja va 

manati ya[tha] kiti sala-vadhi siyati savra-prashaclanam (M) bahuka cha etaye 
a[tha] . . 5 

9 vap[a]ta dh[ra]ma-ma[ha]matra i[stridhi3yaksha-ma[ha]matra[vra]cha-bhumika 6 ane 

cha nikaye (N) imam cha etisa [pha]lam yam ata-pashada-vadhi 7 [bh]o[ti] 
10 dhramasa cha di[pana] 

TRANSLATION 

- 

(A) King Devanampriya PriyadarSiii is honouring all sects : (both) ascetics and 
householders, with gifts and with honours of various kinds* 

(B) But Devanampriya does not value either gifts or honours so (highly) as 
(this), (viz.) that a promotion of the essentials of all sects should take place. 

(C) But the promotion of the essentials (is possible) in many ways. 

(D) But its root is this, viz, guarding (one's) speech, (i. e.) that neither praising 
one's own sect nor blaming other sects should take place on improper occasions, or 
(that) it should be moderate in every case. 

(E) But other sects ought to be duly honoured in every way. 

(J?) If one is acting thus, he is promoting his own sect and is benefiting other 
sects as well 

(G) If one is acting otherwise than thus, he is hurting his own sect and 
wronging other sects. x 

(H) For whosoever praises his own sect (or) blames other sects, — all (this) out 
of pure devotion to his own sect, (i. e.) with the view of glorifying his own sect, — 
if he is acting thus, he rather injures his own sect very severely. 

(I) Therefore self-control 8 alone is meritorious, (i. e.) that they should both hear 
and obey each others morals. 

(J) For this is the desire of Devanampriya, (viz.) that all sects should be both 
full of learning and pure in doctrine. 

(K) And those who are attached to their respective (sects), ought to be spoken to 
(as follows). 1 

(L) Devanaihpriya does not value either gifts or honours so (highly) as (this), 
(viz.) that a promotion of the essentials of all sects should take place. 9 

1 -prashamdasa Buhler. " 2 k\o\chi Biihler. 3 -prash\a[da Buhler. 

4 Cancel the five preceding words, which were repeated by mistake. 
6 Restore aikaye. 

0 vacha- Buhler. 7 -prasliada- Buhler. 

8 Instead of ' self-control * the other versions read ' concord \ 

9 For siyati see above, p. 40 t n. i. 

wis K 



66 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

,' (M) And many (officers) are occupied for this purpose, (viz.) the Mahamalras of 
morality, the Makamatras controlling women, the inspectors of cowpens, and other 
classes (of officials). 

(N) And this is the fruit of it, (viz.) that the promotion of ones own sect takes 
place, and the glorification of morality. 

> 

THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBA2GARHI 

i 

C.—~West face of Shahbazgarhl rock, . 

i (a)otspi^^ 

'^Rfta* (d) fr ^gst^R ^rfasra ftftftft ^sfcpifa 
3 (e) ^ftftw fir ftft*!*nft % ?n? ^ra "3 ^ ^ ^nnft ^ ?f 
^ ^frtffm ^ ^hTji-jig (f) 33. ft ^ ftwt *£OTnit 

*nrftl3 ftr^N|fre5i- 

^f»TCR ^ f?RRTO (H) ^ ^ ft ^ft%R ft^t 3rftnf^ ^ Ifa 

e JT^ofn w n ft ?N 3t ^m^t ^ttftr <i) nfkm i inr sswgsR 
r wt i * to «- -^pffina (l) « ft ^ OT**ft 

SffallftTOft ^F*ft*W *J ^TR^ <M) ^ ft ^ ^ft 

Wfftro ftftr* tt ft ^prffc ^ g ft^ ftr (w) ft 



THIRTEENTH ROCK- EDICT : SHAHBAZGARHI 6% 

4 

1 

10 «^*fafaft%3 # wfer^ ^*fir*m wprfsftsr ^n*fii (s) m 

fa %5Rfjiw ^fT * ^reft ?r ft ^ ^rEtto ft*m 

OT^ftff im Sl-jftfWfir ^ftftfasffrT ^ (T) 5t * <5J§ J*w3nT 

11 ftpnt ftffrrat si CP) . 3Sfw ftfir imft^rafaT (v) 3 « 

firfri (w) i nfan t ^rfn (x) ijrra ^ srft 

vmjm (aa) h ft f^^ylftrai TC^tfe 

1 (A) [atha]-vaslia-a[bhis]ita[Ba 1 Devana]pri[a]sa Pri[a]dra6isa ra[£io] Ka[liga] 

vijj]ita (B) diadha-mat[r]e a prana-sata-[saha]sre y[e] tato apavudhe sata- 
sahasra-matre tatra hate bahu-tavata[ke va] 8 m[ute] 

2 (C) tato [pa]cha 4 a[dhu]na ladh[e]shu [Kaligeshu s tivre dhrama-Silana] 0 

dhra[ma-ka]mata dhramanusasti cha Devanapriyasa (D) so [a]sti anusochana 7 
Devanap[ria]sa vijiniti Kaliga[ni] 8 

3 (E) avijitarh [hi vi]jinamano yo 9 tat[r]a vadha ltt va maranaih va apavaho va 

janasa tarn badhaih v£e]dani[ya]-ma[taih] guru-mata[m] cha Devanampriyas a 
(P) idam 11 pi chu [tato] guru-matataram [Devanamjpriyasa (G) ye tatra 13 

4 vasati 10 bramana va srama[na] va a[ih]ne va prashamda gra(Tia]tha va yesu vihita 

esha agrabhuti-suSrusha mata-pitushu susrusha guruna 1 * susmsha mitra- 

i 

saihstuta-sahaya- ' 

5 natikeshu dasaTbhatakanaih samma~pratipa[ti] dridha-bhatita 15 tesha lfl tatra bhoti 

[a]pag[r]atho va vadho ya abhiratana va nikramanarh (H) yesha va pi 
suvihitanam 17 [si]ho 18 aviprahino [e te]sha mitra-samstuta-sahaya-natika vasana 

6 prapunati [ta]tra tarn pi tesha vo apaghratho 19 bhoti (I) pratibhagarh cha 

[e]taih sayra-manusanam 20 guru-matarii cha Devanampriya[sa] (J) nasti 
cha ekatare 21 pi prashadaspi 22 na nama prasado (K) so yamatro [ja]no tada 
Kalige [ha] to cha mut[o] cha apav[udha] 23 cha tato 

7 Sata-bhage va sahasra-bhagarh va [a]ja guru-matarh v[o] Devanampriyasa (L) yo 

pi cha apakareyati kshamitaviya-mate ya 24 Devanamp[r]iyasa yam Sako 
kshamanaye (M) ya pi cha atavi Devanampriyasa vijite bhoti ta pi anuneti 
anunijapeti ae (W) anutape pi cha prabhave 

m 

1 a\std\- Buhler. a \diyadha\ Buhler. 3 Buhler omitted va. 

4 \fd\chha Biihler, 5 [Kalimgeshu\ Buhler, 6 -[palanam] Biihler.. 

7 9 n\_am\ Buhler. 8 "priyasa vijini(\ti Kd\lhhga\iit\ Buhler. 

0 9 mm[iye] Biihler. . » vadh\p\ Buhler. . 11 imam Buhler. 

12 tatra h\t\ {or ye iaira Buhler. * " 13 vasamii Buhler. 14 gurunam Buhler. 

15 didha- Buhler. . , 1(1 tesham Buhler. » samvi 0 Buhler. 

18 Read sineko ; \tie\ko Biihler. 19 Read apagratho l which is Biihler's reading. 

30 savram ?ttamt° Buhler. 21 ekataraspi Buhler. sa prashamdaspi Buhler. 

23 apavndh\o\ Buhler. • 24 vo Buhler. 

25 Read °mj/iapeti, which is Buhler^ reading. 

K 2 



68 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



8 Devanampriyasa vuchati tesha kiti avatrapeyu na cha [ha]mfieyasu (O) ichhati 

hi D[e] vanampriyo savra-bhutana akshati sa[ih]yamam sama[cha]riyam 

i » 

rabhasiye (P) ayi 1 cha mukha-mut[a] 2 vijaye Devanampriya[sa] yo 
dhrama-vijayo (Q) so cha puna ladho Devanampriyasa iha cha saveshu B 
cha amteshu 

9 [a] shashu pi yojana-£a[t]eshu yatra Amtiyoko nama Y[o]narraja paraih cha tena 

Atijtok[e]na 4 chature 4 rajani Turamaye nama Amtikini nama Maka 
nama Alikasudaro nama nicha Choda-Pam^a ava Ta[m]bapam[ni]ya 5 (R) 
[e]vameva [hi]da raja-vishavaspi 0 TonarKa[m]boyeshu Nabhaka-Nabhitiiia 7 

10 Bhoja-Pitinikeshu Amdhra-Falideslm 8 savatra Devanampriyasa 

dhramanuSasti anuvataihti (S) yatra pi Devanampriyasa duta na vrachamti 
te pi Srutu Devanampriyas a dhrama-vutaih vidh[a]nam 9 dhramanu£asti 
dhramam [a]nuvidhiyamti anuvidhiyi£am[ti] cha (T) yo [sa] 10 ladhe etakena 
bho[ti] savatra vijayo sava[tra] pu[na] 

11 vijayo priti-raso so (U) ladha bh[oti] priti dhrama-vijayaspi (V) lahuka tu kho 

sa priti (W) paratri[ka]meva maha-phala menati Devana[m]priyo (X) etaye cha 
athaye ayi 11 dhrama-dipi nipi[sta] 12 kiti putra papotra me asu navarh vijayam 
ma vijetav[i]a 13 manishu spa[kaspi] yo vijay[e kshamjti cha lahu-da[ih]data 14 
cha rochetu tarn cha yo 15 vija 10 mana[tu] 

12 yo dhrama-vijayo (Y) so hidalokiko paralokiko (Z) sava-chati-rati 17 bhotu ya 

[dh]ramma-rati 18 (AA) sa hi hidalokika paralokika 

* 

TRANSLATION 

(A) When king Devanampriya Friyadar6in had been anointed eight years, 
(the country of) the Kalingas was conquered by (him). 

(B) One hundred and fifty thousand in number were the men who were deported 
thence, one hundred thousand in number were thpse who were slain there, and many 
times as many those who died, 

(C) After that, now that (the country of) the Kalingas has been taken, Deva- 
nampriya (is devoted) to a zealous study of morality, 19 to the love of morality, and 
to the instruction (of people) in morality. 

(D) This is the repentance of Devanampriya on account of his conquest of (the 
country of) the Kalingas* 

(E) For, this is considered very painful and deplorable by Devanampriya, that, 
while one is conquering an unconquered (country), slaughter, death, and deportation 
of people (are taking place) there* 

(P) But the following is considered even more deplorable than this by 
Devanampriya. 

I eshe Buhler. s -mute Buhler. 3 sa\vre\shu Biihler. 4 Amtiyokena Buhler. 
s "famniya Buhler. 6 Viska- Vajri- Buhler. 7 Nab/iake Na\bht\tina Buhlen 
8 -Puti[de]s&u Buhler. ■ * vidkenam Buhler. 10 [c/ia] Buhler. 

II ayo Buhlen 12 \dt\pista Buhler. 15 Havi\ya\m Biihler. 

14 -dam\dd\tam Biihler. 15 tarn e\vd\ Buhler. 10 Read vijayam, as at Kalsu 

17 savra cha nirati Biihler. 18 \s\rama- Biihler, 

19 dhrama-silana (= Skt. dharma-siland) is the equivalent of dhaimnavayo at Girnar ; see above, 
p. 34, n, 14. 



THIRTEENTH AND FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICTS: SHAHBAZGARHI 

LEFT HALF 




Scale One-ninth 



THIRTEENTH AND FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICTS : SHAHBAZGARHI 

RIGHT HALF 



Between pages 68 and 




Scale One-ninth 



THIRTEENTH ROCK -EDICT : SHAHBAZGARHI 69 

r * 

(G) (To) the Brahmanas or £ramanas, or other sects or householders, who are 
living there, (and) among whom the following are practised: obedience to those who 
receive high pay, obedience to mother and father, obedience to elders, proper courtesy 
to friends, acquaintances, companions, and relatives, to slaves and servants, (and) firm 
devotion,— to these then happen injury 1 or slaughter or deportation of (their) 
beloved ones. 

(H) Or, if there are then incurring misfortune the friends, acquaintances, 
companions, and relatives of those whose affection (for the latter) is undiminished* 
although they are (themselves) well provided for, this (misfortune) as well becomes 
an injury to those (persons) themselves. 

(I) This is shared by all men and is considered deplorable by Devanampriya. 
(J) And there is no (place where men) are not indeed attached to some sect 3 

(K) Therefore even the hundredth part or the thousandth part of all those people 
who were slain, who died, and who were deported at that time in Ealinga, (would) now 
be considered very deplorable by Devanampriya, 

(L) And Devanampriya thinks that even (to one) who should wrong (him), 
what can be forgiven is to be forgiven. 

(II) And even (the inhabitants of) the forests 8 which are (included) in the dominions 
of Devanampriya* even those he pacifies (and) converts. 4 

(N) And they are told of the power (to punish them) which Devanampriya 
(possesses) in spite of (his) repentance, 6 in order that they may be ashamed (of their 
crimes) and may not be killed. 

(O) For Devanampriya desires towards all beings abstention from hurting, 
self-control, (and) impartiality in (case of) violence. 0 

(P) And this conquest is considered the principal one 7 by Devanampriya, viz. 
the conquest by morality. 

1 ' The meaning of apagratho is fixed by the various readings npaghate (Kalsl) and upaghato 
(Girnar). It has to be noted (to which Pischel draws my attention) that some Ko^as give for 
graihita the meaning kata, hintsiia \ see BGhtlingk and Roth's Dictionary, s. v. granth.'— Buhler, 
ZDIVIG, 43-i?4* 

8 'By the fault of the writer 5 (as the rock-edict XIV, E, expresses it), most of this section is 
omitted in the Shahbazgarhl version. 

3 As remarked by Buhler (ZDMG, 43. 174 f.), the nom. plur. atavi is used in the sense of 
atavikafi. Indian rhetoricians call such a figurative expression lakshana* One of the examples 

given in the Tarkasa mgraliadipika, § 59, is *I^T: ^Tt3rf%, 'the tribunes (i.e. the occupants of 
the tribunes) are shouting,' 

4 Literally, ' induces to meditate \ Cf. nijhapayisamii and nijhapayita (or nijhapayiiave) in the 
pillar-edict IV, M, nijhap\e\ta\m]ye in the Jaugada separate edict I, R, and nijhati in the rock- 
edict VI, F, and in the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, J J to NN ; also the second separate edict at 
Dhauli and Jaugada, where Aioka declares that he wishes to induce his borderers to practise morality. 

5 Buhler (EI, a* 471) rendered anuiape. prabhave (L e. anutape prabhave) by ' power to torment 
(them) *. But the meaning which he assigned to anuiapa is unusual, and this word is a synonym of 
anusaya or antisdc liana in section D of this edict, Thomas takes prabhave = $kt. prabhavet i see 
V. A. Smith's Asoka, sec. ed. 5 p. 173, n. 4. But at Shahbazgarhl the 3. sing, opt ends in -eyati\ cf. 
my note on the translation of edict XIV, D, 

G I adopt Liiders' rendering of the last two words of this section ; see SPAW, 1914. 851. The 
Girnar and Kalsl versions replace the locative rabhasiye (= Skt* rabhasye) by the accusative madava 
or madava (= Skt. viardavam^ * kindness 

7 mukha-muta (also at Mansehra, XIII, L 9) is the same as imihhya-muta in the Lauyiya-Araraj 
and Allahabad-Kosam pillar-edicts, VI S F. 



70 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

(Q) And this (conquest) has been won repeatedly by Devanampriya both here 
and among all (his) borderers, even as far as at (the distance of) six hundred yojanas\ 
where the Tona king named Antiyoka (is ruling), and beyond this Antiyoka, (where) 
four — 4^-kings (are ruling), (viz, the king) named Turamaya, (the king) named 
Antikini, (the king) named Maka, (and the king) named AUkasudara, (and) towards 
the south, (where) the Chodas and Fandyas (are ruling), as far as Tamraparni. 

(B) Likewise here in the king's territory, among the Yonas and Kamboyas, 
among the Nabhakas and Wabhitis, 1 among the Bhojas and Pitiiukas, among the 
Andhras and Palidas , 2 — everywhere (people) are conforming to Devanampriya's 
instruction in morality. 

(S) Even those to whom the envoys of Devanfimpriya do not go, having 
heard of the duties of morality, the ordinances, (and) the instruction in morality of 
Devanampriya, are conforming to morality and will conform to (it). 

(T) This conquest, which has been won by this everywhere, — a conquest (won) 
everywhere (and) repeatedly, — causes the feeling of satisfaction. 

(U) Satisfaction has been obtained (by me) at the conquest by morality. 

(V) But this satisfaction is indeed of little (consequence). 

(W) Devanampriya thinks that only the fruits in the other (world) are of great 
(value). 

(X) And for the following purpose has this rescript on morality been written, 
(viz.) in order that the sons (and) great-grandsons (who) may be (born) to me, should 
not think that a fresh conquest ought to be made, (that), if a conquest does please 
them, 3 they should take pleasure in mercy and light punishments, and (that) they 
should regard the conquest by morality as the only (true) conquest 

(Y) This (conquest bears fruit) in this world (and) in the other world, 

(Z) And let there be (to them) pleasure in the abandonment of all (other aims),* 
which is pleasure in morality. 

(A A) For this (bears fruit) in this world (and) in the other world. 

■ 

+ 

- 

FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 

sife faf&TFT (b) *r f? s^r *m nftrt (c) n&fc ft fafsft 
^| ^ fofaa ftnsWii %r (d) stftsr ^ tpr tp crfair m 
m iwfWfr w *r m 

o 

14 qf^^^fw (e) tft f*rc n ^ saw^m %f^?f ^ ^ sfcrc tost 



1 The Kalsi version reads Nabhapmhti for Nahhitu 

s See above, p, 48, n. 14. 3 Cf. above, p. 49, n, a. 

* Cf. above, p. 1 8, n« 10. The wording of Kalsi and Mansehra differs here. Unless the 
Shahbazgarhi reading is merely due to a clerical mistake, it would contain a Prakrit substantive 
chalti — Skt. *tydkli in the sense of tyaga* 



FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: SHAHBAZGARHI 71 

■ 

13 (A) ayi 1 dhrama-dipi 2 Bovanampriyena Fri6i[na] 3 rafia mpesapita* asti vo 

tamkshitena 6 asti yo vistritena (B) na hi savatra 6 sasavre 7 gatite 8 (C) mahalake 
■ hi vijite bahu cha Iikhite Kkha[p]e£ami cheva (D) asti chu 9 atra puna puna 
[lajpitam tasa tasa [althasa madhuriyaye ye[na] jana tatha 

14 patipajeyati 10 (E) so siya va atra kiche 11 asamatam likhitam detain va samkhay[a] 13 

karana va alocheti dipikarasa va aparadhena 

T 

TRANSLATION 

(A) These rescripts on morality have been caused to be written 13 by king 
Bevanampriya Priyadarsin either in an abridged (form) or at full length. 

(B) For the whole was not suitable everywhere, 

(C) For (my) dominions are wide, and much has been written, and I shall cause 
still (more) to be written. 

(D) But (some) of this has been stated again and again because of the charm 
of certain topics, (and) in order that men should act accordingly. 14 

(E) But some of this may have been written incompletely, either on account of 

the locality, or because (my) motive was not liked, 15 or by the fault of the writer. 

. . . ■ - . ■ ■■ ■ 

IV. THE MANSEHRA ROCK 

( ■ * 

* ■ 4 m 

FIRST ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 
A. —First Inscribed Rock. 

1 (A) saft OTflfftT "^tffeftFr fiPEfSR *ftRT ft^PMri (B) fo-^t fafe 

2 crftft (C) fq ^ (d) ^pj 1% ^ arras "^hTiw 

ftra^fo T^r ^afir (e) ^rffef ft % 

4 fire mqP <« w *r§fa iirrowfsfa ^rcftf * * ^ 

5 ^ ftp* % ft ^ fwt iff *fi(H) Txaft ft ^ frrf^r m^f to 3t 

I ayo Buhler. 3 There is a vacant space between ma and du 

a Read Priyadrasina. 4 dipapito Buhler. 5 samkhiiena Buhler. 

* savratra Buhler. 7 Read savre ; [s&\ savre Buhler. 

fl Read gkatite ; ghatiti Buhler. 9 cha Biihler. 10 prati° Buhler. 

II Read kichi, which is Btihler's reading. 12 samkkaye Buhler. 

13 With nipesapita cf. nipesitam in the Shahbazgarhl edict IV, K. . 

14 With the optative patipajeyati (=:°yati at Dhauli and Jaugada) cf. apahareyati (XIII, L 7), 
mvateyati (IX, K ao),'and siyaii (— Hyaii or shiyati at Kalsl)^ see above, p. 40, n. 1. 

15 See above, p. 8, n. 3. 



72 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

1 (A) ayi dhra[ma}-dip[i] Devanam[priye]na 1 Friya[dratlina rajina Ii]khapita (B) 

hi[da] no kichhi 2 ji[ve] ara[bhitu] pra[johi]- 

2 taviye 3 (C) no pi [cha] samaj[e] kataviye* (D) bahu[ka] hi [dosha samajasa 

Devanampriye] Friyadrasi raja [da]kha[tfj (E) asti [pi chu] 

3 [eka]tiya samaja sa[dhu]-mata Devanapriyasa Priyadrasi[sa] 3 rajine (P) pura 

maha[nasa]si [Devana]pri[ya]sa Pri[yadra]£isa ra- . ■ ■ i, 

4 jine anudiva[sa ba]huni prana-sa[ta]-sahas[r]ani [arabh]isu supa[thra]ye (G) 

s[e] [da] ayi dhrama-dipt likhi[ta] ta[da] ti[ni] y[eva] pra[na]ni 

[ara]bh[iyarhti] du[v]e [2] maju- 

5 ra [e]k[e] 6 m[r]ig[e] s[e] p[i chu] nirigfe] no dhruvam (H) Jejtani pi chu [tini] 

pranani pacha no ara[bhi] 



SECOND ROCK-EDICT; MANSEHRA 

■ 

» 

* + 

5 (a) fMsrafa ^mfirar firasBro $ 
e ^Fte tHI^t nfinr^ %c&i£t rNtrf^ mfh^ to ilroi ^ 11 • « 
. — . m ^3 finrer fsRgfta Tf^R 

^ -q* * • * ^ ^ m m sir* nflra ^ fttrfxm ^ 

<d) Tjitg ^Efa ttafimfa *. — • f*mfa nf^tn^ n*j- 

5 (A) sa[vatra vi]jitasi Devanapriyasa PriyadraMsa rajine ye cha ata 7 atha 

6 [Glioma] Pa[iiidi]ya Sa[ti]ya[p]u[tra] Keralaputra 8 [Tam]bapa?i [A]tiyoge° 

nama Yonar[raja] ye cha [a] .... sa ...... . [gasa] samata 10 raQane sa]vratra 

...... priyasa PriyadraSisa rajine 

7 [duve 2] chikisa [ka]ta manu£a-chik[isa cha] pa£u-[chi]kisa cha (B) osha[clha]ni 11 

manu . . . . ka[ni cha] pa ... . {kani cha atra atra 12 nasti savra]tra [ha]rapi[ta 
cha] ropa[pita] cha 

8 (0) e[va]meva mulani [cha] phalani [cha] a[tra a]tra [na]sti [savra]tra harapita cha 

ro[pa]pita cha (D) ma[geshu] ruchhani 13 [ropa]pt[tani] 14 . . . [pfjtani 

patibhogaye pa£u-m[uni]§anam 15 



1 [De\vana[pr{\yena Biihler. 2 kichi Buhler. 

3 pra\yuho\taviye Biihler. 

4 sama\Ja\ kataviya Buhler. 5 \Pr1\yadrasi\11e\ Biihler, 

6 Biihler inserted the figure 1 1 \ 7 amta Biihler. 8 0 pttir\e\ Biihler. 

9 . iiyo\ke\ Biihler. 10 samamta Biihler. 11 o$ha\dhi\ni Biihler, 

12 \yd[ira yatra Biihler, 13 rti\chha\ Biihler. 

u The next symbol (read [Aw] by Biihler) may be the first letter («) of udupananu 
15 -m\a\nusana Biihler. 



THIRD ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 

1 - ■ 

9 (A) Vh^A ftRSft? TM m (B) $4WMfi l3^ $ WHmTO 

(e) irfts ft? ^ ^HfH TOrftr ^irfefw ^ firtr- 

12 iift ^ 

9 (A) Devanapriye FriyadraSi raja eva a[ha] (B) duva[ m a]$a~vashabhisetena 1 

nie iyam 2 [anapayitje (C) savrat[r]a vijitasi ....... ta 8 [ra]ju . . prade&ke 

; [paih]chashu pam[chashu] 5 vashesh[u] 

10 anusa[ih]yana[rh] nikramatu 4 etaye va 5 athraye imaye dhramamisastiye ya[tha] s 

anaye 7 pi krama[ne] fl (D) [sadhu mata}-pi[tu]shu [s]u[£rusha mitra]-sa[m]stuta- 

11 natikanaih cha bra[ma]na-Sramanana[rh] 9 sadhu daiie prapana :[anara]bhe sadhu 

apa-{va]yata apa-bha[data] sadhu (E) parisha pi cha yutani ga[na]nasi 
[anapa]yi§a[ti] he[tute] cha vifyamja]- 

12 nate cha 

* — •■ ' 

FOURTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 

^HEfr%ijfiT Twraj^woH isnEfxrfTsrfk 

ftTR$5R Slft&lft 3RfV ^ f^=f ^nft ^frT SlTO , 

14 (c) ^^|fi ^^ff * nf^sr «Wtro fira^ 

SW^SSfOT ^ 3jft%j ^fif affffT 

15 sroflrcfir *i*TC!^ra*!R tfMfeMfw Tirrf^ "spre (d) 3?% 

^ *r§ft§ ^rfuH (e) ^rafir^fiT ^^Rftre 

16 ftngft wtoi s*r (p) ^ ft ^ ^ *nft ^ WNi^fiPW 



. 1 Read "d&isitena. 3 ayam Buhler. 8 [me] . . ta Buhler. 4 nikrama\i>i\tu Buhler. 
5 vatk Buhler. What he took for an Anusvara, is the optional horizontal (sometimes curved) 
bottom-line which he has noted in ja (ZDMG, 43. 375), and which the Mansehra version uses also 
in da (XIII, 10), dka (VII, 33 ; XII, 6; XIII, 1), ta of tnata {I, 3 ; IV, 15 ; XIII, 4). tha (II, 5 ; 
V, 20, 26 ; XII, 4 ; cf. above, p. 55, n. 6), and pa (XII, 5). 

8 ya . a7« Buhler. T Buhler. 8 kramane Buhler. 9 -sramananam Buhler. 

h ■ 



74 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

k 

17 ftfoij 3fiF|SrWf?T (&) ^ ff 3t STHrJSTCR (H) ^TRKft ft ^ 

w ftfff ^rftjcW (i) % 3?w ^rop ^fw srfffa ^ w$ (j) sjp! 

18 f^faft IJrW W ^[ f|ft xT * ^<*ft^fil^ (K) 

12 (A) atikratam ata[rarh] 1 bahuni vasha-£a[ta]ni vadhite vo 3 pranararfa[bh]e vihi[sa] 

cha bhutanam flatina asapa[t]ipati £rama[aa]-bramanana 3 asa[m]patipati 

13 (B) se aja [De]vanapriyasa PriyadraSine rajine dhrama-[cha]ra[ne]na bheri- 

ghoshe aho dhama-ghoshe 4 vjmana-draSana asti[ne] 6 agi-karhdhan[i] ana[ni 
cha] di[vani] rupani draSeti janasa 

14 (C) [a]dise bahuhi vasha-£a[tehi] na [hu]ta-pr[u]ve tadi£e [a]ja vadhite [De]vana- 

priyasa Priyadrafiine rajine dhramanuSastiya anarabhe pranana 6 avihisa 
bhutana riatlna - 

15 saihpatipati bamana-sramanana ' sa[rh]patipati mata-pitushu 8 suSrujsha] vudhrana 

[su]Srusha (D) eshe an[e] cha bahuvidhe dhrama-charane vadhrite (E) 
vadhrayiSati yeva Devanapriye 

16 Friyadrasi raja dhama-[cha]rana a ima[rh] 10 (F) [putra] pi cha ka 11 natare cha 

panatika De[va]napriyasa Friyada&ine 13 rajine pavadhayisamti yo 13 dhrama- 
charana imam [a]va-kapam dhrame £ile cha 

17 [chi]thitu 14 dhra[maih] anu[§a]5i£amti (G) eshe hi srethe a[m] dhramanu£a£ana 

(H) dhrama-[cha]ra[ne] pi [cha] na hoti a6i[la]sa (I) se imasa athrasa vadhri 
ahi[ni cha] sadhu (J) etaye 

18 adiraye i[yam] 16 li[khi]te e[ta]sa [athra]sa yadhra 10 . yujjamjtu hini cha ma 

[alo]chay[i]su 17 (K) duva[da]6a-vashabliisitena Devanapriyena Friya- 
drasina rajina iya[m] Hkhapite 

r m ». j* ■ ta i 

• 4 

■ J 

FIFTH ROCK-EDICT : MANSEHRA 

19 (a) ^^tfti^T fwfife t& w. <£fit (c) $ ^rf^fit mmn 

% §3fit SfidfrT (D) ?T W ^| ^ (E) IT m ^ ^ 

(f) ^ ^ ^m^r ft ^srffT % ^ss i&tfn 
21 (g) *pj rfH (h) § ^fawti sr?rt: *r mw^im d) 

tfefiftftf^r t ^ ft ^ OTtfT (k) 



1 a[7«]/(rr[ra?/2] Buhler. 2 vadhite vmh Biihler. 3 -brwnananam Buhler. 

4 dfirama-goske Buhler. 6 hastine Buhler. e (rananam Biihler- 

7 -sramanana\vi\ Biihler- 8 ntafu- Buhler. 9 dhrama- Buhler, 

10 ima Buhler. 31 ku Buhler. 13 Devanampriyasa Priyadrasine Buhler. 

13 Buhler omitted^. u [ti\stiiu Buhler, 15 i[mam] Buhler. lc Read vadhru 
17 anu\lo\ckayisti Buhler. * 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 75 

a l 

nftf^» ^nrfwfta* * 

24 ^Tg^l H3T ffT ^ ffT ^ *^c*% fff ^ fWl* W (M) 

25 % ^ fq ^ ^fff% sisnr f^pro (n) u wf¥wr it ^ otRi*r 

ft ^ ft * S^t f^TTfe TO OTlrTfe ^ * 

26 wiftn (o) mfa wifcfn ftyfer f^ftfif^ ftf *m ^ it 

set 

19 (A) De[vanam]priyena 1 PriyadraSi raja eva[m] aha (B) kalanafrh] dukara[m] 

(C), ye adikare kayanasa se dukaram karoti (D) tarn maya bahu [kajyane 
[ka]te (E) [ta]ih n>a[a] putra [cha] 

20 natar[e] cha 2 para 3 eha t[e]na ye apatiye me [a]va-[ka]parh tatha anuvatteati * se 

sukata ka£sha]ti (F) yef [chu] atra de£a pi hapeSati se dukata kashati 

21 (G) pape hi nama supadarave 6 (H) s[e] atikrata[rh] a[m]tara[rh] na bhuta-pruva 

dhrama-[ma]hamatra nama (I) se treda6a-va[sha]bliisitena maya dhrama- 
mahamatra kata (J) te savra-pa[sha]desha 6 _ 

22 ' yaputa dhramadhitha[na]ye cha dhrama-vadhriya hida-sukhaye cha dh[r]ama-yutasa 

Yona-Kamboja-Gadharana 7 RatMka-Pitinikana 8 ye va pi ane aparata (K) 
bha[ta]maye- 

23 shu bramanibhyeshu anatheshu vudhreshu hida-su[khaye] 9 dhrama-yuta- 

apalibodhaye viya|jp]uta te {L) badhana-badha[sa] pativi[dhanay]e apalibodhaye 
mokshay[e cha iyarh] 

24 anubadha p[r]aja 10 t[i] va katrabhikara ti va mahalake ti va viyaprata te (Iff) 

hida 11 bahireshu . cha nagaresh[u] savreshu [o]rodhaneshu bhatana 12 cha 
spas[u]na [cha] 

25 ye va pi ane fiatike savratra viyapata (N) [e] iyam dhrama-nteito to 13 va 

dhramadhithane ti va dana-samyute ti va savratra vijitasi maa dhrama-yutasi 
vaputa [te] 

26 dhrama-mahamatra s(0):etaye athraye ayi dhrama-dipi likhita chira-thitika hotu 

tatha 1 * cha me praja anuvatatu 



1 Read °priye t which is Buhler's reading, 

3 Buhler omitted dm. 3 param Buhler. 4 tatham anuva\t\isaii^x&\ex. 

6 mpadare v[a] Biihler, - 0 Read °deshu 7 which is Biihler's reading. 

7 -Ga\t?i\dharanam Buhler. 

8 Ratrakra- Buhler. The second symbol {thi) resembles the corresponding one at Shahbaz- 
garhi, but the vertical line connecting the right ends of the two horizontal bars is omitted here. The 
third symbol looks like kam ; but the apparent Anusvara is the optional bottom-line of the letter. 
Cf. the ka of chira-thitika, VI, 31, and above, p. 73, n. 5. 

9 hidam- Buhler. 10 paja Buhler ; ja looks Uke>. 11 hidam Buhler. 
12 Read bhatuna* 13 -niiiii ti Buhler ; read ti for to. 14 fathom Biihler. 

L 2 



76 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

SIXTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 

i 

26 (a) ^?jfiR firasfsr tsr i& m (b) wfkm ^rat 

27 ?i flit to ^i^spi ?r xrf^T ^ (c) h tr ftit (d) ^ 

28 * <e) *ra*r ^ srca ^ sfftifk (f) *f fa f¥k s^srirt 
sroftfa ^ ^Ri ^ ^ ^ ^ *r^%t% 3Rf*ra ^itf*ra 
ftfw 1 

29 fk^ fasrfk ^ nfijft mfif&^ft nf^ferf^re *r 

*fie* (<*) ^ ^nof^rif m (h) rrftar f| 3 wft ^anftr 

i 

26 (A) Devanapriye 1 Priyadrafii raja [e]va[rh] aa 2 (B) atikrataih ataraih 3 

27 na 4 huta-pruve [sa]vram kala athra-[krartia] va [pa]tivedana va (C) ta maya evaih 

kitarh (D) savfa kalath a£atasa me orodhane grabhagarasi vrachaspi vinitaspi 
uyanaspi savratra pa[t]i[ve]da[ka] athra janasa 
2S pativedetu me (E) savratra cha janasa athra kar[o]mi aharh (P) yam pi cha 5 
kichhi 0 mukhato 7 anapemi aham dapakam va sravakam va ye 8 va puna 
mahamatrehi achayike aropite 9 hoti 

29 taye athraye vivade nijati 10 va samta par[isha]ye a[na]taliyena pativedetaviye 11 

me savratra savra kala (G) evaih anapita maya (H) nasti hi me toshe 
[uthanasi] ath[r]a-sa[rh]tiranaye cha 

30 (I) kataviya-mate hi me savra4oka-h[i]te (J) [ta]sa chu puna eshe mule uthane 

athra-satirana cha (K) nasti hi kramatara savra-loka-hitena (L) ya[m] cha 
, [kichhi] 13 pa[rakra]mami aaih 13 k[i]t[i] bh[u]tanam 

31 ananiyam 14 ye[ham] ia cha she 15 sukhayami paratra cha spagra 26 a[ra]dhetu ti 



I Devana\pi\priye Buhler. 2 aha Buhler, 5 aiikramtam amtaram Buhler, 
4 n[o] Buhler. fi Buhler omitted cha. 6 kichi Buhler. 

7 mukhato looks almost like mukhaii* which is Biihler's reading. \ 

8 yaiit Buhler. 9 aropiia Buhler. 10 Read nijkaii f which is Biihler's reading. 

II a\iwm\ialiye}ia pativeditaviye Buhler. 12 \ki\chi Buhler. 13 aham Buhler. 
14 ananiyam Buhler. lfi sha Buhler. 16 spagram Buhler. 



SIXTH ROCK^EDICT: MANSEHRA 77 

(M) se etaye athraye iyaih dhrama-dipi likhita chira-thitika 1 hotu ta[tha 2 
cha] me pu[tra nata]re para[kra]mate 3 sa[vra}- 
32 [lo]ka-hitaye (W) dukare cha 4 kho [a]natra a[g]rena para[kra]mena 

* ■ 

SEVENTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 

32 (a) "^prfWt firas.fo t^t *rsn* ^gfir hhw ^ (b) ^ f| % sro 

33 ^frf (C) ^ ^frlifl (D) W STS TJSR^j fq ^flf (E) 

34 ^5 

H 

32 (A) Devanapriyo * PriyadraSi raja savratra ichhati savra-pashada vaSeyu (B) 

savre hi te sa[ya]ma [bha]va-£u[dh]i [cha] 

33 [ichhaihjti (O) jane chu uchavucha-chhade 6 uchavucha-rage (J>) te savram eka-de&uh 

va pi kashati (E) [v]ipule pi ch[u] dane yasa nasti sayeme 7 bhava-£uti a 
kitanata dri(Jha-bhatita 0 cha 

34 niche badham 

■ 

■ 

EIGHTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 

■ 

34 (a) ^rfrnsffr ^Rft^ifxPF f^i^ fq^f (b) ^ fwrftw ^rsrfa 

35 *3T ^raf«^ Hri fWir (b) wra^ (e) ^ ^ frfrr 

37 tfsr^w^ 

i , 

34 (A) a[ti]kratam ataram 10 Devanapri[ya] vihara-yatra nama nikrannshu (B) ia 11 

mrigaviya anani cha ediSani abhiramani husu (C) s[e] Devanap[r]iy[e] 
F[r]iyadrafii 

35 raja daSarvashabMsite saihta[ih] nikrami Sabodhi 13 (D) tenada dhrama-yada 13 



1 -tkitikam Buhler. 2 tatham Biihier. 3 °mamte Buhler. * ^ar Buhler. 

6 Q U>riye\ Biihlen 0 -rAa^ Biihier. 7 sayame Buhler. B Read -iudhu 

9 dridhra- Biihier. 10 mhtaram Buhler- 11 * [v&a] Buhler, ia samhodhi Buhler. 

13 tenad[anz\ dhrama-yadra Biihier. What looks like an Anusvara or Repha, is probably the 
optional bottom-line of da, which occurs also in V, 23, 34; VIII, 36; IX a 8 (twice) ; X, 9 ; XIII, 3, 
7» 9* 10 * x 3* Cf - above, p. 54, n. 7. 



78 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

(E) atra iya hoti Samana-bramanana 1 dra[£a]ne dane cha vudhrana 2 dra[£a]ne 
[cha hi]na-pativi[dhane 3 cha] 

36 janapadasa janasa draSane dhramanuSasti cha dhrama-[pa]r[i]puchha cha tatopaya 

(P) eshe bhuye rati hoti Devanapriyasa Priyadra&sa 

37 rajine bhage ane 

T ■ ■ ■ *H . . : 

■ . s - _ r 

NINTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 

■ ■ . i. . - 3*4- - 'l 

J , . ■ -- r 

* t , ■ . 

* ' * ' ' 

B. — North Face of Second Rock. 

1 (a) /^refiw firasfe w m mi (b) ^ iic* ^rfir 

2 srsSi f^f% ii^^^^^iA' 

3 ^| (c) ij ^rrorfMi ^r§ ^ *igft** i ^ ^ fttf%?i 

1 sfidfff (D) % cfisfa^ ^ tit 

3$ ^W£3ife ^fajqft'pfw *p»1 wfctfa 

4rlP<*3i ftfl ft ft ft tqfaVl ft 

6 ftlW^I qfzqft^T ft 3?T ^ ^ 3fcft^ SP* rW 

T*%&m f^^ft ^ ■51 Wife fa (I) U % 35R** T I% 

7 sjsrft^ % (j) ftro ^ k ^ ft^i ftre qi it (k) f|^Htf^% 3& § 

(l) tp *rain& ^fcfc W ft if ^ it ft^fir fi^ 

s win jRreirr (n) 1% ipr 71 mv ftmWi rrwt <3*^r m§ ftfir 

1 (A) Devanapriye PriyadraSi raja evam aha (B) jane uchavucha[m ma]gala[m] 

karoti 

* , > 

2 abadhasi a[va]hasi vi[va]hasi prajopadaye pravasaspi etaye anaye [cha ed]i£a[ye 

jane] 

3 bahu marhgapam ka]ro[t]i (C) atra tu abaka-janika 4 bahu cha bahuvidha cha khuda 

" cha nirathriya cha magalam karoti (D) se ka[taviye ch]eva 5 kho 

4 magale (E) apa-phale chu [kho e]she (F) iyam chu kho maha-phale ye dhrama- 

magale 6 (G) atra iyam dasa-bhatakasi samya-patipati guruna a[pachit]i 

5 pra[na]na [sajyame £ramana-bramanana [dane] eshe ane cha edi£e dhrama-magale 

nama (H) se vataviye pi[tu]na pi putrena pi bhratuna 7 pi spamikena pi 

6 mitra-sa[m]stutena [a]va pative§iyena pi iyam sadhu iyam kataviye magale ava tasa 
. dthrasa nivutiya nivutasi va puna ima [ka]shami ti 8 (I) e hi [i]tare 9 magape] 



1 sramana- Buhler. 2 vadhrana Buhlen 3 Read hirafia-. 

* balika for abaka- Buhler. 5 cha for [cAJeva Buhler. 6 -ntmitgale Buhler* 

7 bkatuna Buhler. 8 k[e\sh[d\miti Bflhlen 9 [ajtra&e Buhler, 



NINTH ROCK-EDICT : MANSEHRA 



79 



7 sa[sa]yike se (J) s[i]ya va tarn athram nivateya s[i]ya pana no (K) hidal[o]kike 

cheva se 1 (L) iyam puna dhrama-magale akalike (M) [ha]che pi tarn athram 
no 2 nivateti [hi]da a[tha] paratra 

8 anata puna 3 prasavati (N) hache puna ta[m] athram 4 nivat[e]u hida tato 5 

ubhayesarh [ara]dhe 6 hoti hida cha se athre paratra cha anata 7 punarh 
prasavati tena dhramagalena 8 

TENTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 
9 (A) ^rlflR fCRSfst t^f l€t n fafc n 5Tt *?^ft ^^rffT * fa 

ao VH^rf ^ ^faBl^ frT (B) Timv \^TW fjra^frr T3f ^ ^ f%fr 
? ^sfrT (C) TO^fTI '-^fift fll^frj T^T H *P? 

u %qfrT frT (D) ^ ^ TTfal% (E) ^ f €t 

9 (A) [Devana]priye Priyadrasi raja yaso va kiti va no 9 mahathravahath manati 
anatra yam pi ya[so va] kiti va ichhati tadatvaye 10 ayatiya cha jane 
[dhra]ma-sus>usha susrushatu 11 me ti 

10 dhrama-[vutaih cha] 12 anuvidhiyatu ti (B) etakaye Devanapriye Friya[dra]6i 

raja yaso va kiti va i[chha]ti (C) , . . . [k]ichhi 13 parak[r]ama[ti] Devanapriye 
PriyadraSi raja tarn savram parat[r]ikay[e va k]i[ti] 

11 sa[kale apa]-pa[r]isav[e] siyati ti (D) eshe chu 14 pa[ri]save e apu[ne] 15 (E) dukare 16 
; chu kho eshe khudakena 17 [va va]gr[e]na [u]satena va ana[tra] 18 a[gre]na 

para[krame]na sav[ram] pariti[ji]tu (F) atra 19 tu [kho] usateneva du[ka]re ao 

ELEVENTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 

12 (A) \^fq^ tsrasfsj u3 m% (b) *rf% irf^ ^ 

I i\kd\ch\a\bhi\chd\ vase Buhler. 2 na Buhler. 3 an\am\tam punam Buhler. 

* [a] . ra Buhler. 6 tato looks almost like tati. ' v ubkayasa [va ld\dhe Biihler, 

7 ana\m\ta\m\ Buhler. 

8 Read dhrama-magalena. The same mistake is found in the Shahbazgarhl version. 

9 «[«] Buhler. 10 tadattaye Buhler ; but see above, p. 6a, n. 3. 

II The syllable sru is engraved in a deep round hole which must have existed already at 
the time of the inscription. 

ia Buhler omitted cka, Is [e tu\ kicki Buhler. 14 tu Buhler. 

15 \apii\na\m\ Buhler. 16 dukaram Buhler. 37 Mudra&ena Buhler. 

18 a\nd\tra Buhler. 10 e . . Buhler. 20 usatena va duka\rd\ Buhler. 



80 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

13 ftnrcr ^iHfo ^T yn w* w M unsR (d) ^afcdt ftf* 

ft ft flT ¥*fa%T ft faw^jfcr trfe^fwi 

H 3$ srg ^ ^ft^ (e) % rrq w f|^f% ^ ^ ftft ^ 

12 (A) Devanapri[y]e Priyadrafii raja evam aha (B) nasti ediSe dane [a]di£e 

dhrama-dane dhrama-sariitha[v]e dh ram a-sam vibh aga 1 dhrama-sa[rh]ba[rh]dh[e] 
(C) tatra eshe dasa-bhata[ka]si samya-patipati 2 mata-[pitu]shu su[£ru]sha 

13 mitra-sarh[stuta]-natikana Sramana-bramanana dan[e] pranana [ana]rabhe 3 (D) 

[e]she vataviye pituna pi . putrena pi bhratuna 4 pi spamike[na] pi mitra- 
sarh[stu]t[e]na ava pativeSiyena * , : , 

14 iyam sa[dhu] iyarh kataviye* (B) se tatha karata[m] hi[dalo]ke 6 [cha] kath? aradhe 

ho[ti 8 pa]ra[tra] cha ana[m]tam punam p[r]asavati te[na dhra]ma-danena 

• : '- l : 

TWELFTH ROCK-EDICT : MANSEHRA : . 
"'• C.-^Sottth Face of Second Rock. 

i ■*- '■ i -i ■ 

i ' (a) "^ifa^ firasft Tsr j^ftufir ^ x^fa ^ 

ftft^^^%(B)^^fW^^Ti3r^ 

2 ^Rft3 *raft sro ftft ssreft ftn? S?!^* '.-.ft (oj «c*ffe $ 

■ •■ " ^|ftir : (d); ire ''f 3?i ^jjfir 

4 SSRS^f (F) 17.3 *fiTJT WH* TO TOlft ft ^ ^tRR^Hw (») 

H^n? tot snrxro n wnft mjrass ft ^ 

5 ^rossitft (h) ^ ft %fe toto lift ^ Tn^ft sit 

TOSHftq ^ ftift f^RTi ft ' * * * TR TOT 

e\ TO?rt ^nift ^rfe W % sra^ «j ft>ft 'jRWrtRi vt ^% 

7 ^iWTT? ^ ft (K) IT ^ ff^ m WEJI Hf^ ^Wft^ (I.)%5fft^ 

im & ^ "n ^wgft ^nr ftrft ^i<^ft "ftra ^toh 

8 (m) ^pt UH^ i^ MHHiH^ ijii ^^fft^l ^ ^ 

" . , ■ , '* i ■ . .. T J <■ ^1 

9 ii ^r^w^ft ^ Htft ^ fi?pf 

1 °bhage Buhler. s -\bka\ta . . j» sa\inyd\~samfaiipati Buhlen 

5 anarambhe Biihler, 4 bhatuna Buhlen 6 krataoiye Buhler. 

6 haramtam hida . ska Buhler. 7 Buhler in foot-note io, 8 aradhe . . t Buhlet, 



NINTH TO ELEVENTH ROCK-EDICTS : MANSEHRA 



Page 80 




Scale One-seventh 



TWELFTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 81 

1 (A) Bevanapriye Priyadrasi raja savra-pashadani [p]rava[ji]tani gehathani 1 cha 

pujeti danena vividhaye cha pujaye 2 (B) no chu tatha dana va puja va 

2 [De]vana[m]priye manati atha kiti sala-vadhi siya savra-pashadana ti (C) sala- 

vrudhi t[u] bahuvidha (D) tasa chu iyaih mule am vacha-guti 

3 kiti ata-prashacla-puja va para-pashacla-garaha va no siya apakaranasi lahuka va 

siya tasi tasi pakaranasi (E) pujetaviya va chu para-p[r]ashada tena tena 

4 akarena (P) evam karatam atva-pashada 8 badham vadhayati para-pashadasa pi cha 

upakaroti (G) tad-amftatha 4 karatam ata-pashada 6 cha chhanati para-pashadasa 
pi cha 

5 apakaroti (H) ye hi kechhi 0 atva-pashada pujeti para-pashada* va garahati savre 

atva-pashada-bhatiya va kiti atva-pashada dipayama ti . . . . puna tatha 
karatam 

6 badhataraih 7 upahamti 8 atva-pasha[da] (I) se samavaye vo 9 sadhu ki[ti] anamanasa 

dhramarh £run[e]y[u cha], su£rushe[yu] cha ti (J) evam hi Devanapriyasa 10 
ichha kiti savra-pashada bahu-5ruta cha 

7 kayanagama cha [hu]veyu 11 ti (K) e cha tatra tatra prasana tehi vataviye (L) 

Devanapriye no tatha dan^m va puja[ih]/va manati atha kiti sala-vadhi siya 
savra-pashada[na] 

8 (II) [ba]huka cha etaye athraye vaputa dhrama-mahamatra istrijaksha-mahamatra 13 

vracha-bh[u]mika a$e cha nikay[e] 13 (N), Iyarh cha etisa phale 

9 yam atva^pashada-vadhi cha bh[o]t[i] dhramasa qha [di]pana 

: ■ 

■* i : 4 - - I t 

b 1 

i 

THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA. 

i 

1 ■ ... 

D\ — Third Inscribed RocK 

j r | r , . 

i (a) ssOTufafarra ^frEto finish tf^R ^»f<^ fafsm (b) f^w&m 

^ 

1 -prashadtmi pravrajitam ga/mikani JSvMex* 3 ptijaya Buhler. 

3 Here, and in five other places of the same edict, Biihler read atma- for atva-* The second 
syllable of this word is identical in shape with the tva of tadatvaye in edict X } L 9. I therefore 
read atva^ following Konow (SPAW, 1916, 804, n, 7), who quotes in support Pischel's Grammatik, 
§277. 

* tadanaitiarh Biihler, The wavy line at the bottom of da need not be an Anusvara, but may- 
be a portion of da itself; see above, p. 77* n. 13. 

6 atma- Buhler. 6 hechi Biihler. 7 badhamtaram Biihler. 

B Vtamti looks like amti\ Q /ia[tia]ti Buhler- 9 v\a\ Buhler. 

10 Devan4jii\priyasa Buhler. 11 haveyu Buhler. 12 Read istrijkaksha^ 

13 ftikaya Buhler. 

hi* M 

■ 



Page 8i 



TWELFTH ROCK-EBICT: MANSEHRA 




Scale One-seventh 



82 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

5 *4 n ^fSrom f¥h^Hf<n (h) %4 ^ fir ^faff^ fa?t| srfatfl?! * 

6 (*) * w STO^sm *jTOi* ^.^Mfaro (j) ^ % 

*tto^ 3$ fasw ^ isw§ .......... 

j&_ n _.,„. , ,p „, ... 

v% ftrafa 

8 (M) V* fx? x| ^fa ^Rfa*W faf3TrT% ftffT 7f fa SF^^fw 

^f^^rfw (n) ^t^rfa fa ^ wft VmO<*w <prf?r ?m fai 

^ffaro ff ^ ^ *rit*§ ^m*? 'fa ^r^R^m^ * 

■cj^jst. ,**> 

10 mi . . , . Tm wr to ^Rfwng^t to fro ^ft^fiw rfaTjfani (e) 

VsiTft % TSffa^fa ^t?mt^ TOWPifa$ Ht^fafaf^ 

11 <s) fa <^ *ifa W fa ^ ^nrfa*m ot^h fa*m 

"rogsrfar iN ^fafa^fa ^fafafa'sifw ^ (t) ^ % 
Itfa fa^ 

12 (w) ^fa^B^st Ti^py TOfrr"^nfa% (x) ^ <sj wrf^fcr 

fofaw faifw wrfa $ ^ fa * • iTfa^T Tifari 

13 00 . . fa^?it% xrttftfai^ (z) sre ^ ^ fa^fa itg *r wr^fa (aa) g 

1 (A) [atha]-vashabMsita[sa] De[va]na[priyasa] Friyadrasine rajine [Kajliga 

[vjijjita] (B) [di]ya[dha]-mat[r]e prana-[§ata-sa] 

2 [ma]te (C) [tato] pacha 1 adhuna la[dhe]shir Kaligeshu ti[vr]e dhrama[va]ye 

. , . [dhra]manu[£a]sti [cha De]vana(pri] . ... '(D) . 

3 [marane va apavahe va janasa] se [badham] vedaniya-mate giiru-mate [cha 

Devanapriyasa] (F) [i]yarh [pi] chu tato 

4 , [ye]su [vihi]ta esha [a]grabhu[tt]-sufirasha mata-pi[tu]sh[u] su[dru]sha guru-suSrusha 

mit[r]a-sa[m]stu 



1 pachha Buhler. In this edict I am noting only verbal differences from Buhler's text, but not 
the numerous passages which he omitted because he was unable to make them out from the 
materials at his disposal. 



THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 83 

1 

5 [va]dh[e] va abh[iratanarh] va vini[k]ramani 1 (H) yesha[rh] va pi s[u]vih[itanam] 2 

si[ne]he avipahin[e 3 e] ta[naifa] mitra-[sam] 

6 (I) [esha] savra-manu£anam 4 guru-mate cha Devanampriyasa (J) 

nasti cha se janapade yatra nasti ime ni[ka]ya a[na]tra Yoneslni [bramane 5 
cha] £ra[mane] .......... pi [janapadajsi ya[t]ra 

7 na° nama prasade (K) se yavatake jane tada Kaligesh[u] hate 7 cha 

apavudhe cha ta[to] 3 £ata-bhage va sahasra-bhage va 9 aja guru-ma[te va] 
D e vanapriya[sa] (L) . . pa[ka] [mi]tavi 

8 (M) . . [pi cha] atavi Devanapriyasa 10 vijitasi hoti [ta]' pi a[nuna]ya[ti 

a]nu[nijha]paya[ti] u (N) [anu]tape pi cha prabhave Devanapriyasa 13 vuchati 
[te]sha 13 [ki] (O) . . chha vanapri[y .] u 

9 (P) [mukha}-mute v[i]jaye D[e]vanapriyasa 15 ye dhrama-vijaye (Q) se cha 

[puna] Ia[dh]e [Deva]napri[ya]sa 16 hida cha sa[vr]eshu cha arhteshu a shashu 
pi y[o]ja[na-£a]t[e]shu tiyo[ge 16 nama To]na-[raja] 

10 Amt[e] .... [nama Ma]ka na[ma] Alikasudare nama nicha 17 Cho da~ P amdiy a 

a Tambapa[m]niya 18 (R) evameva [hida] raja-vishava[si] 19 Y[o]na~ 
Kam[bojeshu] 3ffabliaka-[Na]blmpa[m]tisIiii 30 [Bh]o[ja-Pi]tiiii[ke]sliu 
Adhar[Pa] al 

11 (S) [yatra pi du]ta [De]vanapriyasa na 23 yamti te pi Srutu Devanapriyasa 23 

dhrama-vuta 34 vidhana[m] dhramanu^asti dhra[ih]ma[m] anuvidhiyarhti 
[a]nuvidhiy[iSarhti 25 cha] (T) [ye se] ladhe e[ta]ke[na ho]ti savra[tra] SG 
vi[jaye] 

12 (W) paratrikameva maha-phala [ma]nati De"va]napri[yo] (X) e[ta]ye cha 27 

[a]thray[e] iyam dhrarhma-dipi 28 li[khi]ta kiti putra prap[o]tra me a[su] 
nava[rh] 29 v[i] [tavfjyarh manpshu saya] .......... 

13 (T) . . hidaloke paralokike (Z) sava ao cha [ka] 91 nirati hotu ya dhrama-rati 32 (AA) 

sa hi [i]aloki[ka] 33 paraloki[ka] * 

■ 

FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: MANSEHRA 
13 (A) ^ HHf^PT ^^fx^T fm f%rf "fo^fe 

u fftftift fc^^fn ^ fa * * (d) ^rfe f sre ctfml m m 

SS^H Wgfr^A ^ ^ m x?f?TTtqf?T (E) ^ Tm w% f%fe 

fir fpyfer * * * * n ■• 



■ 1 °mane Buhler. 
4 savrmh manu° Buhler. 
7 hate looks like amte. 
10 Deva?iampri Q Biihler. 
13 [tes/iam] Buhler. 
le .... yok . Biihler. 
19 Visha- Vaj[rt\- Buhler. 



3 sathvi 0 Buhler. 3 aviprahi\tie\ Buhler. 

fi yenesha \bramana\ Buhler. 6 no Buhler. 

8 \taia\ Buhler. * 9 Buhler omitted va. 

11 °paye ti Buhler. 13 Deva\nant\pri° Biihler. 

34 vanampri[ye] Buhler. 16 \De\vananipri? Buhler* 

17 \iii\chaih cha Biihler. 18 °pamniya Buhler. 

20 \Nabhd\k* [Na]bfia° Buhler. 21 Amdha- Buhler. 

23 no Buhler. 23 Devanamfri* Buhler, 34 -vutam Buhler. ED °[samtt\ Buhler, 

20 Buhler omitted this word. » Buhler omitted cha. 28 dhrama^ Buhler. 

29 nava Buhler. 30 savra Biihler. 31 Biihler omitted ka. 

32 \s\rama- Buhler. 33 [/ l2 'da]lo 0 Buhler. 

M 2 



84 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

1 4 T 

k * 

13: (A) [i]yam dhrama-dipi Be[ya]oapriyena Fri[ya] 1 . r [jina Hkhapita] 

F 

i " + 

14 [likhite: likha]pe[5a]mi che[va] ni . . 2 (D) [asti chu a]tra puna puna la[pite] tasa 
ta[sa] a[thra]sa [madhu]riyaye [ye]na jane ta[tha] patipaje[ya]ti (E) se [si]ya 
atra ki[chhi] ...... [t]i likhi[t .] va [samkha]ya ...... 

■ 

V. THE DHAULI ROCK 

■ 

FIRST ROCK-EDICT : DHAULI 

T 

1 (a) * * * * * fir ^?fftr "^iT#foF * * * * * * *n Tvtfkm 

2 .(c) sfl fi? ^ *tot% * * * * wrw * ^ * * * (e) * * * * 

— ffRt s*n*tT mwim * * 

3 fiflRffc% c5lf5T% (F) ***** * ********** fip| * * * * fa 

^ (G)^^^T^VT^^%Tmf?f wwfa* 

•i 

1 (A) [si 3 pava]tasi :[D]G[v]a[na]mp[iy] s ♦ . . . [na lajina l]i[kha] 

[T]vam alabhitu pajo[h] ....... ^ 

2 (C) [no pi cha sam]a[je] [sama]ja . . [d] (E) .... [pi 

* chix] .... {t]i[y]a [sam]a[ja] s[a]dhu-mata Dev ......... 

3 [Fiyadasine la]i[ine] (P) [mah] ... v. , Piy[a] . . . [n]i 

[p]ana-[sa]ta [a]labhiyisu supathay[e] 

4 (G-) se a[ja] ada [iyam dha]m[ma]4ipl likhita tim . . . . [ala]bh[iy] 

[tjimni pSnani pachha n[o]"al[am]bhiyisa[m]t[i] 4 

SECOND ROCK-EDICT: DHAULI 

i 

j - -* .■ r . . 

i (a) ma falWa ^rRfipffi fera^feft • * '* * • * ott 

_ > . , . . , 

fmtt ^Iwc^ni 

.... m ^ ^^^^ (B) .... 



1 Of this edict Buhler has read only the two words \Devanmnpriyena PHyadrmind\ ; see 
ZDMG, 44. 704. ... 

2 The actual reading was perhaps nikam, which would correspond to nikyam at KalsT. 

3 The name of the hill on which the Dhauli record was engraved is lost. It cannot have been 
Khepivigala as believed (and traced on his plate IX) by Cunningham, because this was the original 
name of the Jaugada rock ; see the Jaugada edict I, A.. 

4 atablti 0 Senart, alabhf Buhler. 



THIRTEENTH AND FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICTS: MANSEHRA 




Scale One-seventh 



Page 84 



SECOND ROCK-EDICT : DHAULI 85 

xifir^tnT^ • — h 



1 (A) [sa]vata [v]i[ji]tasi [D]e[v]anampiyasa Piyadasi[ne 1] . . . . [atha] 

[tfjiyoke nama Yo[na]-laja 

2 [e] va [p]i [ta]sa Amtiyo[kaJsa samamta Jajane savat[a D]eva[naaiip]i[ye]na 

P[i]yadasi[na] [s]a cha p[asu-ch]i[k]is[a] cha (B) dhani 

3 an[i m]u[nisopa]gani pasu-opagan[i] cha atata na[thi savata ha]lapit[a] cha [lo]pap[i]ta 

[cha] (C) miip] -. v [ a ] fc [a] lialapita [cha] 

4 lo[p]apita cha (D) ma[g]e[su udujpanani khanapitani lukhani cha lopa[p]itani 

p[a]tibhogaye . . [na]m 



r 



THIRD ROCK-EDICT: DHAULI 

p 

1 (A) ^IRfift fira^ft HT5tT iH w?t (b) pT^m^nfiTftmTi $ s?i 

<WMwfa * ' (O) TT f^f%wfe $ $m TTpi 

vHyuMi (d) m% inrnf^fng ^jst h 

(e) uftwT ft 1 ^ v • • ^tttRt ^ w fiwfif ^ ^ 
tost * 

1 (A) Devanampiye Fiyadasi laja hevam aha (B) duvadasa-vasabhisitena me 

iy[a]rh anap[ay]i 1 . . (C) . . . . [ta v]i[j]it[a]si m[e] yut[a] la[j]uik]e 

2 pamchasu paihchasu vasesu anusayanath nikhamavu atha arimaye pi [ka]m[ma]ne 

hevam ima[y]e [dham]manus[atH]iy[e] (D) [s]adh[u] mat[a]-p[i]t[i]su su[s]us[S 

3 natisu cha bambhana-samanehi sadhu dane jivesu analambhe sadhu apa-viy[a]t[a] 2 

apa-bh[aih]data sadhu (E) p[a]lisa pi cha , . . . [nas]i y[u]t[an]i a[na]p[ay]is[a]ti 
[he]tut[e] ch[a] vi[yamja] ...... 

- 

. FOURTH ROCK-EDICT: DHAULI 

... „ 

Hififg ^ratrfzq^r ^ra^Rin^ ^wMfeqf?r 



dnapa . # Buhler. 2 apaviyati Senart and Biihier. 



86 



THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



3 o|tJTfH ^Bfaif gftsntf (C) mf& |fT^% Hlf^* 

^RTfffT fM^^ T ^j%3T (D) im ^R 

6 xr^gftrafir ^ m^i *ftc*ftr ^ *W 

si^riftrcrft (g) us ft ^ *it tfrri^tntRT (h) m*kt<*h 

7 wt fifw ssrtffawc (i) $ ^rs ^res ^ 3r<tf?r ^ *n*£(j) u?rre swnft 

8 (k) majfa *stfkfm% ^Rftnrc? ftrasfa* TnfsR ^ ^ fryM 

h 

* \ 

1 * 

1 (A) atikarhtarh amtalam bahuni vasa-satani vadhite va pana[la]rhbhe vihisa cha 

bhutanam natisu asampatipati samana-babha[ne]su asampatipati 

2 (B) se aja Devanampiyasa Piyadasine lajine dhamma-chalanena bheli-ghosam 

a[h]o dhamma-[gho]sam vimana-dasanarh hathini [a]gi-kamdhani amnani cha 
[di]vi[y]ani 

3 lupan[i] dasayitu munisanam (C) ad[i]se b[a]huhi vasa-sa[t]ehi no hiita-puluve tadise 

aja va[dhite De]vanampiyasa Piy[a]dasine lajin[e] dliam[m]anus[a]thi[y]a 

4 an[ala]mbhe pananam avihisa bhutanam natisu sarhpatipat[i sama]na-b[a]bhanesu 1 

sampatipati m[a]t[i]-pitu-sususa vu[clha]-sususa (D) esa arime cha ba[h]uvidhe 

5 dh[a]mma-chalane vadhite (E) vadhayis[a]ti cheva Pevanampiye Piyada[s]I l[a]ja 

dhamma-chalanarh imam (P) puta pi chu 3 nati [panati] . . 3 [cha] Devanam- 
piyasa Piyadasine lajine 

6 pavadhayisarhti yeva dhamma-chalanarh imam a-k[a]pam dhaihmasi [s]llasi ch[a 

ch]i[th]ttu [dharhmam a]nus[a]sisam[t]i (G) esa h[fj se[the kam]me ya 
dhammanusasana (H) dhariima-chalane pi chu 

7 no hoti asilasa (I) se imasa athasa v[a]^hl * ahini ch[a] sa[dhu] B (J) et[ay]e [athay]e 

iyam likhite Imasa athasa vaqihi yujamtu him cha ma alochayisu B 

8 (K) duvadasa vasani abhisitasa Devanampi[ya]sa Piyadasine lajine yam 7 [idha] 

likhite 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT: DHAULI 



i (a) ^nqftft fiFR&t (b) (c) * ; 

-mrm % ^kg ^wf?r (b) % ^ mm ^ (e) it ^ ^ ^ 



1 -bambkanesu Buhler* 

3 The Kalsi version reads patidtikya. 



yisu Senart and Buhler. 



a cha Senart ^nd Buhler. 

4 vudhi Buhler- 6 sadhn Senart and Buhler. 
. 7 Read perhaps iyam. 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT: DHAULI 87 

(p) u la -Sr g wEwfir % ^ss *ssfir (©) ft 

3 (H) % ufiNtf ^rlc* |r!^c^T WHlTWrlT *m (I) * 

^^^Tfvrf^r *r vwTifT^THT ?n*f tot (J) ^ *R*Jwilg 

W ^RH^ff ^ H^jfiw M^^fffH GraPKT ^ W^TOTffT (0) 
^RT^ TOP* 

1 (A) [Dev]anampiyeNPiyadasi laja h[eva]rh alia (B) kayane dukale (C) 

k[a]y[a]n[a]sa s[e] dukalam kal[e]ti {D) se me b[ah]uke kayane kate (E) tarn ye 
me [p]ut[a] va 

2 n[a]t[T 1 va] .,,.111 cha t[e]na ye apatiye me ava-kapam tatha anuvatisamti s[e] 

sukatam kachh[arh]ti' (P) e heta d[esa]m pi hapayisatp] se dnkatarh kachhati (Gr) 
pa[p]e hijnama] 

3 supadalaye (H) s[e] at[ikam]tam amtalam no huta-puluva dharhma-mahamata nama 

(I) se tedasa-va[sa]bhisitena me dhaihma-mahamata nama kata (J) te 
sava-pasamde[su] 

4 v[i]y[apata] dhammadhithan[a]ye dh am ma-[va]dhiy e hita-sukhaye [cha] dhamma- 

yutas[a] Yona-Kamboeha-Gamdhalesu Lattaka-[P]itenikesu e va pi arhne 
apalarhta 5 * (K) bhati[mayesu] 

5 babha[n]i bh i[y es]u anathesu ma[hala]kesu cha h[i]t[a]-sukhaye dhamma-yutaye 

a[pa]libodhaye viya[pa]ta se 3 (L) bamdhana-[ba]dhas[a] p[a]ti[vidhana]ye 
apaIib[o]dhaye mokhaye cha ■ _ 
G iya[rh] anubamdh[a] p[aj]a 4 [t]i [va ka]tabhika[Ie] ti va mahalake ti va viyapata 
se (M) hida cha bahilesu cha nagalesu savesu s[a]vesu olodhanes[u me] e va pi 
bhat[I]naih 5 me bhagimnam va 

1 na£[t] Buhler. 2 apalathta Buhler, 

3 Here, and at the end of section L, Franke (VOJ, 9. 349 1) joins viyapatase into one word, 
and takes it as an equivalent of the Vedic nominative plural in -asafu In the pillar-edict VII, 
Y (twice) and CC, viyapatase actually occurs. But, as pointed out by Michelson (AJP, 33. 44a Q t 
the case may after all be different at Dhauli, because the other versions have te in the place of se, 

4 p&\j&\ Buhler. 6 bhatinam Buhler. 



88 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

* 

7 amnesu va [nat]i[su sava]t[a] v[i]yapata (N) e iyaih dhaihm[a-n]isite ti va 

dha rhmadhi thane ti va dana-sayute va sava-puthaviyam dha[m]ma-yutasi 
viyapata ime dhamma-maham[a]ta (O) [i]ni[a]ye athaye 

8 iyaih dhamma-lip[l] li[kh]i[ta] chila-thitik[a ho]m t[atha] cha me pa[ja anujvatatu 



1 



SIXTH ROCK-EDICT : DHAULI 



• * ♦ * 




(a) ^imTW fwqft m& (b) &fma ^mtis ?ft faTp§% 

^n* w***} ^ Tife^fn (g) % mm ^ (d) wi *5\7% 

3R*T 313 trft%^T|J % fH (E) ^rf ^ ^ Sfi^frf ^ 
^Tft* ^n*tft& ftfw Hfa ^ ft*^ f^rft 

4 ^n^mftrt * fir «4 ^ (g) ^ * sr^tH) 

ft % Ht% Sdrefa ^HftoRFI ^ (I) TOfWlW ft 3 3" 4 tj Hft ii 

s (j) m ^ to ^ im ^31% ^ tobi^oJtt ^ (k) ?rfa ft * * 

I fa 

6 ft^ ^ ^rf^r $wfk tow ^pt sirtMw fa (m) tim^ srcrc 

« 

7 *Hc*faftHTC (N) i ^ 3R?T spfcr uw^ifc? 

1 (A) Dev[anamp]iye Pi[yada]si laja [he]vaih [a]ha (B) atikam[tam a]rii[ta]lam no 

[h]u[ta]-puluve s[a]varh kalam atha-ka[m]me va [pa]tiveda[n]a va (C) se mamaya 
kate (D) sa[va]m [kalam] . . , , [mana]sa 1 me 

2 amte olodh[a]nasi ga[bha]g[ala]si v[achas]i [vjinitasi [u]y[a]n[asi cha sa]vata 

pativedaka janasa atham [pa]tived[a]yarhtu m[e] ti (E) sava[ta] ch[a] j[a]nasa 
atham kalami h[aka]m 

3 (F) am pi cha ki[m]chhi mukh[a]te anapay[a]mi dapakaifr v[a sa]v[a]kaih va e va 

maham[ateh]i atiyayike alopite hotj tasi athasi v[i>ade va [n]ijhati va samtam 
palisaya 2 

4 ana[m]taliyam pati[ve]detav[i]y[e] me ti savata savam kalam (Gr) heva[m] me 

anusathe (H) nath[i hi m]e [tosje u[thana]si atha-samtilanaya cha (I) kataviya- 
m[at]e hi me sava-loka-hite 

1 \pit\nasa Buhler. 2 palisaya Buhler; 



DHAULI ROCK ; MIDDLE COLUMN 



Page 88 




Scale One-seventh 



SIXTH ROCK-EDICT: DHAULI . 89 

5 (J) tasa cha pana iyam mule [u]than[e cha a]tha-sarhtll[a]n[a] cha (K) nathi hi 

kammata . . [sa]va-lo[ka}hitena (L) [am] ch[a kichhi] p[a]lakamami hakam 
kimti bhutanam a[na]riiyam yeha[ih] ti 

6 [h]i[da] cha [k]an[i] sukhayami pal[a]ta cha svag£arh al]adhayamtu ti (M) et[a]y[e 

athaye i]yarh dhamma-Iipi likhita ch[i]la-th[i]tika hotu ta[th]a cha puta papota 
me palakama[m]t[u] 1 

7 [sava-loka]-hitaye (N) dukale chu iyam amnatja] a[g]en[a pa]lakamena 

SEVENTH ROCK- EDICT: DHAULI 

2 ^^^T ^I^MTO (D) ^ ^ "STT H^T ^fr! (B) ftrj% ft 

*ra *rfa srcil uragtii ^ ^ ^rra 

1 (A) [D]evanam[p]iye Piy[a]dasl laja savata ichhat[i sava-p]asam[da va]sevQ ti (B) 

save hp] t[e sa]yamath [bh]av[a]-sudhl cha ichhamti (C) mun[i]sa ch[a] 

2 [u]ch[a]v[u]cha-[chha]ih[d]a uchavucha-laga (D) te savam va ek[a]-de[sam va 

kachham]ti (E) vipul[e] pi cha 8 dane asa njathi sa]yame [bh]ava-sudhl cha 
niche badham 

- EIGHTH ROCK-EDICT: DHAULI 

1 (a.) ^ffNiit ^w<* Twmn ft?ra*ffif *rra ftr^g (b) * ■• n fuiftw 

OTTft ^ ijftsrrft 3tfa<*rorft pfa H (C) % ^T^ftR 

2 fira^t cjisn ^FWTTfafa^ ft^wfa #sftfa (d) Stanr «n (e) ifta 

3 I^HqfcPf qft ^ 3TT?TC3B 3FW ^ ^ TOnppft ^ 

^ T^rar Cp) ian §q ^rftfTtfl ftft^iHfora ft*i^fs$ <*nft% 

1 (A) [atika]m[ta]m amt[ala]m laj[a]n[e] v[i]h[a]la-yatarh nama [n]i[kha]m[i]s[u] (B) 

. . [ta miga]viy[a] a[rh]nani ch[a] edisani a[bh]i[l]amani huvarhti Bath . (C) se 
Devanampiye 

2 P[i]y[a]dasi laja d[a]sa^[vas]abhisi[t]e [n]ikhami Sambodh[i] 8 . (D) [t]e[na]ta 

dha[mma-yata] (E) [tat]esa [ho]ti samana-babhananam d[a]s[a]n[e] ch[a] d[ane] 
cha v[u]dhanam dasane cha 



1 **matu Senart s °maihtti Buhler. 

2 cha Buhler ; the reading chu is also possible, but less probable, because the Jaugada version 
has cha. 

3 saihbodM Buhler, 

uu N 



90 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

— 

3 h[i]lathna-p[a]tividha{ne 1 cha jana]padasa janasa [dasa]ne cha dhammanu[sath]i 

[cha] ... [p]u[chh]a cha [ta]d[o]paya (F) e[sa bhuy]e 2 abhilame hoti 

Devanampiyasa Fiyada[s]ine lajine bhage [aih]ne 

NINTH ROCK- EDICT: DHAULI 

1 (a) ^n?ift$ fta^ft <vm ti ^iit (b) ssfit ^rfsi 4ro 

^rfn m^tw * V **3hns** **f^*Rroft 

2 uht^ ^faft ^ 3r% ^ *m<* (c) ^ ^ ^ 

3 (D) % ^Sf%% ^ft (E) OT^^f *§t j[ft§ *PT' ■ <F) 

^ ^ ii (g) mta ^ww^fa Hwn^qfrr 

4 sjpjfi * * * * * $ OT^FTCR ^ ^ ' * * * * * 

v*n*n& *rra (h) % ^rft^ ftfrRT fa ^ ft mf?RT ft 

5 §3nfa%7 ft * *' * '* * * ^ rm fintffraT (i) mfa ^ |3 

^ ^ ft (J) %*if*i 
g ^nfs% *m^R vHT^if * * (k) • * * ■* fit/ • ft%?r^^r 
ft ft*ita% ****** f* tifi? tr^i^ft ?E?r * * * * v 

7 * * * * cFraft?!^ J(L) •♦♦**♦**♦♦ ♦ • • ^r^f 

- 

1 (A) Devanaiiipiye Fiyadasi laja hevam aha (B) [athi ja]ne uchavucham mamgalam 

kal[e]tl [ab]adha 3 . . . . . ,■, ... [v]l[vaha] .... [ju]padaye* pavas[a]si 

2 etaye aihnaye ch[a] hedisaye j[a]n[e] bahukam mamgalam k[a] • . . . (O) , . . . 

[chu] 6 khi b[ahuka]rh cha [ba]hu[v]idh[aih] ch[a kh]ud[am 0 cha nilathi^arh cha 
mamgalam kaleti * 

3 (D) se . kat[a]viye che[va kh]o m[a]riigale (E) [a]pa-phale chu kho esa h[e]dise 

mam[ga] ..(F).. [ya]m [ch]u 7 kho mah[a]-ph[a]le e [dha]mma-marhgale (G) 
[ta]te[sa d]a[sa-bhafakas]i sammya-patipat[i] 

* [gulu]narh a[pa] [me] s am ana-b abh an [a] n am dane esa amne ch[a] 

...... [dhamma]-maihga[le nama] (H) [se] s vata[viye p]it[ina pi pute]na 

pi bhatina pi 

5 suvamike[na p]i . [l]e [a]va tasa athas[a] niphatiy[a] (I) [a]thi [cha * 

hevajrh v[u]te dane s[a]dh[u"] ti (J) [s]e [na]thi . . . [anu]ga[h]e v[a] 

6 [ad]i[se dha]mma-dane dhaih[manugahe] 10 . . (K) ..... . [mji [t]i[k]ena 

sahaye[na p]i viyovadita 11 ,\ i [tasi] pak[alana]si [iya]m . 

7 , [l]adhayitave (L) * . * t a [ v ] • * • [svagasa] al[adh]i 

1 hilmhna- Senart and Buhler; -pafi° looks like -peti° f and may be meant for -prat?* 
3 esa bhuye Buhler. For the nom. sing, masc, esa see above, p, i$ t n. 7* 
3 abddlie Senart and Buhler. 4 \J\opadaye Buhler. 6 \etd\ tu Buhler. 

0 khudaikani\ Buhler. 7 \chd\ Buhler, 8 ffi Senart, [ta] Buhler. Q pa Senart^[(] Buhler. 
10 dhammanu 0 Senart and Biihler* 11 Restore viyovaditaviye. 



TENTH ROCK- EDICT : DHAULI 

1 (a) ^Ffftra fq*r^t <trm fait m n ? w# 

2 ^S{J ^ tin * * • * • * * * % (B) TJfRTR ^St^.9tii 

X f" M^chHfrf "^rctfft WffT^ft * * 

3 f%fa ^imfewS pTT "fir (d) xiftre •*•*•**♦•♦ (e) ^kSp 

a sfr *^^? 'trfofifftg 

■ - 

1 (A) [Devanaahjpiye Piyad[a]s[i laja yaso v]a [k]itf va n [ha]m 

mamn[ate] . . . i [yaso] va k[it]i [v]a ichhati tadatvaye [a] . 

Qa]ne 

2 ....... [susa]rii [susu]s[at]u [m]e dhamma . , [me] (B) etakaye [yaso va 

kit! v]a i i [pa]lakama[t]i Devanampiye pal[atik]a[y]e . t 

3 kimti saka[le apa-pal]isave [hu]v[eya t]i (D) pa[l]isa . . (E) [du]ka[le] 

t[a agena] [na sa]vam cha paliti[j]i[tu] 

4 khudakena v[a] usatena va (F) u[satena] chu [dukalatale] 

■ + ■ t 

FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICT : DHAULI 

1 (a) ^4 ^nfeit ^n=ifwT ftra^ftnn wfau f&wi 

2 (c) it f-Jnft*^ ^ ftjM fafaftq * 4 4 • (D) ^rfa 

3 ^ ITO 

1 (A) iyam dhamma-lipl D e[v]anampiy ena Piyada[sin]a laj[in5r likha] . 

athi majjhimena] [h]i save sav[a]ta ghatite 

2 (C) mahamte hi vijaye bahu[k]e qha likhite likhiyis 1 ... . . . . . (D) [a]thi 

[vu]teta[sa] [y]ay[e] 

3 [k]imti cha j[a]ne tatha patipajeya ti 3 (E) e pi chu heta asamati likhit[e s] 3 * 

sam . . [lochay]itu . k[a]l[a] [t]i 

AT THE END OF THE SIXTH DHAULI ROCK- EDICT . 

■ 

- , set0 

1 Restore UkhiyisamL 2 Or pdtipajeydti may be one word, as suggested above, p. yi, n. 14. 
3 sam Senart and Biihler. 

N 2 



92 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

TRANSLATION 

The white one. 1 

i 

FIRST SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT: DHAULI 

i ■ « 

3 pr<^ ^ Wc^h? (c) tot ^ ^ $m*m ^ir% ^aft 

5 l|ft% TJ5fT T?HT (F) ^WT qiTT^ SjSjfa ' $V f%FiT SRI ftri^^H 

7 5p to (h) %at g^fo fi • ? * • ?ni% ioT % ft *t *N d) 

8 ^ftftHT ft (J) ftftaf TJSRgfty^ ft sjft Tf ^fPTf^^T 

tn^nlH (k) wa ©ft 

u ft^ftR^ ijoRra TOi^fim Wfjfa^r ftc**^ (isr) % ^jferft^ 

12 srim nY |^ w ft (o) inw *ror ^ =sRT^?ft ^htrt ^ 

(P) ftfrR H ftc^ ftRT 

■v 

13 ?r ft *h fen fire <j ^forW thtWi (a) it ^ pra 

15 ^OTft ^nfaftqft (s) ftqf^HT^wl^ ft Hif lft ^FWt ^R*ft 
7JT*lfi*ft 



1 As stated by Biihler (ZDMG, 39. 490}, this word refers to the figure of an elephant 
representing the Buddha, which is carved at the top of the Dhauli rock. Cf. the similar labels 
at Gimar and KalsT, above, pp. 26 f. and 50. 



FIRST SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT: DHAULI .93 

* ♦ 

17 w?n*rftsro *ro ^ fRfW (v) ^ ffcft .firthwita tftoHuiT 

18 (W) ^KHT fxi ^ fwfcl ^Rft ft #Hft*T (X) |3 ^ 

L 

19 tftrfctn^ftrR (Y) Urfft 3TCT$ 3?T %ft ftyftif ft^ W 

21 OTH^JT *T%fti&% ^ % ftWT ffT (Z) ItrTR <3r7I$ ^ *ft 

^3- 

****** TRP^II 

23 ^pjfir to sigsnft fir (aa) s%ft% ft ^ nm^ ^ ^ra# 

24 *r ^ ^rftwrft^ffi ftft wfW (BB) 1^1 iflslftc^ 
ft (co) 35<5T on 

26 if ft iTflrr Hift^ 3rg«*ft ft 

1 (A) [Devana]m[pi]y[asa vacha]nena Tosaliyaiii ma[ha]mata [naga]la- 

[v]i[yo]halak[a] 

2 [va]taviya (B) [am kichhi dakhajmi hakam tarn ichhami k[i]m[t]i kaih[mana 

pa]ti[paday]eham 1 

3 duvalate cha alabhehaih (C) esa cha me mokhya-mata duva[la etasi atha]si am 

tuph[esu] • 

4 anusathi (D) tuphe hi bahusu pana-sahasesum 3 a[yata] 3 p[a]na[yam ga]chh[e]ma 

su munisanaih (E) save 

5 munise paja mama (P) ath[a] pajaye ichhami h[a]ka[m kimti sa]ve[na hi]ta-sukhena 

hidalo[kika}- 

6 palalokike[na] 4 y[ujev]o [t]i [tatha * muni]sesu 6 pi [i]chhami [ha]ka[m] (G) no 

- . 

cha papunatha av[a]-ga- 

7 [m]u[k]e fi [iyam athe] (H) [k]e[chha] v[a] eka-puli[se] .... nati 7 e[ta]m se pi 

desaih no savam (I) de[kha]t[a hi t]u[phe] etam 

8 suvi[hi]ta pi (J) [n]itiyam 8 eka-pulise [pi athi] y[e] bamdhanam va p[a]likilesarh va 

papunati (K) tata hbti 



1 pativeda° Senart and Buhler. 
\ ayata Senart and Buhler. 
5 Restore sava-munisesu* 
7 Read papunati, as at Jaugada, 



2 *sesu Senart and Biihler- 
4 °lokikaye Senart and Buhler. 
0 ava-gamake Senart and Buhler. 
* niti iyam Senart and Buhler. 



94 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

,9 akasma tena badhana[ih]tik[a] 1 amne cha ■„.... hu jane da[v]iye dukhlyati (L) 
tata ichhitaviye . 

10 tuphehi kiihti m[a]jhaih patipadayema ti (HE) imeh[i] chu [jateh]i no sampatipajati 
*F-v isaya asulopena ; 

11 ni[thu]liyena 8 tulana[ya] anavutiya alasiyena k[i]Iamathena (N) se ichhitaviye 

kitim 3 ete 

12 [jata no] huvevu nia[m]a ti (O) etasa cha sava[sa] mule anasulope a[tu]l[a]na cha 
I , "v." (3P). niti[ya]ih e kilamte siya ; .* ; ;■/ ( ) . 

13 [na] te uga[chha] 4 samchalitaviy[e] tu va[t]ita[v]iy[e] etaviye va (Q) hevariimeva e 

<k[kheya] fi t[u]phak[a] tena vataviye 4 . 

14 anamne* dekhata hevam cha hev[a]rh cha [Djevanariipiyasa anusathi (R) se 

mah[a-pha]Ie [e] t[a]sa [saihpa]tipada 

15 maha-apaye asampatipati (S) [vi]pat[i]padayamlne hi 7 etam nathi svagasa [a]I[a]dhi 
- ; " no laj[a]la[dh]i 

16 (T) dua[ha]le hi i[ma]sa kamm[asa] m[e] kute man[o]-atileke 8 (U) sa[m]pati- 
1 ; pajam[i]n[e] chu [etam] svagja[m] ■- , ■■ ■ \ ■ .■/'.. 

17 aladha[yi]sa[tha mama cha 9 a]naniyam ehatha (V) iyam cha l[i]p[i] 10 tfilsa- 

na[kha]tena so[ta]viy[a] 11 
18. (TO) amta[l]a [p]i cha [t]i[s]e[na 12 kha]nasi kha[nas]i ekena pi sotaviya (X) hevaril 
cha kalamtam tuphe " * - - '■- 

19 chaghatha saihpa[ti]pad[a]y[i]taye (T) [e]t[a]ye athaye 1 * iya[m l]i[p]i Iikhit[a 
? h]idaena 'J 'V" r "' . " " ' 

20 nagala-vi[y]o[ha]Iaka sas[v]atam samayam yujevu 14 t[i] ....... [na]sa 15 akasma 

[pa]libodhe va 

21 [a]k[a]sma palikiQ]e[s]e va no siya ti (Z) etaye cha athaye haka[m] .... mate 16 
: p[a]mchasu parhchasu [ya]se- 

22 su [n]i[kha]may[i]sami e akhakhase a[chaih]d[e] s[a]khinalambhe hosati etath 

. atham janitu ..... . [ta]tha 

28 kala[m]ti atha mama anusathi ti (AA) Ujenite pi chu kumale etaye v[a] athaye 
. [ni]khama[yisa] : v . ? > . , 

24 hedisameva 17 vagam no cha atikamayisati timni vasam (BB) hemeva T[a]kha[s]Uat6 

pi (CC) [a]da a . . .... 

25 te mahamata nikhamisamti anusayanarh tada ahapayitu atane kammam etam, pi 
. '. janisamti • ...... ^ 

26 tarn pi ta[th]a kalaihti a[tha] lajine anusathi ti 

■ ; ' * 

^ ■ . d : I * " •■.•-■■». ' .- * - « * ^ - » 1 

' s bamdha 0 Senart and Buhler. ' * nithfd? Senart and Buhler. ' ; 

a Read kiihti, which is Senart's reading; hiti Buhler. 

4 Read ugachhe* - * ■ ^ ddkhiye Senart and Buhler. * amnmh ne Senart and Buhler. 

7 Luders (SPAW, 1913. 1013, n. 1) has shown that hi must be a separate word on the analogy 
oT seption U, belowj and of the Jaugada separate edict 1^ T, Senart and Buhler read °mlneku 

8 manor- Senart, mane- Buhler. 9 t ..... for mama cha Senart, \ta\ . . . > Buhler. 
10 lip Biihler. 11 °viyam Senart, °viya Buhler. 

12 Buhler. 18 athaye Senart and Buhler, 14 yujevii Senart and Buhler. 

15 Restore ena Janasa; nagala-janasa Senart and Buhler, which is visible (evidently owing to 
retouching) on Burgess' plate, but not on my materials. 
io Read mahamatam ; dhammate Senart and Buhler. 
V hedisammeva Senart and Buhler. . . J 



. 1 * 



DHAULI ROCK; LEFT COLUMN 



Page 94 




Scale One-seventh 



FIRST SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT : DHAULI 95 

L ■ 

TRANSLATION 

■ 

(A) At the word of Devanampriya, the Mahamatras at TosaJi, 1 (who are) the 
judicial officers of the city, 2 have to be told (thus). 

(B) Whatever I recognize (to be right), that I strive to carry out by deeds, and to 
accomplish by (various) means. 3 

(C) And this is considered by me the principal means for this object, viz. (to give) 
instruction to you. 

(D) For you are occupied with many thousands of men, 4 with the object of gaining 
the affection of men. 6 

(E) All men are my children. 

(F) As on behalf of (my own) children I desire that they may be provided with 
complete welfare and happiness in this world and in the other world, the same I desire 

i * ■ 

also on behalf of [all] men. 0 

(G) And you do not learn ? how far this (my) object reaches. 8 

(H) Some single person 9 only learns this, (and) even he (only) a portion, 10 (but) not 
the whole. 

(I) Now you must pay attention to this, although you are well provided for, 11 



1 Two copper-plate inscriptions from the Cuttack district, Orissa, mention the two districts of 
Northern and Southern Tosall ; see EI, 9. 386, and 15. 1. Prinsep (JASB, 7, 449) identified Tosali 
with the Tcao-aXel priTpfaohi? of Ptolemy ; but the latter is stated to have been situated beyond the 
Ganges, See Lassen, Ind- Alt^ % (sea ed-). 353, n, %\ Burnouf, Loms^ p. 673; Kern, JRAS, 1880. 
384 f. ; IA> 13. 382. 

2 With nagala-viyohdldka cL paurarvydva/iarika in the KautiUya^ p. so, 1- 13; see SPAW S 
1914. 855. 

3 The correct translation of this section is due to Senart ; see Franke, GN/1895. 537, and cf. 
a quite similar construction in the Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription, E. 

* Here, and in the pillar-edicts (IV, C 5 VII, M, N), the participle ayata (— Skt. ayatta) 
seems to be used in the sense of vydprita. Cf. the rock-edict V, J to N, and the pillar-edict VII, 
Y to AA. 

6 Previous translators took sttmunisdnam to be one word: c of good men'- As, however, in 
the two next sections the king is concerned with * all men \ Liiders is no doubt right in explaining 
su = Skt. svit\ see SPAW, 191 4. 856, and cf* su in the Dhauli separate edict II, F. 

6 Cf. Asvaghosha's BuddJiacharita, 11,35: ^n*5f! iraroft f? W cF|^ sNNwTO: fipwnnW; 
1 as for his own children, even so (king Suddhodana) desired welfare for all (his) subjects/ 

7 Buhler rendered fapunaiha by ' understand \ and Liiders (SPAW, 1914- 857) more closely by 
' learn *. The verb has the same meaning three times in the second separate edict. In section J of 
the first edict it means 1 to suffer 9 ; see my note on the Jaugada 'separate edict I, K. 

* Buhler translated ava-gamuhe iyam athe by 1 (all) that the sense (of these words) implies \ 
and Liiders by 'how far this matter reaches \ i.e. c how far this matter is attended to\ Cf. ova 
tie pi cha me avuti in the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict IV, 1. 15- . 

■ This seems to refer to the judge who happens to decide an individual case. Senart com- 
pared eka-ptdise (— eka-mimise at Jaugada) with the Buddhist term prithagjana (see Childers, s. v. 
puikujjano), and Buhler rendered it by c a private person 1 ; see ZDMG, 41. 15. The expression 
eka-ptdise or eka-??iunise s 'a single person*, occurs again in section J (= K at Jaugada), where it 
is opposed to 'many other people 1 in section K (= L at Jaugada). In section W 'a single 
(person) 1 is contrasted with the whole body of officers in section V ; see also the second separate 
edict, N and G. ; ! 

10 Cf. the rock-edict V, F, and Vlli D. . ^ See above, p. 47, n. 6. 



0 r THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

(J) It happens in the administration (of justice) 1 that a single person suffers either 
imprisonment or harsh treatment. 2 

(K) In this case (an order) cancelling the imprisonment 8 is (obtained) by him 4 
accidentally, while [many] other people continue to suffer. 

(L) In this case you must strive to deal (with all of them) impartially, 

(M) But one fails to act (thus) on account of the following dispositions : 5 envy, 
anger, 6 cruelty, hurry, want of practice, 7 laziness, (and) fatigue. 

(N) (You) must strive for this, that these dispositions may not arise to you. 

(O) And the root of all this is the absence of anger and the avoidance of hurry. 

(P) He who is fatigued in the administration (of justice), will not rise ; but one 
ought to move, to walk, and to advance, 

(Q) He who will pay attention to this, must tell you : 8 ' See that (you) discharge 
the debt (which you owe to the king); 0 such and such is the instruction of 
Bevanampriya/ 

(R) The observance of this produces great fruit, (but its) non-observance (becomes) 
a great evil. 10 

■ (S) For if one fails to observe this, 11 there will be neither attainment of heaven nor 
satisfaction of the king« ia 

(T) For how (could) my mind be pleased if one badly fulfils this duty ? 13 



1 As recognized by Luders (SPAW, 1914: 859), mil is here » danda-mtu I connect the 
locative nltydm with asti ; at Jaugada it is replaced by bahuka, 1 frequently *. 

2 Biihler translated palikilesa by 'trouble', Senart and Liiders (SPAW, 1914. 841, n. 1, and 
857) render it by 'torture'. But in the Kautiliya the technical term for 'torture 1 is karman, and 
pariklesayatahy which occurs on p. 333, 1. 16, cannot have the same meaning as karma kdrayatah in 
the next preceding line. 

3 The correct explanation of ba\jii*]dkanamtika and daviye is due to Luders; see SPAW, 
19 14. 861 f. 

4 As stated by Biihler (ZDMG, 41. i6) # one would expect tasa for tena. He proposed to 
supply praptam* 

5 As Senart remarks, this unusual meaning of jatani is justified by etymology ; see IA, 
19* 89, 

G For asitlopci) c anger J (literally : * quick infatuation'), see Biihler, ZDMG, 48. 60 f, 

7 With Biihler (ZDMG, 41. 16) I take avMi (Dhauli) or atmti- (Jaugada) = Skt avriiti, 
* repetition \ In the pillar-edict IV, L, dvuti corresponds to Skt. ayukti, '* an order 1 . 

8 Hitherto the construction and bearing of this sentence have been misunderstood. The relative 
e corresponds to the demonstrative tena, and the subject is probably one of the controlling officers 
who are mentioned at the end of the edict. 

9 Cf. below, section U. Previous translators failed to make out the actual meaning of this 
sentence because they read aihnamne 9 which thfey divided into aihnam ne *= Skt. ajiidm nah (Senart 
and Biihler) or anyat+naJt (Luders). 

10 Both at Dhauli and at Jaugada, the predicate is a masculine or neuter, although the subject 
is a feminine. Cf- above, p- 49, n. i. ' 

u As vipatipddayamlne corresponds to vipatipdtayamtam at, Jaugada, it must be a nominative 
singular absolute. The same applies to sampatipajamine in section U, below, to anuvekhamane \n 
the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, P, and to vijinamane in the Kalsi edict XIII, E. Cf* below, p; 97, 
n. 3, and Luders, SPAW, 1913. 1011 ft 

i 

12 For aladhi (~ *araddhi) see above, p. 19, 16. 

13 In the translation of this difficult passage I follow Franke, GN, 1895. 537 f (| but explain 
dadhale as a nominative absolute, because in the Magadha dialect the locative would end in -asi* 



FIRST SEPARATE ROCK- EDICT: DHAULI 97 

(U) But if (you) observe this, you will attain heaven, and you will discharge the 
debt (which you owe) to me* 1 

(V) And this edict must be listened to (by all) on (every day of) the constellation 




(W) And it may be listened to even by a single (person) also on frequent (other) 
occasions between (the days of) Tishya: 

(X) And if (you) act thus, 8 you will be able 4 to fulfil (this duty). 

(T) For the following purpose has this rescript been written here, (viz.) in order 
that the judicial officers of the city may strive at all times 5 (for this), [that] neither 
undeserved fettering 6 nor undeserved harsh treatment are happening to [men]. 

(Z) And for the following purpose I shall send out every five years 7 [a Mahamatra\ 
who will be neither harsh 8 nor fierce, (but) of gentle actions, (viz. in order to ascertain) 

whether (the judicial officers), 9 paying attention to this object, are acting thus, as 

my instruction (implies). 

(A A ) But from Ujjayini also the prince {governor) will send out for the same 

purpose a. person of the same description, 10 and he will not allow (more than) 

three years to pass (without such a deputation). 

(BB) In the same way (an officer will be deputed) from Takshasila also. 

(OC) When these Mahamatras will set out on tour, then, without neglecting 

their own duties, they will ascertain this as well, (viz.) whether (the judicial officers) 
are carrying out this also thus, as the instruction of the king (implies). 



SECOND SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT: DHAULI 

1 (a) ^mtfror dUifferi mrann ^ ^rafsra (b) ^ f^fe 



1 Cf. the Dhauli separate edict II, L, - • . 

2 i. e. three times per year ; see the Dhauli separate edict II, N. 

a The forms kalamtam (here arid in II, L and P), °patayamtam (Jaugada separate edict I, 
S and T), smhtam (II, Q, and pillar-edict IV, I), nasamiam (pillar-edict IV, M), arid ^pajamtam 
(Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, PP) are nominatives singular absolute. Cf* above, p. 35, n. 9, 

4 Franke (VOJ, 9- 340 ff.) has shown that chaghati is the future of ckak^ a variant of the root 
sah Cf. chakiye in the Dhauli separate edict II, L 5, in the Sahasram rock-inscription, I 3, and in 
the Bairat rock-inscription, 1. 5 ; also chakye, ibid.. 1.5. 

5 In the translation of sasvutam samayam I follow Kern (JRAS, 1880. 391) and Luders 

(SPAW, 1914- 864). 

c See above, p. 33, n. 8. . 7 Cf* the rock-edict III, C 

8 Cf* Dhammapada, verse 408 : 

akakkasam vinnapanim girarh sachcharh udlraye I 
yaya nabhisaje kanchi tarn aharh brumi brShmanarh II 

0 The context shows that these are meant here, and that the Mahamatras were directed by 
the king to control them \ see SPAW, 1914* 865 f. 

10 See above, p. 40, n. 3. 

1013 o 



98 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

■ 

4 (f) ftwi sierra ssfafsraR fara^ § t^r^ ^3 * ♦ (g) tm ^ 

h -^irafWi sarafan fw u: ^Nr ^t*m% *m /fsrftnr ^ ^ 

i 

HIT 

p 

_ L— . CPCX_. 

7 ^PTOT (I) % |^ 3i§ ^forTf^ S^TTO * * * * P ^ TTTfH 

3 STCT * W I^^Rf^ (J) % *3*rf*g fliRTO 

^ ^jHfM u^j (m) vjrS ^ srai^ "fofa f&fam ^ 
io tfmfa srsmRT^ ^^fJRT^i ^ ita-mra (n) ^ fofa ^g- 

^TpW fk«?T iTOTta Stflfw (O) m$ % WUfa ^ft ^TIHT 

ft fw^n^f fq 

1 (A) Devanampiyas[a] vachanena Tosaliyam kumale mahamata cha vataviya (B) 

am kichhi dakham[i] h[akam tarn i] 

■ i ■ 

2 duvalate cha alabheharh (0) esa cha me mokhya-mata duvala etasi athasi am 

tuphe[s]u mama 

3 (E) ath[a] pajaye ichhami hakarh ki[m]ti savena hi[ta-sukhe]na hidalokika- 

palalokikaye 1 yujevu ti h[e]v[aih] - * 

4 (F) siya amtanarh avijitanam ki-chha[ihde] su laja [aphesu] . . (G) m[a]va s 

ichha mama amtesu . • . i a [p]a[p]unevu te iti Devanamp[iy] 
[anu]v[i]g[ina] mamaye 

5 huvevii ti asvasevu cha sukhammeva lahevu mamat[e] no dukha[m] h[e]va[m] 



1 Read -palalohikena^ as in the first separate edict, F* 
% mave Buhler ; read perhaps hevameva. 
3 Restore kimtu 



SECOND SEPARATE ROCK -EDICT : DHAULI 99 

. . , un[e]vu l iti khamisati 2 ne Devanampiye [aph]aka 3 ti e chakiye 
khamitave mama nimitam [va] * cha dhathmarii chalevii 

6 hidaloka pa!aloka[m] cha aladhayevu (H) etasi athasi haka[ni] anusasami tuphe 

ana[n]e [e]takena hakaih anusasitu chharhdarh cha veditu a [hi] dhi[t]i patimna 
cha mama 

7 [a]jala (I) s[e] hevam katu karhme chal[i]t[a]v[i]ye asv[asa] i « [cha] tani 

ena papunevu iti atha pita tatha Devanampiy[e] aphaka atha cha atanarh 6 
hevam Devanampiye [a]nukarhpati aphe 

8 atha cha paja 7 hevam may[e] D[e]vanampiyasa (J) se hakarh anusasitu 

[chha]mda[m] ch[a veditu tu]phak[a] desavutike hosami etaye athaye 8 (K) 
patibala hi tuph[e] asvasanaye hita-sukhaye cha [tesa] 
,9 hidaIokika-paklo[ki]kaye (L) hevam cha kalarhtarh tuphe svagarh aladha[yi]satha 
mama ch[a] ananiyarh ehatha (M) etaye cha athaye iyarh lipi likhita hida e[na 
ma]hamata svasata[ih sajma 9 

10 yujisarhti as[va]s[a]naye dhamma-chak[ri]aye cha tes[a] arhtanam (HT) iyani cha lipi 

[anu]chatummasam tisena nakhatena sotaviya (O) kamam chu 10 [kha]nas[i] 11 
khanasi arhtala pi tisena . ekena [p]i ' 

11 [sojtaviya (P) hevam kala[m]tam [t]uphe chaghatha sampatipadayitave * 

r 

TRANSLATION 

(A) At the word of Devanampriya, the prince (governor) and the Mahamatras 
at Tosali have to be told (thus). 

(B) Whatever I recognize (to be right), that , and to accomplish by 

(various) means* 

(0) And this is considered by me the principal means for this object, viz. 
... * .to you, 

(D) .......... my 

(E) As on behalf of (my own) children I desire that they may be provided with 
complete welfare and happiness in this world and in the other world, thus . . 

(F) It might occur la to (my) unconquered borderers 13 (to ask) : 1 What does the 
king desire 14 with reference to us ? J 

(G) [This] alone is my wish with reference to the borderers, that they may learn 
that Devanaftpriya . . . . . f ... , that they may not be afraid of me, but may have 

■" ' ■ i ■ ■■ 1 .. 

w 

1 Restore papunevu. 2 The syllable sa is entered above the line. 

3 aphakam Senart and Buhler, 4 Senart and Buhler omit va. & Restore asvasaniyanu 
0 The syllable nam is entered above the line. 7 paja Buhler. 

8 athaye Senart and Buhler. & Read sasvatam samayanu 

10 cha Senart and Buhler. » The syllable si Is entered above the line. 

12 Liiders showed that siya is not the last word of section E, as previous translators thought, 
but opens section F f and is used in the same way as hutha in the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, D 
and J- He also poifited out the correct construction of sections F and G, which had been curiously 
misunderstood ; see SP AW, 1914. 866 ff. 

33 Cf. the Kalsi rock-edict II, A j V, J ; XIII, Q. 

¥ Kern (JR AS, 1880. 381) explained su by Skt. svit Qtgachhema m in the Dhauli separate 
edict I, D, and kinasu in the Delhi-Topni pillar-edict VII,, F f G, H, 

O 2 



ioo THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

4 

confidence (in me); that they may obtain only happiness from me/ not misery; that 
they may [learn] this, that Devanampriya -will forgive them S what can be forgiven ; 3 
that they may (be induced) by me (to) practise morality; (and) that they may attain 
(happiness in) this world and (in) the other world. ... 

(H) For the following purpose I am instructing you, (viz. that) I may discharge the 
debt (which I owe to them) 4 by this, that I instruct (you) and inform (you) of (my) 
will, L e> my unshakable 5 resolution and vow- 

(I) Therefore, acting thus, (you) must fulfil (your) duty and must inspire 
confidence to them, 6 in order that they may learn that Devanampriya is to them like 
a father, that Devanampriya loves them like himself, and that they are to 
Devanampriya like (his own) children. 

(J) Therefore, having instructed (you), and having informed you of (my) will, 
I shall have (i. e, entertain) officers in (all) provinces 7 for this object. - 

(K) For you are able to inspire confidence to those (borderers) and (to secure 
their) welfare and happiness in this world and in the other world. ■' 

(L) And if (you) act thus, you will attain heaven, and will discharge the debt 
(which you owe) to me. 

(M) And for the following purpose has this rescript been written here, (viz,) in order 
that the Mahamdtras may strive at all times to inspire confidence to those borderers 
(of mine) and (to induce them) to practise morality, 

(ST) And this rescript must be listened to (by all) every four months 8 on (the day 
of) the constellation Tishya. 9 

(O) But if desired, it may be listened to even by a single (person) xo also on frequent 
(other) occasions between (the days of) Tishya* ' 

(P) If (you) act thus, you will be able to carry out (my orders). 

.. ■ . " . , . 

1 — ~ ■ '■ i ■ . " u-™ 

1 Here and at Jaugada, Senart and Biihler wrongly read mama te (in two words) instead of 
mamaie, which, as Kem recognized, corresponds to the Prakrit ablative mamatto. See JRAS, 
1880. 380, 38a, 383 ; SPAW, 1914. 868 ; Pischel's Grammatik, § 415 f. V " . 

2 As Biihler (ASSI, 1. 128, n. 24) remarked, either m or aphakd is superfluous, 
8 Cf. the Shahbazgarhi rock-edict XIII, L. For chakiye see above, p. 97, n. 4. 

4 Cf. the rock-edict VI, L. 

5 ajala corresponds to achala at Jaugada, as loga (Jaugada separate edict II, 11. 7 and 33) 
to lokat libi (Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, QQ and SS) to Kp% % hida (Kalsi, V, J and K) to hita l and 
dose (Kalsi, VI, H) to iosg. 

+ 

c The neuter tani is improperly used for the masculine te, which is the reading of the Jaugada 
version, 

7 Kern (JRAS, 1880. 384) translated: 'I will entrust the country to your care/ For the 
difficult term desdvutika {Dhauli) or \sakd\la-desd* qy[u t] ika (Jaugada) see Biihler (ZDMG, 41. 38), 
who took dyuti = Skt dyuktin } * an official'. Cf. dvuti = Skt, ayukli> c an order ^ in the pillar- 
edict IV, L. The provincial officers who are here referred to, are perhaps identical with the 
Mahamdtras whom Asoka ordered to be deputed on inspection duty from Pataliputra, Ujjayini, 
and TakshaSila; see the four last sections of the Dhauli separate edict I. 

8 Cf* chdtmhmdsl in the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict V, 11. 11, 16, 18. 
0 Cf, the Dhauli separate edict I, V. 

10 See above, p. 95, n. 9. 



DHAULI ROCK; RIGHT COLUMN 




Scale One-seventh 



FIRST ROCK-EDICT : J AUGADA loi 



5 



VI. THE JAUGADA ROCK 

FIRST ROCK-EDICT: JAUGADA 

(C) fxj ^ SfiSfa^ (D) f| §?gfrT ^tfW 

ftrcsftft &rfk$ (f) ^r?wf« "^Rftraa fro^fa^ wfoa 

^ *T^T fa** ^ fq ^ fa*t ^ (H) Xmif^T fa % fiffh 



1 (A) iyam dhamma-lipl Khepi[m]galasi 1 pavatasi D evanampiyena Piyadasina 

lajina likhapita (B) hida no kichhi jlvam alabhi[t]u pajohitaviye 

2 (C) no pi cha samaje kataviye (D) bahukaih. hi dosam samajasa 2 drakhati 3 

Devanaihpiye Piyadasi laja (E) athi pi chu ekatiya samaja sadhu-mata 
Devanampiyasa 

3 Piyadrasine 4 lajine (F) puluvam maha[nasa]si Dovanarhpiyasa Piyadasine 

lajiae anudivasam bah[u]ni pana-sata-sah[a]sani alabhiyisu supa[th]aye 

4 (G) se aja ada iyam dhamma-lipT likhita tiifani yeva panani ala[m]bhiyamti 5 duve 

majula eke mige se pi chu mige no dhuvam (H) etani pi chu tirhni panani 

5 pachha no ala[bh]iyisamti 

TRANSLATION 

(A) This rescript on morality has been caused to be written on the Khepingala 0 
mountain by king Devanampriya Priyadar&in. 

(B) Here no living being must be killed and sacrificed^ 

(C) And also no festival meeting must be held. 

(D) For king Devanampriya PriyadarSln sees much, evil in festival meetings. 

(E) But there are also some festival meetings which are considered meritorious by 
Devanampriya Priyadarsin. 



1 Khapimgalasi Buhler, but the e of khe is perfectly distinct. 

2 samajasi Biihler. 

8 A horizontal stroke, which may be meant for r, seems to be attached both at the top and at 
the bottom of da ; dakhati Senart and Biihler. 

4 Piyadasine Senart and Biihler. The curve at the bottom of da is probably intended for r* 
6 alabhiyamti Senart and Buhler. 

6 The etymological meaning of this name is : ( (which appears) brown in the air ; ' see Biihler, 
ZDMG 3 37, 9^ 



102 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

(F) Formerly in the kitchen of king DjBvanampriya FriyadarSin many hundred 
thousands of animals were killed daily for the sake of curry, 

(G) But now, when this rescript on morality is written, only three animals are 
being killed (daily), (viz.) two peacocks (and) one deer, but even this deer not regularly. 

(H) But even these three animals shall not be killed in future, 

» * 

SECOND ROCK-EDICT: JAUGADA 

r 

ftpr^RT c*if^.* * * * .* * f^f^n ^ 

1 (A) savata vijitasi Devanampiyasa Piyad&sine lajine e Va pi aihta atha Choda 

Pamdiya Batiyapu[t]e . . . P . . i Amtiyoke nama 

2 Tona-laja [e] va pi tasa Amtiyokasa samarhta lajane savata Devanampiyena 

Piyadasina laji . . , , [ch]ikisa cha 

S pasu-chikisa cha (B) osadhani ani munisopagani pasu-opagani cha atata nathi 

sava[ta] . , cha atata nathi 

4: s[a]vatra 1 halapita cha lopapita cha (D) magesu udupattani khanapitani lukhani 

cha * 

TRANSLATION (DHAULl AND JAUSADA) 

■ 

(A) Everywhere in the dominions of king Devanaikpriya Friyadar&in, and also 
(of those) who (are his) borderers, such as the Chodas, the Pandyas, the Satiyaputa, 

. . . > . the Tona king named Antiyoka, and also the kings who are the 

neighbours of this Antiyoka, — everywhere [two (kinds of)' medical treatment were 
established] by king Devanampriya PriyadarSin, (viz-) medical treatment [for men] 
and medical treatment for cattle, 

(B) Wherever there were no herbs that are beneficial to men and beneficial 
to cattle, everywhere they were caused to be imported and to be planted* 

(C) Wherever there were no roots and [fruits], everywhere they were caused to be 
imported and to be planted* 

(D) On the roads wells were caused to be dug, and trees were caused to be planted 
for the use of [cattle and men]. 

1 savata Senart, savatu Buhler. 

2 The last words of this section are missing at Jaugada, but are preserved at Dhauli, Hence- 
forth I shall use straight brackets in the translation only if words are lost in both of these versions 
of the rock-edicts. 



103 

THIRD ROCK-EDICT : J AUGADA 

i (a) ^rtffa* fM^^R Ttmj %4 (b) pr^raTftH^TT $ s?i 

>s * 

fij • • • • 

■ ■ + k 

1 (A) Deva[na]mpiye PiyadasI laja hevam aha (B) duvadasa-vasabhisitetta me 

iyam [a] - cha pad[e]sike cha 

2 pamchasu pamchasu vasesu anusayanam nikhamavu atha amnaye pi kamma[n]e 

[s]a mita-samthute[s] 

3 natisu ch[a] bambhana-samanehi sadhu dane jivesu [a jnalambhe sadhu . . • . 

[y]i.... 

4 hetute cha viyamjanate cha 

TRANSLATION (DHAULI. AND J AUGADA) 

F 

I 

(A) King Devanampriya FriyadarSin speaks thus. 

(B) (When I had been) anointed twelve years, the following was ordered by me. 

(C) [Everywhere] in my dominions the Yuktas, the Lajuka, and the PradeHka shall 
set out on a complete tour (throughout their charges) every five years, just as for other 
business, even so for the following instruction in morality. 

(D) 1 Meritorious is obedience to mother and father, to friends and acquaintances, 
and to relatives. Liberality to Brahmanas and £ramanas is meritorious. Abstention 
from killing animals is meritorious. Moderation in expenditure (and) moderation in 
possessions are meritorious/ 

(E) And the council (of Mahdntatras) also shall order the Ynktas to register (these 
rules) both with (the addition of) reasons and according to the letter, 

■ 1 

T 

FOURTH ROCK-EDICT: J AUGADA 

2 (b) $ *m ^pffiratr fwsfa^ carfare wre^i h<3 

3 f^rcifa q^nfa ^ftf ^toft (c) ^nf^% ^r|f| * 

5 (D) ^ ^|f^^ (E) cR-fa '♦ » • •;• 

7 (H) *faRR5^ fk ^ itfrT 



104 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

■ 

V (A) a[t]ikamtam amtalarii bahuni vasa-satani vadhite va panalambhe ... * 

2 (B) se aja Devanampiyasa Piyadasine lajine dharhma-chalanena bhe[l] . . . . . 

3 divi[y]ani lupani drasayitu 1 munisanam (C) adise bahuhi vasa-sate 

4 dhammanusathiya analambhe pananam avihisa bhutanam. natisu [saihpa] . P # 

5 (D) esa amne cha bahuvidhe dhamma-chalane vadhite (E) va[dhay]i ........... 

6 Piyadasine lajine pavadhayi[sa]ih[t]i [y]e[va] dhamma-cha[la] 

7 (H) dhamma-chalane pi chu no ho[t]i , 

8 [hl]ni cha ma aIoch[ay]i . . 

TRANSLATION (DHAULI AND JAUGADA) 

■ 

(A) In times past, for many hundreds of years, there had ever been promoted the 
killing of animals and the hurting of living beings, discourtesy to relatives, (and) 
discourtesy to Sramanas and Brahmanas* 

t r _ 

(B) But now, in consequence of the practice of morality on the part of king 

_ , ■ _ ■ r . 

Devanampriya Priyadarsin, the sound of drums has become the sound of morality, 
showing the people representations of aerial chariots, elephants, masses of fire, and 
other divine figures. 

(C) Such as they had not existed before for many hundreds of years, thus there 
are now promoted, through the instruction in morality on the part of king Devanam- 
priya Priyadarsin, abstention from killing animals, abstention from hurting living 
beings, courtesy to relatives, courtesy to Sramanas and Brahmanas, obedience to 
mother and father, (and) obedience to the aged. ; ■ ; \,< 

(D) In this and many other ways is the practice of morality promoted. 

(E) And king DeVanampl'iya Priyadarsin will ever promote this practice of 
morality. /.. ': 

(F) But also the sons, grandsons, and great-grandsons of king Devanampriya 
PriyadarSin will ever promote this practice of morality until the aeon (of destruction 
of the world), (and) will instruct .(people) in -morality, abiding by morality and by 
good conduct. 

(G) For this is the best work, viz, instruction in morality. 

(H) But the practice of morality also is not (possible) for (a person) devoid of 
good conduct ' . 

(I) Therefore promotion and not neglect of this object is meritorious. 

(J) For the following purpose has this been written, (viz. in order that) they 
should devote themselves to the promotion of this practice, and that they should not 
approve 2 the neglect (of it), ' , ' 

(S) This has been written here by king Devanampriya PriyadarSin (when he 

had been) anointed twelve years, , . > ; , , 

<- ' t *• < . .■ ,.. ,"i .= . ■■ L . ... »* - \ 

h 

1 dusayitu Senart, dasayitit Buhlen y 2 See above, p. 31, n. 7, 



JAUGADA ROCK; FIRST COLUMN 



Page 104 




Scale One-seventh 



*°5 



FIFTH ROCK- EDICT: JAUGADA 



3 hr^h^ (h) % 

5 * r *rff*f£( ***** 



1 (A) Deva[na]mpiye Piya[da] 

2 nat[i] 1 ya palarii cha te . 

3 s[u]padalaye (H) se [a] ........ 

4 [dha]m[m3a[dh]i[th]ana^ 

5 . . bhanibhi , > . P „ 

6 inokhaye * . . 

7 e [v]a 

8 , ■ 



TRANSLATION (DHAULI AND JAUGADA) 

1 1 ■ ■ 

■ ■ - i 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadarsin speaks thus, 

(B) It is difficult to perform virtuous deeds. 

(C) He [who starts performing] victorious deeds accomplishes something difficult. 

(D) Now, by me many virtuous deeds have been performed. 

(E) Therefore (among) my sons and grandsons, and (among) my descendants (who 
shall come) after them until the aeon (of the destruction of the world), those who will 
conform to this (duty) will perform good deeds. 

(J?) He who will neglect even a portion of this (duty) will perform evil deeds, 

(G) For sin indeed steps fast. 3 

(H) Now in times past, ^(officers) called Makamatras of morality did not exist 
before. 

(I) But (the officers) called MahWmalras of morality were appointed by me (when 
I had been) anointed thirteen years. 

(J) These are occupied with all sects in establishing morality, in promoting 
morality, and for the welfare and happiness of those who are devoted to morality (even) 
among the Yonas, Kambochas, and Gandhalas, among the LatMkas and Pitenikas, 
and whatever other western borderers (of mine there are). 

(K) They are occupied with servants and masters, with Brahmanas and Ibhyas, 
: ^ 

1 namti Senart, nati Buhler. 2 °thdnd BUhler. 3 See above, p. 33, n. 3. 

1G13 * P * 



io6 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

with the destitute, and with the aged, for the welfare and happiness of those who are 
devoted to morality, 1 (and) in releasing (them) from the fetters (of worldly life). 2 

(L) They are occupied in supporting prisoners (with money), in causing (their) 
fetters to be taken off, and in setting (them) free, if (one has) children, or is bewitched, 
or aged, respectively. 

(SI) They are occupied everywhere, both here and in all the outlying towns, in all 
the harems of myself, of my brothers, and of (my) sisters, and with (my) other relatives. 

(N) These Mahaniatras of morality are occupied on the whole earth with those 
who are devoted to morality, (in order to ascertain) whether one is eager for morality, 
or established in morality, or furnished with gifts. 

(O) For the following purpose has this rescript on morality been written, (viz. that) 
it may be of long duration, and (that) my descendants may conform to it 



SIXTH ROCK-EDICT : JAUGADA 

i (a) -fftr^ ftprejft <$m\ |4 (b) ^fa^rr % 

ssre^ft iife^^n * (c) $ htrt ^ (d) *r ^r<py 

3 ...... ^ ( F) ^ fq ^ f%f^ W^RITfH 

^ vi m qgmritfifc ^fir^nf^ ^loJlfaf* ftfrr fife ^rafa 

4 "fiTOTO ^Hrifa q Mft^ri W 3 frT TOT SP? Wft (G) 

5 (I) *R<*ft%il (J) TO tpf vi mft ^ 

^TOTtem xT (K) Hfa ff ^fT<7T fl^HtoffTta (l) ^ ^ fifife 

frl (M) TTfn^ WZft ^ *faf?J*ft fr5t%rTT f^c^flfrfNil ft<J 
7 ■ **.*» m 3 McHtifl ^^NiffrfT^ (N) ^ %q ^faff 



1 (A) . , . . [na]mpiye Piyadasl laja hevam aha (B) atikaihtam ariitalaih no huta- 

puluve savarh kalam atha-kamm[e] pativedana va (C) se mamaya kate (D) 
savath kalam 

2 ...... [sa m]e amte olodhariasi gabhagalasi vachasi vinitas[i] uyanasi cha savata 

pativedaka j anas a atham prativedayamtu 3 me ti (E) savata cha janasa 



i 



■ 

1 See above, p, 33, n, 7* 2 See above, p. 33, n. 8, 

3 The r is expressed by a horizontal stroke before pa, which therefore looks like pe ; paii 
Senart and Buhler. 



SIXTH ROCK-EDICT : JAUGADA 107 

3 ♦ • • • [ka]ih (P) am pi cha kimchhi mukhate anapayami dapakarii va savakaih 

va e v[a] mah[a]matehi a[t]i[ya]yike [ajlopite hoti tasi athasi vivade va 

4 lisay[am 1 a]nam[ta]liyaih pativedetaviye me ti savata sayarii 
kalam (G) hevam me anusathe .(B) nathi hi me tose uthanasi atha- 

J sarhtllan[a]y[a] cha 

5 (I) me sava-loka-hite (J) tasa cha pana iyam mule uthane cha atha- 

sarhtilana cha (K) nathi hi k[am]matala sava-loka-hiteri[a] (L) am cha kichhi 
. p[a]Iakamami hakam 

6 . ; ........ [n]iyarh yeham ti hida cha kani su[kha]yami palata cha svagath 

aladhayamtu ti (M) etaye athaye i[ya]m dhamma-lip! likhita chila-thitika 
hotu 2 

[t]a 3 me [pa]lakamaihtu sava-loka-hitaye (N) dukale chu i[ya]m amnata 

agena palakamena 



• • • • 



TRANSLATION (DHAULI AND JAUGADA) 



(A) King Devanampriya Priyadar6in speaks thus. 

(B) In times past neither the disposal of affairs nor the submission of reports at 
all times did exist before. 

(C) But I have made (the following arrangement). 

(D) Reporters have to report to me the affairs of the people at any time (and) 
anywhere, while I am [eating], within 4 the harem, in the inner apartment, at the 
cowpen, in the palanquin, and in the park, 

(E) And everywhere I am disposing of the affairs of the people. 

(F) And also, if in the council (of Mahamatras) a dispute arises, or an amend- 
ment is moved, in connexion with any donation or proclamation which I am ordering 
verbally, or (in connexion with) an emergent matter which has been delegated to the 
Mahamatras, it must be reported to me immediately, anywhere, (and) at any time. 

;(G) Thus I have ordered. 

(H) For I am never satisfied in exerting myself and in dispatching business. 

(I) For I consider it my duty {to promote) the welfare of all men. 

(J) But the root of that (is) this, (viz.) exertion and the dispatch of business. 

(K) For no duty is more important than (promoting) the welfare of all men. 

(L) And whatever effort I am making, (is made) in order that I may discharge the 
debt (which I owe) to living beings, (that) I may make them happy in this (world), and 
(that) they may attain heaven in the other (world), 

(BI) For the following purpose has this rescript on morality been written, (viz. 
that) it may be of long duration, and (that) my sons (and) great-grandsons may 
display the same zeal for the welfare of all men. 

(BT) But it is difficult to accomplish this without great zeal. 



1 *saya Senart and Biihler. 2 hotu Biihlen 

3 On plate 68 of ASS I, vol I s a portion of the syllable /0 is visible before ta+ 

4 The preposition ante, ' within \ is used with the locative, just as anta in Pali ; see Childers, 
Pali Dictionary^ p. 39 b. 

P 2 



108 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

SEVENTH ROCK-EDICT : JAUGADA 

1 (a) * * 4 4 ^dt f^mT *raw sjafir ^Rronfer • * "fir (b) s% f| 

2 (d) 4 * gsifir (e) f^? fxc 4 4 * * 4 



1 (A) da[sl] 1 laja savata ichhati sava-p[a]saihda va[s]e . . [t]i (B) [sav]e 

hi te sa[yama]ih bhava-[su]dhl cha ichhamti (C) munisa cha uchavucha-chhamda 
uchavuch[a]-laga 

2 (D) [sa]ih a va kachhamti (B) [v]i[pul]e [p]i cha a [d]a[ne] 

[dhi] cha niche [bjadham 



TRANSLATION (DHAULI AND JAUGADA) 

+ i 

(A) King Devanampriya PriyadarSin desires (that) all sects may reside everywhere. 

(B) For all these desire self-control and purity of mind. 

(CJ) And men possess various desires (and) various passions. 

(D) They will fulfil either the whole or (only) a portion (of their duties). 

(E) And even one who (practises) great liberality, (but) does not possess self- 
control and purity of mind, is very mean, 

EIGHTH ROCK-EDICT: JAUGADA 

■ 

1 ♦ fiRT #rrfH ^ idV * + *n£r pfir * (c) $ 

2 ftw * * 4 * * 4 * 4 4 ********** hi {e) mm |tfk e 4 4 4 4 

a f^sprftforft ^ 4 4 4 * 4 4 s frwfapn 4 4 4 4 froS 

4 fini^Trrf^^^ 444 

- 

1 4 .... . t v ]*[yl a [a]mnani cha e[d]i [m]ani huvaihti nam (C) se 

Devatiampiye 

2 [Piya] [dasa] 5 [ta] (E) [ta]tesa hoti [sa] cha 

dane 6 cha vudhanaih dasane cha 

3 hilamna-pativ[i]dh[a]ne [cha] . . * [dha]mma-p[al]i[puchh]a 7 

ilame hoti De[v]anampiyasa 

4 Piyadasine lajine bhage [a] . . . 

- 

_ . * _ . . ^^^^^^^^^^^ 

1 On plate 68 of ASSI, vol. I, the two syllables [Piya] are visible before dasz. 

2 The same plate reads \vaj eka-desam. 5 cha Senart and Biihler. 

4 At the beginning of this line, plate 68 of ASSI, vol. I, reads {a*][t{\kamtam amtalam laja. 
0 The same plate reads Piyadasl \f\ajd dasa, 
G cha looks almost like chu % and dane like dano* 
7 -palz Senart and Biihler. 



EIGHTH ROCK-EDICT: JAUGADA 109 

TRANSLATION (DHAULI AND JAUGADA) 

(A) In times past, kings used to set out on so-called pleasure-tours, 

(B) On these (tours) hunting and other such pleasures were (enjoyed). 1 

(C) But when king Devanampriya Priyadarsin had been anointed ten years, 
he went out to SambodM. 

(D) Therefore tours of morality (were undertaken) here. 

(E) On these (tours) the following takes place, (viz.) visiting Sramanas and 
Brahmanas and making gifts (to them), visiting the aged and supporting (them) with 
gold, visiting the people of the country, instructing (them) in morality, and questioning 
(them) about morality, as suitable for this (occasion). 

(F) This second period (of the reign) of king Devanampriya Priyadarain 
becomes a pleasure in a higher degree* . 

♦ 

NINTH ROCK-EDICT: JAUGADA 

L 

2 |%T^ ^pi , 4 * * 4 ^ HTO ^%frT (D) % ^ftS ^ 

3 (E)OTtR^^ ^ *ff')fid *" 4 4 (F) ^ •% + 4 * 4 4 4 4 4 + 4 B4TC5R% 

5 4 4 4 4 4 § *n ^rf^ ^ (k) ^ ^ 

6 v* ♦ *j ^ ^ ^To5TUfti7% (L) f^T % 



y 4444 + 4444 



1 (A) Devan[am]piye Piyadasi la[ja] [pa]jupadaye pavasasi etaye 

aihnaye cha 

2 hedisaye jane [ba]hu[ka]rh [cha ma]m[gala]ih k[a]leti (D) se kataviye 

cheva kho maihgale 

3 (E) apa-[pha]le chu [kh]o e[sa] he[d]ise ma (F) i[ya]m [chu] 2 . . • . ; 

[sa-bha]takasi sammya-patipati gulunam apachiti panesu say[a]me 

4 saman[a]-babha[n]a[nam d]a[n]e [esa a]m[n]e [pi]tina pi putena pi 

bhatina pi suvamike[na] pi iyam sadhu iyam kataviye 

1 With huvamti nam cf. etehi na in the Karle and Nasik inscriptions (EI, 7. 64, text L 4; 
8- 65, text L 14; 71, text L 4 ; 73, text L 11). In the Jaina Prakrit, nam is used as an enclitical 
particle, and in Saurasem, according to the grammarians, in the sense of namu Pischel {Grammatik^ 
§ 150) derives it from Skt. nunavu 

2 These two words are invisible on plate 68 of ASSI, vol. I, 



no THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

5 [s]e dane anugah[e] va adi[s]e dhamma-dane dhammanugahe cha (K) 

se chu kho mitena 

6 yarn sadh[u] imena sakiye svage aladhayitave (L) kiih hi imena 

kataviyatala 

7 



TRANSLATION (DHAULI AND JAUGADA) 

(A) King Devanampriya Friyadar6in speaks thus. 

(B) Men are practising various ceremonies during illness at the 
marriage of a daughter, at the birth of a child, 1 (and) when setting out on a journey; 
on these and other such (occasions) men [are practising] many ceremonies/ 

■ ■ i * 

(C) But women are practising many and various vulgar and useless 

ceremonies. 

(D) Now ceremonies should certainly be practised. 

(E) But such ceremonies as these bear little fruit indeed. 

(P) But the following bears much fruit indeed, viz. the practice of morality. ' 

(G) Herein the following (are comprised), (viz-) proper courtesy to slaves and 
servants, reverence to elders, gentleness to animals, (and) liberality to Sramanas 
and Brahmanas; these and .other [such] (virtues) are called the practice of morality. 

(H) Therefore a father, or a son, or a brother, or a master ought to say : — ■ This 
is meritorious. This [practice] should be observed until the (desired) object is attained/ 

(I) And it has been said thus : — Gifts are meritorious/ 

(J) But there is no [such] gift or benefit as the gift of morality and the benefit 
of morality. - • * 1 , o 

(K) Therefore a friend [a relative], and a companion should indeed 

admonish (another) on such and such an occasion : — * This . / this is meritorious. 

By this (practice) it is possible to attain heaven/ . j 

(L) For what is more desirable than this, [viz.] the attainment of heaven ? 



TENTH ROCK-EDICT: JAUGADA ... ■-. 

(a) * -* * m fk& ht ^sfn H^i^ m^frm h 



j > 



|hht ft* 

3 (D) ftrfflfsiH ^%*f HI HI fr) Zftfci ^ 'UMlA 

1 (A) [ya]so va ki[t]T va ichh[a]ti tadatvaye a[ya]tiye. cha jane dhaihma- 

sususam sususatu me 

'■1 il ■■■'■rl- p I _ | 1 m i i ■ 1 f f 4 1 \ i 

2 . , . . [t]i Devanampiye palatikaye va ki[th]ti [sa]kale apa-palisave 

[h]uveya ti ; ; " 

3 (D) DJtijit[u] khudakena [v]a u[sa]tena va (F) usatena chu dukalatale 



For fajitpadaye see above, p. 38, n. M. 



JAUGADA ROCK; SECOND COLUMN 



Page ho 




Scale One- seventh 



TENTH ROCK-EDICT : JAUGADA in 

■ 

TRANSLATION (DHAULI AND JAUGADA) 

i 

* i • # p. i ' J 

(A) King Devanampriya Friyadarfiin does not think that either glory or fame 
[conveys much advantage, except whatever] glory or fame he desires (on account of his 
aim that) at the present time, and in the future, men may (be induced) by him to practise 
obedience to morality . . morality. 

(B) On this (account) [he is desiring] glory and fame, 

(C) [Whatever] effort Devanampriya is making, (is) only for the sake of (merit) 
in the other (world), (and) in order that all (men) may run little danger. 

(D) The danger 

(E) difficult to accomplish either for a lowly (person) or for a high 

one [without] great [zeal] and (without) laying aside every (other aim). 

(P) But it is more difficult to accomplish for a high (person). 

FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICT: JAUGADA 

1 (a) * * * fif^RR , srfa fa*BT (b) fir *h ^rfcft (c) 

fir fef^ 

2 ***** a ^T^fppir^ Wet ^ 3R ctot ■qfcqStar fir (e) v. fir 

^ Iff 

Q ♦ + + + * + ♦ + 



1 (A) [ma]jhime[na] ath[i] vithatena (B) [no] hi save savata ghatite 

(C) mahamte hi vijaye 

2 [sa] madhuliyaye kimt[i] cha jane tatha patipajeya ti (E) e pi chu heta 

3 * 

L 

TRANSLATION (DHAULI AND JAUGADA) 



(A) These rescripts on morality [have been caused] to be written by king 
Devanampriya FriyadarSin or of middle (size), or at full length. 

(B) For the whole was not suitable everywhere. 

(C) For (my) dominions are wide, and much has been written, [and I] shall cause 
[still] (more) to be written. 

(D) has been stated because of the charm of [certain 

topics], and in order that men should act accordingly. . , ~ 

(E) But whatever of this is written incompletely 

_ 

FIRST SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT: JAUGADA 

i (A) ^nsTfcft ^Ift (B) 3EPTFrrc TITOTffT Wf*f¥fa?Tc^fi |3 
^fitf^reT (C) ^ t%fe ^ifa W ^Bjfa f^frT % ?R*R qf^TTH^i 

% fi q-R^if "mm tr*t $ fjfcraTH (f) f^fn $ 




lis THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

■ 

3 WT (G) Xfsn^ ^ETfn ft S^T f^^T *[ft^fa %c*tft*R- 

Wi^Plf^PI 1*N ft (H) f g% Tiff m«JWm 

4 35$ sra (i) ^rt irsgfti? Tfrprfif % ft 3t (j) f| jft ft 

wr ^raf?rai ^ ^pfi ^nfrr (m) hit sfe?*^ 
f%ft ^ qjfeiffffT ^H (n) 3$f^ ^rlf? xrfe^rfif ^arro m^vSt^r 

^tpt ^!^n^f?ra ^iff^t faM*^ (o> sfofft^ f^n ft umft 

(Q) ftftra ^ ft*r 
*Nfi*f ^«nm *hrfafr$ f ^fciiftq ft isifa^ ft ^ftft^ (») u% 

w*ft ftp^wft^ iH W ^ ^n#ftw ^rft fa (s) ntf 

if T1%V*& ftfiT ^ftft^fH ftfff (T) ftxTftqTrnqrT ^ft 

gpren c sft ^ onsnft (xr) ?rans& *£rw 4ro ft # n^t- 



^f?!^% (V) <^ tfilfcanftft *TR 
itfTft^ (X) TOJT ft *ft* *fc»fW 



* + + + a * 



• ♦ * 



^TOT TJH ^ fif li^r Jjft*H "qfaftr 

At ^ * ♦ ■A ^ ♦ i- i H 

n fSrowrftsnft ^T*niT ^N? 

n ; * * *ft f*i& ft * * h * * *rft f 

ftff K ft iTOT ^RTfw ^TOT ♦*•*♦•♦*** 

#-+ r * . -A 

1 (A) Dev[a]nampiye he[va]th [a]ha (B) Sam[a]payam mahamata [na]gala- 
viyohalaka he[vam va]tav[i]y[a] (C) am kichhi dakhami ha[ka]ih [tarn] ichham[i 
k]imt[i kaih 1 kamana 2 pa]tipatayeharh 

r 

1 Senart and Buhler omit kavu Cf. the Jaugada separate edict II, end ofline I, and see above, 

P. 35i 

2 \kavi\mana Buhler," 



FIRST SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT : JAUGADA 113 

2 duvalate cha alabhehiam (D) es[a] cha me mokhiya-mata duvalarh a[ih] tuphesu 

anusathi (E) phe hi bahusu pana-sahasesu [a]ya[ta] p[a]na[yaih] gachhema 
[su] m[u]n[i]s[a]na[m] (F) sava-mu[n]a me 1 

3 paja (G) atha pa[ja]ye ichhamp kirii]t[i] me savena hita-sukhena y[u]jeyu ti 

hi[dal]o[g]ik[a]-palalokikena [he]meva me ichha sava-munis[e]su (H) no chu 3 
tu[phe e]taih [p]a[p]unatha ava-gamu[k]e 3 

4 [Qyarh ath[e] (I) kecha eka-[muni]s[e] 4 pa[p]unati 5 se pi desaih no savaih (J) 

dakhatha hi [tuphe] pi 6 suvita [p]i (K) bahuka athi 7 ye eti eka-munise 
ba[rh]dhanarh pali[kile]sam [p]i 8 papunati (L) tata [ho]t[i aka]- 

5 sm[a] ti 5 ten[a] badhana[m]ti[ka 10 anye] 11 cha [va]ge bahuke vedayati (II) tata 

tuphe[hi ichhi]taye kimti majharh [pa]tipatayem[a] (N) imehi jate[hi] 12 no 
[pa]tipa[ja]ti 13 i[s]a[ya] 14 asulopena [ni]fchu[li]ye[na] 15 

6 t[ul]aya lfl [a]na[v]uti[ya 17 ala]s[y]e[na ■ ki]Iamath[e]na (O) hevam ichhit[a]vi[y]e 

kimti me et[a]nt jata[ni n]o hveyu 18 ti (P) savasa chu 19 iyam mu[le] 
a[n]a[s]u[Io]p[e atulana] cha (Q) ni[tiya]m [e]y[am k]il[amt]e [siya] 

7 sarhchalitu uthay[a] 20 sarhchalitavye tu ;y[a]titaviya 21 [pi] etaviye pi nit[i]yarh (R) 

eve dakh[e]ya 22 . ana[m]ne 33 nijhap[e]ta[vi]ye 24 heva[m hevam] cha 
Devanam[p]i[ya]sa an[u]sa[thi ti] (S) [eta]m [sampatipa]ta[yam}- 

8 tarn maha-phale hoti asampatipati mahapay[e] hoti (T) vipatipatayamtam no 

svag[a]-aladhi no lajadhi 25 (U) du[a]hale etasa [kaih]masa sa me k[u]t[e 
ma]n[o-ati]le[ke] 20 (V) [etam sampatipaj amine mama] 

9 cha ananeyam esatha svagam cha ala[dha]yisa[th]a (W) iyam cha 27 li[p]T anutisarh 

sot[a]v[i]ya (X) [a]la 28 [p]i kha[ne]na sota[vi]ya ek[a]k[e]na pi (Y) 

m[I]ne 23 ch[aghatha] , # 

10 tave (Z) etaye cha ath[a]ye iyam [IFJkhita [l]ipi ena mahamata nagalaka sa[s]vata[m] 

sama[ya]m [etam] ytf[]]ey[u] t[i] ena [muni]s[a]nam [a] ne [pal]i[k]i ao 

. . ye 

11 [pa]mchasu pamchasu va[sesu] anu[sa]yanatti 31 nikhama[y]isami 82 mahamata[m] 

achamda[ih] aphal[usa]m 33 ta 34 pi kumale [v]i 35 . . ta 

m[ayi] 3fl . . [la]t[e] 37 

I Read -munisd me ; -tmmise Senart and Buhler. 

. 2 cha Buhler. 3 ava- Buhler ; -gamake Senart and Buhler, 

4 -pulise Senart and Buhler. fi pi manaii Senart,// [md]nd£i Biihler. 

G hi Biihler. 7 Buhler. 8 hi Buhler. 

9 Senart and Biihler omit tu 10 bamdhc? Senart and Biihler, 

II Biihler omitted this word, 12 jdiehi Buhler. 

33 sampati 0 Senart, santif Biihler. 14 isa[ye\ Buhler. 

15 nit/m° Senart, nitlm° Buhler. 1G iuldye Senart and Buhler. 

17 °tiye Senart and Buhler. 1 38 heyU Senart and Buhler. 

19 cha Senart and Biihler- 20 uiha\ye~\ Buhler. 21 vajita 0 Senart and Buhler. 

22 dekheyi Senart and Biihler. 23 amna m Senart and Buhler* 

24 nijha* Senart and Buhler. - 

25 Read lajaladhL 26 \ptd\m- Buhler. 27 cha Senart and Buhler. 
28 Read amtala* 29 wiane Buhler. . so Restore akasmd iamdhane palikilese. 
31 °saikyanath Senart and Buhler. 82 °sap2t Buhler* 33 aphala/ia Buhler. 

34 Buhler adds . . vachanele ; perhaps sahhindlambham is intended, as in the corresponding 
passage at DhaulL 35 va Biihler. 30 Restore nikhdmayisatu 

37 This is probably a remnant of Takhasitdte. 

1013 Q 



"4 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

12 vachamk[a] 1 ada 3 [anusa]yanarii 3 n[ikha]mi[saih]ti a[ta]ne ka[mma]ih 

[yitu tarn pi tatha] kalamti [atha] . 

TRANSLATION 

(A) Devanampriya speaks thus. 

(B) The Mahdmatras at Sam&pa, (who are) the judicial officers of the city, have to 
be told this. 

(C) Whatever I recognize (to be right), that I strive to carry out by .deeds, and to 
accomplish by (various) means. 

(D) And this is considered by me the principal means, viz. (to give) instruction 
to you* 

(SJ) For you are occupied with many thousands of men, with the abject of gaining 
the affection of men* 

(F) All men are my children* 

(G) As on behalf of (my own) children I desire that they may be provided by me 
with complete welfare and happiness in this world and in the other world, even so is 
my desire on behalf of all men. 

(H) But you do not learn this, (viz.) how far this (my) object reaches. 

(I) Some single person (only) learns (this), , (and) even he (only) a portion, (but) 
not the whole. 

(J) Now you must also pay attention (to this), although you are in prosperous 
circumstances. 4 

(K) It happens frequently that a single person undergoes imprisonment and suffers 
harsh treatment, 6 

(L) In this case (an order) cancelling the imprisonment is (obtained) by him 
accidentally, while many other people G (continue to) suffer. 

(US.) In this case you must strive to deal (with all of them) impartially. 

(N) One fails to act (thus) on account of the following dispositions : envy, anger, 
cruelty, hurry, want of practice, laziness, (and) fatigue. 

(O) (You) must strive for this, that these dispositions may not arise in you. 

(P) But the root of all is this : the absence of anger and the avoidance of hurry. 

(ft) Whoever is fatigued in the administration (of justice), will [not] move and rise ; 
but one ought to move, to walk, and to advance in the administration ;(of justice). 

(B) He who will pay attention to this, 7 must exhort 8 (you) to discharge (your) 
debt (to the king), (by telling you) : 1 Such and such is the instruction of De vanampriy a / 

1 javachcP Senarfc, *qfavac/ea° Buhler ; cf. l\a\ja-vachanik\a\ in the Jaugada separate edict II, B, 
8 tada Senart, ada BUhler. 3 °samydnam Svn&xt and Buhler. 

4 For snvita see Bohtlingk and Roth's Dictionary, Dhauli has the synonym suvihiia. 

5 Liiders (SPAW, 1914. 863) renders the Dhauli version of this section: * There is also a single 
officer who hears of iimprisonment or torture * ; but, in order to vindicate this translation, he is 
obliged to change eii in the Jaugada version to eta (p, 856, n. 17), which gives no sense. The verb 
papunati has the same meaning as here in the rock-edict XIII ; cf. above, p. 47, n. 5. 

* For vage = jane see above, p. 40, n. %* 

7 As eve dakh\e\ya .corresponds to hevammeva e da]kkeyd\ at Dhauli, it seems to represent 
evam e dakkeya* 

8 For nijhapeti see above, p« 69, n. 4. 



FIRST SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT: JAUGADA 115 

(S) If one observes this, great gain results, (but its) non-observance becomes a 
great evil. 

(T) If one fails to observe (this), (there will be) neither attainment of heaven nor 
satisfaction of the king. 

(U) How (could) my mind be pleased if one fulfils this duty badly ? 

(V) If (you) observe this, you will discharge the debt (which you owe) to me, and 
you will attain heaven. ♦ 

(W) And this rescript must be listened to (by all) on every (day of) Tishya. 

(X) It may be listened to even by a single (person) also on (other) occasions 
between (the days of Tishya). 

(Y) you will be able to 

(Z) And for the following purpose has this rescript been written, (viz.) in order that 
the Mahamatras (who are) city-judges may strive at all times for this, that to men 
[undeserved imprisonment or harsh treatment] 

(A A) . I shall send out every five years on a complete tour (through- 
out his charge) 1 a Mahamatra who is neither fierce nor harsh 

(BB) ........ T , also the prince (governor) [will send out] .......... 

(CO) from [TatshaSiJa. 

(DD) When, at the word [of the king], 2 they will set out on tour, (then), [with- 
out neglecting] their own duties, (they will ascertain 3 whether the judicial officers) 
are carrying out this also just, as 

* 

SECOND SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT: JAUGADA 

1 (a) ^nHfira |^ ^ (b) wwnH c^rsra^^ ^mf^n (c) sst 

2 irfSrtffiT^ $4 Mi) Wc*^ (d) isr ^ $ %ftre*ra mm 

3!»p?fii (e) ^ra^fq- 

■ 

1 See above, p. 5, n. 4. 2 See below, p. 117, n. 10. 

3 The word janisaiiiti seems to be omitted at Jaugada, but is required by the context ; see the 
Dhauli version, CC. 

Q2 



n6 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

r 

9 % m *m ftfk ufSNT ^ ^tto' (j) h p ^ ^ftyfrf^ 

ii ^ ^ c*rfsj% (k) ^ ^g^Tftm ^ 3% w to ftfir 
^ iter f^- 

13 c^tfTOTTMciinh«fcl*l (M) ^ Wri ^FT ^ WOTMftTO TO ^ 

WT^W (N) IT. 

15 ^T!^c?^ ^ smre (o) ^ faxft ^^mr staftrar ftS* (p) 

^rrraT ft ^ €taft*n 

16 (Q) tfrT 1?%* ft €trtft*lT (R) |^ ^ ^5fT sfafeRTHftil^ 

1 (A) Devanampiye hevam a[ha] (B) Samapayam mahamata l[a]ja-vachanik[a] 1 

vataviya (O) am kichhi dakh[a]mi hakam tarii i[chh]ami hakam k[im]ti kam 
kamana 

2 patipatayeham duva[la]te cha aJabhehaih (D) esa cha me mokhiya-mai[a] 2 duval[a] 

etasa a[tha]sa a[m] t[uph]esu anusa[thi] (E) sava-muni- 

3 sa me paja (F) atha pajay[e] ichhami kiihti me s a vena hita-su[kh]ena yu[je]yu 

[a]tha pajaye ichhami kim[ti] m[e] savena hita-su- 

4 kh[e]na yujeyu 3 ti hidalogika-palaloki[k]e[na] * hevaihmeva me ichha sava- 

munisesu (G) siya amtanam [a]vijita- 

5 nam kirh-chhamde 5 su laja aphesu ti (H) etaka 6 [va] me ichha [ajmtesu papuneyu 

laja hevam ichh[a]ti anu[v]i[g]ina hve[yu] 7 

6 mamiyaye [a]svaseyu cha me sukham[m]ev[a] cha lahey[u] mamate [n]a kha[m] 8 

hevarh cha papuneyu kha[m]i[sa]ti ne laja 

7 e s[a]kiye 0 khamitave mamam nimitam cha dhamma[m] 10 chaley[u] ti hidalog[am] 

cha palalogaih cha aladhayey[a] 11 (I) etaye ; 



■ . . . 



I laja- Seriart and Buhler. 3 -mate Senart, -maiam Buhler, 

3 Cancel the eight last words §a\tha to yujeyu) t which the writer has repeated by mistake, 
* °kena Senart and Buhler. 5 -chhamde Senart and BUhler, 

0 Read etaka* as proposed by Luders, SPAW, J 914- 867. 
7 heyu Senart and Buhler. 8 Read dukham. 

9 chha kiye Senart, chakiye Buhler. 

10 The Anusvara of mam stands above the line ; dhamma Senart and Buhler. 

II °yeytt Senart and Buhler. 



JAUGADA ROCK; THIRD COLUMN 



Page 116 




Scale One-seventh 



SECOND SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT: JAUGADA 117 

8 cha athaye hakam tupheni amisasami ana[ne eta]kena [ha]kam tupheni a[nu]sasitu 

chharhda[ih cha] vedi- 

9 [t]u a mama dhiti patimna cha achala (J) sa hevarh -[ka]tu 1 k[aih]me ;jcha]litaviye 

asvasa[n]iya ch[a] te en[a] te papune- 
10 yu a[th]a pita [h]evam [n]e laja ti atha [ajtanam anukampat[i he]vam a[ph]eni 

anuka[mpa]ti atha paja he- 
ll varh [may]e la[j]ine (K) tupheni hakam anusasita 3 [chh]amdarii 3 [cha v]e[di]ta* 

[a 6 ma]ma dhiti pati[rh]na cha achala [saka]la- 

12 desa-ay[ut]ike 0 hosami et[a]si [a]thas[i] (L) [a]lam [h]i tuphe asvasa[na]ye hi[ta]- 
. sukhaye [cha te]sa[ih] hida- 

13 Iogi[ka]-p[a]laI[o]ki[k]a[y]e (M) hevam cha kalamtam svaga[ih cha a]ladhayisa[tha] 

mama cha ana[n]eyam es[a]tha (N) e- 

14 taye cha a[th]Sye i[ya]m lip! li[kh]i[ta 7 hi]da e[na ma]h[a]mata sasvatam 8 "samara* 

yujeyu asvasanaye cha 

15 dhamma-chala[na]ye [cha] amta[na]rh (O) iyarii cha lipl a[nu]ch[a]turh[m]asam 

s[ota]viya tisena (P) ariita[Ia] pi cha sotaviya 

16 (Q) khane samtarii eke[na] pi [sota]v[fJya (R) heva[m] cha [ka]lam[ta]m chaghatha 

sampatipatayit[av]e 

TRANSLATION 

(A) Devanampriya speaks thus, 

(B) The Mahamatras at Samapa have to be told (this) at the word of the king. 10 

(C) Whatever I recognize (to be right), that I strive to carry out by deeds and to 
accomplish by (various) means. 

(D) And this is considered by me the principal means for this object, viz. (to give) 
instruction to you. 

(E) All men are my children. 

(F) As on behalf of (my own) children I desire that they may be provided by me 
with complete welfare and happiness in this world spd in the ,other world, even so is 
my desire on behalf of all men. 

(G) It might occur to (my) unconquered borderers (to ask) : * What does the king 
desire with reference to us ? * c 

(H) This alone is my wish with reference to the borderers, (that) they may learn 
(that) the king desires this, (that) they may not be afraid of me, but may have confidence 
in me ; (that) they may obtain only happiness from me, not misery ; (that) they may learn 
this, (that) the king will forgive them what can be forgiven ; that they: may (be induced) 
by me (to) practise morality; fend that) they may attain (happiness) both (in) this 
world and (in) the other world. 

1 katn Senart and Buhler, a Read °^v«, which is Buhler's reading. 

8 chhamdam Senart and Biihler. * Read veditu ; vedata Senart, yedit\ti[ Buhler. 

s Senart and Buhler omit a. * Read desayutike* 

7 likhita Senart and Biihler. 8 sasvatam Senart and Biihler. 9 Read samayanu 

10 The derivative l[a\ja~vachamk\a\ seems to convey the same meaning as the two words 
Devanaihpiyasa vachanena at the beginning of each of the two separate edicts at Dhauli, and of the 
Queen's pillar-edict at Allahabad. Cf. also the opening phrase of the Brahmagiri and &ddapura 
rock-inscriptions. 



n8 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

(I) And for the following purpose I am instructing you, (viz. that) I may discharge 
the debt (which I owe to them) by this, that I instruct you and inform (you) of (my) 
will, i. e. (of) my unshakable resolution and vow. 

(J) Therefore, acting thus, (you) must fulfil (your) duty and must inspire them with 
confidence, 1 in order that they may learn that the king is to them like a father, (that) he 
loves them as he loves himself, (and that) they are to the king like (his own) children, 

(K) Having instructed you and having informed (you) of (my) will, i.e. (of) my 
unshakable resolution and vow, I shall have (i.e. maintain) officers in all provinces 
for this object. 

(L) For you are able to inspire those (borderers) with confidence and (to secure 
their) welfare and happiness in this world and in the other world. 

(M) And if (you) act thus, you will attain heaven, and you will discharge the 
debt (which you owe) to me, ; . ^ ! : 

(N) And for the following purpose has this rescript been written here, (viz.) in order 
that the Mahamatras may strive , at all times to inspire (my) borderers with confidence 
and (to induce them) to practise morality. , ' 

(O) And this rescript must be listened to (by all) every four months on (the day 
of) Tishya. 

(P) And it may be listened to also between (the days of Tishya). 

(Q) It may be listened to even by a single (person) when an occasion offers. 3 

(B) And if (you) act thus, you will be able to carry out (my orders). 



VII. THE ROMRAY-SOPARA FRAGMENT OF THE EIGHTH 

ROCK-EDICT 



5 fsnfercr 

6 (e) |?t ^ itfrr • * • • • 4 r ♦ 

9 • ^ ^ ttfiT ^^ • • • — 



5 nikhamitha Sa 3 . . . , , 

6 (E) heta iyaih [ho]ti bam[bha] 

7 vudhanarh dasane 4 [cha] hiraihna-patividhane cha 

8 [dha*]mmanusa[thi] * dhamma . .......... 

9 . . ye [ra]ti G hoti De 

10 ■ ■ ■ i n[e] bhage am , . 



1 With asvasa\ii\iya cf. visvamsayitdve on the Sarnath pillar, 11. 8 and 9, 

3 The two words khane sathtam are nominatives absolute ; c£ above, p. 97, n. 3, 

3 nikhamitha sath Bhagvanlal Indraji. . - 

4 These two words are entered above the line, 

0 °sathi Bh, I- . 6 rati Bh. L 



Page 118 



BOMBAY-SOPARA FRAGMENT OF THE EIGHTH ROCK-EDICT 




Scale One-third 



SECOND PART: THE PILLAR-EDICTS 

I. THE DELHI-TOPRA PILLAR 

FIRST PILLAR-EDICT: DELHI-TOPRA 

■ 

North Face of Pillar. 

i (a) ^n^fa^ fira^fa <*nr H <b) ^i^fk- 
5 wfa ^i|5fT (d) to *3*ft *ra ^nprftrar 

9 TT^TOTHI fa (G) TO ft fzfo H MMH'l- fTOra 

10 9*5* $fipRT Htift fa 

1 (A) Devanampiye Fiyadasi laja hevarii aha (B) saduvisati- 

2 vasa-abMsitena me iyam dhaihma-lipi likhapita 

3 (C) hidata-palate dusaihpatipadaye amnata agaya dhamma-kamataya 

4 agaya palikhaya. agaya su[siQyaya agena bhayena 

5 agena usahena (D) esa chu kho mama amisathiya 

6 dharhmapekha dhamma-kamata cha suve suve vadhita vadhlsati cheva" 

7 (E) pulisa pi cha me ukasa cha gevaya cha majhima cha anuvidhiyamtl 

8 sampatipadayamti cha alam chapalam samadapayitave (P) hemeva anjta- 

9 mahamata pi (G) esa 1 hi 2 vidhi ya iyam dhammena palana dhammena vidhane 
10 dhammena sukhiyana .dhammena got! ti 

i ■ - 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya FriyadarSin speaks thus. 

(B) This rescript on morality was .caused to be written by me (when I had been) 
anointed twenty-six years. 

(C) (Happiness) in this (world) and in the other (world) 3 is difficult to secure 

* 

1 esa Buhlen 

" pi Senart and Biihler ; hi is quite distinct on the inked estampages. 

3 With the base pdlata y which is derived from the Sanskrit adverb paratra^ cf. paratrika at 
Girnar (= palarhUkya at Kalsl, and patatika elsewhere)- 



120 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

without great love of morality, careful examination, great obedience, great fear (of sin), 

■ * 

(and) great energy- 

(D) But indeed by my instruction this regard for morality and love of morality 
have been promoted day by day 1 and will progress still (more). 

(E) And my agents 3 also, both the high ones 3 and the low ones * and those of 
middle rank, are conforming to and practising (morality), (and are thus) able to stir 
up 6 fickle (persons). 

(P) In the same way the Makamatras of the borderers B also (are acting). 
' (G) For (their) instruction (is) this, viz. 7 to protect according to morality, to 
dispose according to morality, to cause pleasure 8 according to morality, (and) to guard 
(their speech) 9 according to morality, 

;•' . .-. 
i- 

SECOND PILLAR-EDICT: DELHI-TOPRA 

North Faee of Pillar. 

12 ^it 31% (d) ^f^rc fq ^ ^ifRre (e) 

14 <lR«WP? (F) 'SHlfH ft $ ^gfH ^RT^nfH ^ifa (G) UrTPt ^ 
16 Wl^iT ^ ftH ^ ft (H) ^^^^qfetr^fcT«^^?ftffT 

10 (A) Deyanampiye Piyadasi laja 10 

11 hevaih aha (B) dhamme sadhu kiyaih chu dhamme ti (C) apasinave 11 bahu kayane 

12 daya dane sache sochaye (D) chakhu-dane pi me 12 bahuvidhe dimne (E) dupada- 



1 For stcve stive := Skt svah svah (literally: f to-morrow to-morrow'), see Childers, Pali 
Dictionary \ s. v- sve. 

2 I adopt V. A. Smith's translation of pulisa ; see his Aso&a 9 sec. ed,, p, iSs, n. 3. Cf. the pillar- 
edict IV, G, and VII, M, 

3 ukasa (= uikarshd) is used in the sense of utkrishta. 

* This meaning oigevaya is evident from the context. Biihler (Zt)MG, 48. 6a) derived gevaya 
(for *gevaka) from the rootgev^ to which the DhaiMpatha attributes the meaning of sev, ' to serve*. 
For the change of k to y cf. supaddlaya % above, p. 33, n. 3. But the existence of the root gev is 
far from certain ; see Liiders, SPAW, 191 3. 991 and n, 1. 

5 For samadapeii see Childers, Pali Dictionary \ s> v. samddiyatu 
' G Cf. the separate edict II at Dhauli (M) and at Jaugada (N). 

7 For this meaning of yd iyam see Senart, I A, 17. 305, who compares with it the Pali expres$ion 
yad idafiu * 

* Cf. the pillar-edict IV, E, and VII, V. 

9 Cf. the rock-edict XII, D. 

10 laja Senart and Buhler. 

11 A superfluous horizontal stroke is attached to the left side of the lower portion of ve. 

12 A vertical stroke is attached to the bottom of me. 



SECOND PILLAR-EDICT: DELHI-TOPRA 121 

13 chatupadesu pakhi-valichalesu vividhe me anugahe kate a pana- 

14 dakhinaye (P) amnani pi cha me bahuni kayanani katani (G) etaye me 

15 athaye iyarii dhamma-lipi likhapita hevam anupatipajaihtu chilarh- 

16 thitika cha hotu t! ti 1 (H) ye cha hevam sampatipajlsati se sukatarii kachhatl 2 ti 

+ 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadarfiin speaks thus. 

(B) (To practise) morality is meritorious ; but what does morality include ? 3 

(O) (It includes) few sins,* many virtuous deeds, compassion, liberality, truthfulness, 
(and) purity. 

(D) The gift of spiritual insight 5 also has been bestowed by me in many ways. 

(E) On bipeds and quadrupeds, on birds and aquatic animals various benefits 
have been conferred by me, (even) to the boon of life* 8 

(P) And many other virtuous deeds also have been performed by me. T 

(G) For the following purpose was this rescript on morality caused to be written 
by me, (viz.) in order that (men) might conform to it, and that it might be of long 
duration. ' 

(H) And he who will act thus will perform good deeds. 3 

■ i 

i 

THIRD PILLAR-EDICT: DELHI-TOPRA 

North Face of Pillar. 

is ^ fff (q) ^ fkn tmi^rfw ^ m% ^? fn ^ mfmk 

19 ^tot fw (p) ^ ^ n*n (e) ^ ^ uti^fistf (p) ^nftr 

20 wftRW»tfH f^ffi^ €l§ wti 

21 qnoj^i ^ ^rftprofro (g) to ^ra^fa^ -(h) ^ *t 

^ The remaining versions read hotu (u Three verses of Manu in which iti is doubled are quoted 
in Bohtlingk and Roth's WSrterhuch, I, p. 790, 1. 18^ Cf. also Uti t[t] at Kalsi, XII, D. 

2 An apparent Anusvara after Ma is probably accidental. 

3 Burnouf (Lo^is i p. 667) explained hiyam — Skt. kiymu 

* asiuava is a dialectic variety of the Jaina term anhaya which is derived from d+sttu; see 
Weber's fnd. Stitdim % 16. 336, n. 7, and Michelson, IF, 33. 367 f. The corresponding Pali term is 
asava, which is Sanskritized by asrava or asrava. See Burnouf, Lotus } p. 822 f- ; Sarvadarsana- 
samgralta^ translated by Cowell and Gough, p. 53 f.; ZDMG, 73- 149. With the compound 
apasinave cf. apa-vyayatd, apa-phalam, and apa-parisrave in the Girnar edict III, 1. 5, IX, 1. 3, and 
X, 1. 3, respectively. 

, 5 Literally : ( the gift of the eye \ According to the IHvuttaha (ed. by Windisch, p, 53), the 
three chdkkhuni are mavtsa-chakkku, dibba-chakkhu, and panna-chakhhu \ see BUhler, ZDMG, 48, 6%. 
q 6 For details of these regulations see the pillar-edict V. 
7 Cf. the rock-edict V, D- 8 Cf, the same edict, E. 

1 

iflia R 



i22 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

17 (A) Devanaihpiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) kayanammeva dekhati iyam me 

18 kayane kate ti (C) no mina papain d[e]khati iyaih me pape kate ti iyam va asinave 

19 nama ti (D) dupatiyekhe chu. kho esa (E) hevam chu. kho esa dekhiye (P) imam 

20 asinava-gammi nama atha chaihdiye nithuliye kbdhe mSne isya 

21 kalanena va hakam ma palibhasayisarii (Q) esa badha dekhiye (H) iyam me 

22 hidatikaye iyammana me palatikaye - . : - . , 

f 

TRANSLATION 

• * • ■ 

(A) King Devananipriya PriyadarSin speaks thusV 

(B) (Men) regard only (their) virtuous deeds, (thinking) : ' This virtuous deed has 
been performed' by me/: : ""- : — ' ; . -"^ 

(O) They do not at all 1 regard (their) evil deeds, (thinking) : 1 This evil deed 
has been performed by me ; this Very (act) is called a sin/ 2 ^ 

(D) Now this is indeed difficult to recognize. 

(E) But indeed this ought to be regarded thus : 

(I*) 'These (passions), viz. fierceness, cruelty, anger, pride, envy, are called 
sinful. 3 Let me not 4 ruin (myself) by (these) very (passions)/ 

(G) The following ought to be specially regarded : 

(H) ' This (action conduces) to my (happiness) in this (world), that other (action) 5 
to my (happiness) in the other (world)/ 

» 

FOURTH PILLAR-EDICT: DELHl-TOPRA 

West Face of Pillar. 

■ ■ ■ . . 

'■: ■,> - - - » - • ■ •. * ' * .... . , - 

i (a) ^rrafa^ ftw#f wrs w^r (b) ^i^^ft^r- 

3 TiFwirai^ sffjfe (d) for $ srftfiffc' 

4 ^ % % ^ fsiifff sy^st s#*r 

1 Michelson (IF, 'ag:a$6 £) dissolves mm ina into m amma, and identifies miiina with the Pali 
amino, to which he attributes the meaning 'also'; but this word rather means * hereby Biihler 
(EI, a. 351, n. 21) seems to be right in taking no mina Skt. na hnanak* For the change of a to i 
cf. Fischers Gramniatik, §§ 101-103* , -s 

2 For dsinava see above, p. isi, n, 4. ■ : ■ ' 

\ 3 With" the compound dsindva-gamin cf. ava~gamuka in the first separate edict at Dhauli (G) 
and Jaugada (H). . ■ - ^ . 

4 See Michelson, IF, 33. 363. To the reasons adduced byhini against taking ma to be the 
accusative of the pronoun mad, we may add that, if ma were the object of palibhasayisam, it would 
be an unidiomatic substitute of Skt. atmanam. 

6 Michelson (IF, 23* 337 f.) connects mana with Skt. manak, and Biihler translated it by f at 
least'. The adverb mana does occur in the Jataka^ vol. I, p. 405, verse 97, where it means 
1 nearly*. I suspect that iyammana represents Skt. idam anyaU For the Sandhi cf. kayanam- 
meva in line 3:7; hevammeva (or °va) in the Allahabad-Kosam pillar-edict VI, D a the Dhauli 
separate edict I, L 13, the Jaugada separate edict II S 1. 4 S and the Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription 3 F ; 
sttkhaihmeva in the Dhauli separate edict II, L 5, and the Jaugada separate edict II, 1. 6. 



DELHI-TOPRA PILLAR; NORTH FACE 



Page 122 




Scale One-sixth 





FOURTH PILLAR-EDICT : DELHI-TOPRA 123 

8 WcJTO^fff (F) c*^JST fa <*Sfrf ■qft^foJiTt H (G) gfrWlfa fa $ 

9 s^fcr tf^frwifH (h) 9 ft ^ mfa ft^f^^ %r ^ c?^r 

10 ^rfa ^nwrefarf^ (i) sroi f? tpf i^fin^ wfircr ft 

11 sa^r$ frfi* ft^nr *nffr ^rfw % nai- ^ 

12 l^(^^^t(^%^tt^ 

13 ^r^j hit ^rfwrr #nfa Tj^?it^f?r wfa ^j^rr 

19 (W)f^ff^%^f^^ 





1 (A) Devaiiaiiipiy© Piyadasi l[a]ja fevam aha (B) saduvisati-yasa^ 

2 abhisitena me iyam dhamma-lipi Jikhapita (C) lajuka me ~ ' ' 

3 bahusu pana-sata-sahasesu janasi ayata ,(D) tesaift ye abhihale va . . . 

4 damde va ata-patiye me kate kitfiti lajuka asvatha abhita , !.>-]/. 

5 kammani pavatayevQ janasa janapadasa hita-sukham upadahev^ , 

6 anugahinevu cha (B) sukhlyana-dufelKyanaiii janisaihti dhamma^yutena cha; 

7 viyovadisathti janam jaiiapadam kiniti hidatam cha palatam cha 

8 aladhayevu ti ((F) lajuka pi lagharhti patichalitave mam (G) pulisani pi me 

9 chhamdarimaru patichalisamti (H) tQ ;pj cha kani viyovadisaiiiti yena mam lajuka 

10 chaghamti aladhayitaye (I) atha hi paja&i viyataye dhatiye nisijitu " 

11 asvathe hoti viyata dhati chaghati me ; pajaih sukhaih palihatave 

12 hevam mama lajuka kata, janapadasa hita-sukhaye (J) yena ete abhita 

13 asvatha samtaih avimana kaihm5ni piy^tayevu ti etena me lajukanaih 

14 abhjTJhale 1 va damde va ata-patiye -ka|e ichhitaviye [h]i esa kimti \ 

15 viyohala-samata cha siya dariwja-samatj cha (L) ava ite pi cha me avuti 

16 bamdhana-badhanath munisanaiii til[i]ta-damdanam 2 pata-yadhanam timni 

divasa[n]i me / ' ' , ' V ' / : 

17 yote diriine (21) natika va kani nijh^payisamti jlvitaye tanam 

18 nasamtam va nijhapayita danam dahamti palatikam upavasam va kachhamti 

19 (N) ichha hi me hevam niludhasi pi kSlasi palatam aladhayevu ti (O) janasa cha 

20 vadhati vividhe dhamma-chalarie saniyame dana-sayibh%e ti , ; 



l . 3 ^ r 



i J 



abhihale Buhler. 



2 tilita- Senart and Buhler. 



DELHI-TOPRA PILLAR; WEST FACE 




Scale One-sixth 



i24 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

TRANSLATION 

(A) King Devanampriya Priyadar^in speaks thus. 

(B) This rescript on morality was caused to be written by me (when I had been) 
anointed twenty-six years. 

(0) My Lajukas 1 are occupied with the people, with many hundred thousands 
of men. 2 

(D) I have ordered that either rewards s or punishments are left to their 
discretion,* in order that the Lajukas should perform (their) duties confidently (and) 
fearlessly, that they should bestow welfare and happiness on the people of the country, 
and that they should confer benefits (oft them). 

(E) They will know how to cause pleasure 6 and to cause pain (to them), and will 
exhort the people of the country through those who are devoted to morality, 6 in order 
that they may attain (happiness) both in this (world) and in the other (world). 

(F) The Lajukas also must obey me. 7 

(G) They will also obey the agents 8 who know (my) wishes. 

(H) And these (agents) twill also exhort those (people), 9 in order that the Lajukas 
may be able to please me, 10 

(1) For, as one feels confident sifter having entrusted (his) child to an intelligent 11 
nurse, (thinking) : * The intelligent nurse will be able to keep my child well \ so the 
Lajukas were appointed by me for the welfare and happiness of the country-people. 12 

(J) In order that they should perform (their) duties, being fearless, confident, (and) 
unperturbed, 13 for this (purpose) I have ordered that either rewards or punishments are 
left to the discretion of the Lajukas. 

1 For Lajuka or Rajiika see above, p. 5, it. 3. 

2 For ayata cf. above, p. 95, n. 4. 

3 In the Jataka the word abhihara has the meaning of ( a present, an offering'; see Biihler, 
ZDMG, 46, 539 f. s and Liiders, SFAW, 1913. 991 f. 

* As shown by LUders (SPAW, 1913. 990 f) y ata-patiya is an adjective formed of atman+pati 
with the affix -ya, which seems to stand for -ka ; see Franke, VOJ, 9. 347. Cf. nilathiya in the Kalsi 
rock-edict IX, C, and atha-bhdgiya on the Rummindel pillar, C. 

4 Cf. sttkkiyana in the pillar-edict 1, 1. io, and $tikhayana y VII, V. 

e Biihler translated dhamma-yittena by ' in accordance with the principles of the sacred law 
In the pillar-edict VII, N, dhamvia-yu\td\vi is an adjective qualifying janam> ( the people who are 
devoted to morality a . The same translation suits dhama-yute\?zd\ at Maski, 1. 5, and the substantives 
dhrama-yutasa and dhrama-yuiasim the Shahbazgarhi rock-edict V (J, K, N), which, as the variant 
\dhamvid\-yutdnam at Girnar (V, K) shows, are used (just as here) in a collective sense. V. A. Smith 
(Asoka y sec. ed, p. 185) and Luders (SPAW, 1913. 99a) understand the word dharma-yukta to be 
the collective designation of certain officials. 

7 Kern {Jaartelling i p. 96) compared laghatitti with Skt arhantL 

8 Luders (SPAWjigi^ 992 ff.)has shown that pidisani is the accusative of ptdisa, which occurs 
in the pillar-edict I, E, and VII, M ; cf. above, p. 30, n. 1, 

9 For kani see above, p. 35, n. is* 

30 For chaghati = Skt. iakshyati see above, p. 97, n. 4. 

* Kern {Jaar telling, p. 99) first identified viyata with Skt. vyahta, which, according to the 
Amardkosa, has also the meaning of prajiia, and which is used with this meaning in Buddhist 
Sanskrit; see Bohtlingk's Abridged Dictionary, s. v. 3Rfi 5 and Asvaghosha's Smmdarananda, II, 38." 
13 I follow Senart and Luders (SPAW, 1913. 1009 f.) in making this section end here. ■ 
13 samiam is a nominative singular absolute. See Luders, SPAW, 1913. 1010 f., and cf, above, 
p. 97, n. 3. ; 



FOURTH PILLAR-EDICT: DELHI-TOPRA ' 125 

1 

(K) For the following is to be desired, (viz,) that there should be both im- 
partiality in judicial proceedings and impartiality in punishments. 

(Ii) And my order 1 (reaches) even so far 2 (that) a respite of three days is granted 
by me to persons lying in prison on whom punishment has been passed, 8 (and) who 
have been condemned to death. 

(JUL) (In this way) either (their) relatives will persuade 4 those [Lajukas) to (grant) 
their life, or, if there is none who persuades (them), 6 they will bestow gifts or will 
undergo' fasts in order to (attain happiness) in the other (world). 0 

(N) For my desire is this, that, even when the time (of respite) has expired, 7 they 

■ r 

should attain (happiness) in the other (world). 

(O) And various moral practices, self-control, (and) the distribution of gifts are 
(thus) promoted among the people* 

T 
I 

FIFTH PILLAR-EDICT: DELHI-TOPRA 

South Face of Pillar* 

■m 

\ 

\ 

3 ^ stfesRT ^^rr% ill 

5 vfMI^Ai tt$W& fOT^F 

6 *hft ffcrrift inwft 

■ 

1 With avuti = ayu&ti (Senart) cf. -avutike in the Dhauli separate edict II, 1.-8 = ~ay[ut]i£e at 
Jaugada, II, 1.1%; vishava at Sarnath (L io), Shahbazgarhl, and Mansehra, and visava at Kalsi 
= vi[sd\ya at Girnar, XIII, R; supadarave at Mansehra = sitpadalaye at Kalsi, Dhauli, and 
Jaugada, V, G ; sochave in the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, L a8 = sochaye in edict II, h m. 

2 Senart (IA, 18. 9) translated ava ite (= Skt. yavad ifa/t) by 'from this day\ I follow 
Butter's rendering (EI, 3* 254), and compare ava-gamti\k\e in the first separate edict at Dhauli (G) 
and Jaugada (H). Michelson (IF, 33. 236) compares ava with Avestan yavat, and ava, the reading 
of three other versions of this edict, with Ancient Persian yava* 

8 With illita-damda c£ tiriiam (&at>yam) t Manu, IX, 233, and atka-smh&rana at Girnar, VI, 
IK 9, 10. 

4 Literally: f will induce to meditate or consider*. Luders (SPAW, 1913. 1033 f.) quotes na 
machchuno nijjliapanam karo?iti from the Jataka* The means of * persuasion ' was evidently the 
payment of ransom ; cf. the Katttiliya, p. 146, last line : ^gnfNTT: 4M«IT«t«MI' *T ^qfowi 
[^WTTT] 

fi Three other versions read : * if there is none to persuade (them) \ Luders (SPAW, 19x3, 1033) 
has explained nasamtam as the nominative singular absolute of the participle present of nathi 
(Skfc nastt). 

6 As shown by Luders (SPAW, 1913. 1034 f,), the prisoners themselves are the subject of the 
last sentence* 

7 Buhler (EI, 2. 354, n, %%) took niruddhe *pi kale in the sense of nirodha-kale 'pi, ' even during 
(their) imprisonment Luders (SPAW, 1913. 1036) translates ; ' even in limited time \ and Thomas 
(JRAS, 1916. 133) : 'though their hour of death is irrevocably fixed*. In favour of my rendering 
I may quote Childers, s. v. niruddho* 



.126 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

9 ft? ^ ^>rft ^Nrf^ (d) ^Tfft sft ^f%^ (e) ^ 

10 3t H^rrM 0?) sstcst^ ftf|*n^ ^ w^irf^ 

11 (g) jfft«T fflraM (h) inq.^qRO^ frrapi TfiTnftra 

13 sr^fttf sraftra ft ft%iift% (i) *mf*t-%3T f^HTf^r 
u «it»ot% %w^ft»rfti ^nfH thrift ft sfNftcfiraTft 

is (k) f?rsrrc *pn^f% ^t<j srcflro ^*nftrora %raT 

1 (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevath aha (B) saduvisat>vasa^ 

2 abhisitena me imam jatani avadhiyani katani seyatha 

3 suke salika alune chakavake haihse nasidimukhe gelate 

4 jatuka amba-kapilika dall 1 apathika-machhe vedaveyake . 

5 Gamga-puputake sarhkuja-machhe kaph at[a}-s ayake paihna-sase simale 

6 sathdake okapimde palasate seta-kapote gaxna-kapote 

7 save chatupade ye patibhogarh no eti na cha khadiyati 2 (C) ; . . . i 3 

8 [e]laka 4 cha sukali cha gabhini va payaimna va avadhi[y . p . ta]ke 5 

9 pi cha kani asaihmasike (D) vadhi-kukute no kataviye (E) tuse sajlve 

10 no jhapetaviye (F) dave anathaye va vihisaye va no jhapetaviye 

11 (G) jivena jive no pusitaviye (H) tlsu chaturiimasisu tisayarii pumnamasiyam 

12 tirhni divasani chavudasam pamnadasarh patipaday[e] dhuvaye cha 

13 anuposathaih machhe avadhiye no pi viketaviye (I) etani, yeva 6 divasani 

14 naga-vanasi kevata-bhogasi yani ariinani pi jiva-nikayani 

15 no hamtaviyani (J) athaml-pakhaye chavudasaye pamnadasaye tisaye 

16 punavasune tlsu chaturiimasisu sudivasaye gone no nllakhitaviye 

17 ajake edake sukale e va pi ariine nilakhiyati no nllakhitaviye 

18 (K) tisaye punavasune chaturhmasiye chatuihm asi-p akh aye asvasa gonasa 

19 lakhane no kataviye (L) yava-saduvisati-vasa-abliisiteiia mdetaye 

20 amtaUtaye-parimavtsati bamdhana-mokhani katani 

■ 

L 

'• ■ ■ 
■ 1 - — — — — I 1 1 ■ ■ ■ — — — — ~ — ■■ ' ■■ ■ I ■ I - .. _J. 

F + 

1 dadi Biihler : ; but see his Ind* PaL, § 16, C, 41, and Liiders in JRAS, ign. 1088, Three 
other versions read duli, and the Allahabad-Kosam pillar dudi. 
3 khadiyati Biihter* 

0 Three other versions read afaka nSnu 4 edahd Bfihler, 

5 Restore avadhiyd potake* 6 yeva Btihler- 



FIFTH PILLAR- EDICT : DELHI-TOPRA 127 

H 

" TRANSLATION ; 

(A) King Devanampriya Friyadan&in speaks thus. 

(B) (When I had been) anointed twenty-six years, the following animals were 
declared by me inviolable, viz. 1 parrots, mainas, the aruna, ruddy geese, wild geese, the 
nandlmukha, the geldta, bats, queen-ants, 2 terrapins, 3 boneless fish, the vedaveyaka, the 
Gahga-pufiutaka, skate-fish, 4 tortoises 5 and porcupines, squirrels (?), fl the srimara? bulls 
set at liberty, 8 iguanas (?), the rhinoceros, 9 white doves, domestic doves, (and) all the 
quadrupeds which are neither useful nor edible. 

(O) Those [she-goats], ia ewes, and sows (which are) either with young or in milk, 
are inviolable, and also those (of their) young ones (which are) less than six months old. 

(D) Cocks must not be caponed. 

(E) Husks containing living animals must not be burnt. 

(F) Forests must not be burnt either uselessly or in order to destroy (living 
beings). 

* 

1 seyatfid = Tali seyyatM and Skt. iadyaihm* 

2 Michelson (IF, 0,66 f.) dissolves aihb&kapilika into *ambaka (an adjective formed of ambd) 
and *pllika (for pipilika by haplology). But it seems easier to divide the word into avtbd and 
kapiliha = Pali kipillika. The Allahabad-Kosam pillar actually reads amba-kipilika. Skt. pipilika 
has been changed to kapllikdy &c. through dissimilation ; cf. Trenckner's Pali Miscellany } p. 59. 

a Monmohan Chakravarti (Memoirs, ASB, 1. 368) takes d[u]lz in the sense of 'the female' 
tortoise \ But tortoises are mentioned separately in the sequel. 

4 With samkuja Senart (I A, 18. 75) compares Skt. sahkuchi or smnkucki^hicYi may be derived 
from samkuch, 1 to contract \ 

5 The identification of haphata with Skt. Uamatlta is due to Senart ; see I A, 18, 75. 
0 This doubtful explanation of parifa-iaia was proposed by Buhler; see EI, 3, 360. 
7 This animal is mentioned in the JCautiliya, p. 100, 1. 13. 

a C. M. Mulvany (IA, 37. an) remarks that this translation of sanfafta is improbable because 
* Hindus would hardly kill a bull'; but matters may have been different in Anoka's time. Cf. the 
reference in Kalidasa's Meghaduta (v. 45) to* king Rantideva who, according to the Mahabharaia 
(7, 67, 5; is, ag, 3*23; 13. 66, 43 f.) s sacrificed so many cows that their blood formed the river 
Charma^vati, According to the Saiapatha-Brahmanm (III, 1, %, ai), Yajnavalkya was fond of 
tender beef. At the beginning of ; the fourth act of Bhavabhuti's U ttararamacharita it is stated 
that a heifer {vatsaictri) was slaughtered by Valmiki in honour of Vasishtha's visit to his hermitage. 
According to Panini, III, 4, 73, gdghna means 'a guest* because a cow is kiHed for him. Paraskara 
(I, 3, 37) specifies the verse which had to be recited at the killing of the cow. Apastamba 
(Grifiyasutra, I, 3, 9) permits the slaughter of a cow at the reception of a gjiest, at the worship of 
the manes, and at the celebration of a marriage; cf. Manu, V, 41. For a description of the sulagava 
or c spit-ox' offered to Rudra, see Hillebrandt's Ritual-Litter atur, p. 83 f. The Buddhist Suttas 
mention beef-butchers ; see Neumann's translation 1 of the Dtghanikaya, vol II 9 p* 448* n. 5, Cf. also 
Memoirs, ASB, 1. 373 ; Macdonell and Keith, Vedie Index, vol. II, p. 145 ; Hastings* Encyclopedia 
of Religion and Ethics, article 'cow' by Jacobi. 

9 According to Trenckner's Pali Miscellany, p, 58, n. 6, palasaia (=Vedic parasvai) is the 
original of Pali palasada, 1 a rhinoceros ', and the latter, which means literally 'eating leaves 1 , is an 
etymologizing corruption of the former. The form paldsdda occurs in the Jataka, V, p. 406, v. 367, 
and palasaia ibid., VI, p* 377, v. 1205; see Kern's Toevoegselen op V Woordenboek van Childers 
(Amsterdam, 1916), II, p- 13. 

10 For the pronoun nam see above, p. 13, n. 5. Luders (SPAW, 1913. 998, n. 1) has refuted a 
suggestion of Franke (VOJ, 9. 343), who wanted to join ajakdndni into one word, and to consider 
it a Prakrit form of ajaka* Just as the nom, plur. neut. nani is connected here with the nom. 
sing, fem. ajdka, and with the nom. sing. neut. site in the Queen's edict, 1. 4, kani is combined with 
the nom. sing. masc. potake in 1, 9 ; see Luders, p. 997, and cf. above, p. 35, n. la. 



i28 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

(G) Living animals must not be fed with (other) living animals. 

(H) Fish are inviolable, and must not be sold, on the three Chaturmasis 1 (and) on 
the Tishya full-moon 3 during three days, (viz.) the fourteenth, the fifteenth, (and) the 
first (tit/it), and invariably on every fast-day. 3 : 

(I) And during these same days also no other classes of animals which are in the 
elephant-park 4 (and) in the presefves of the fishermen, must be killed. 

(J) On the eighth (tithi) of (every) fortnight, 5 oh the fourteenth, on the fifteenth, 
on Tishya, on Punarvasu, on the three Chaturmasis, (and) on festivals, 6 bulls 7 must not 
be castrated, (and) he-goats, rams, boars, and whatever other (animals) are castrated 
(otherwise), must not be castrated ;(then). 

(K) On Tishya, on Punarvasu, on the Chaturmasis, (and) during the fortnight of 
(every) ChaturmasT, horses (and) bullocks must not be branded. 

(L) Until (I had been) anointed twenty-six years, in .this period the release of 
prisoners was ordered by me twenty-five (times). 8 " 



SIXTH PILLAR-EDICT : DELHI-TQPRA 

■ - . . , . ' « i . ■ i . ' ■ . 

-I , ( 

r ■ i ■ it ■ lit** 

East Face of Pillar. ; 7 1 

1 (A) ^T?ffaw ffa^fe HPT |4 T (B) STO^ 

4 (c) |3 viVuir ffn$% fw Mfc3mfa sro ^ 

• * " . . ■ . - r ^ ■ 1 * * 

I ii h i . J Biq ■■■ i 

i f a ■ ■ ' - + - j I * •-i.j* m U ■''<■•-* 

» 

1 i, e. certain full-moon days of each of the three seasons (summer, rains, and winter); see 
Biihler, EI, %6i ff., and cf. the second separate edict at Dhauli (N) and Jaugada (O). 

s iisa (u e. iishya) % instead of which three other versions read fid (i.e. *tishi) t is the full- 
moon of the month Taisha or Fausha; see EI 3 a. 264. 

3 With the words dkuvaye chS amtposaihmh cf. anuposatham cha dhuvaye on the Sarnath 
pillar, I 8. -v' - - ■ " ■ *. . \ . 

4 For naga-vana see the Dhmmnapada y verse 334, and the Kautiltya^ p. 50. 

* In the compound athmnl-pakha the -usual order of the two members is reversed- Similar 
expressions were quoted by Buhler, EI, %. a66, and by Frarike in KZ, 34* 434. 

fl According to the KautiRya, p. 407, 4. 9 f h the ^king's birthday and local festivals are 
meant; see below, n, 8. . 3 

? For gona^ the Prakrit and Pali equivalent of Skt ^r'an ox 1 , see Fischers Grammaiik* 
§ 393- .". 

9 The occasions on which it was customary to release prisoners:are enumerated in the Kautiliya % 
p. 146 f. Cf. also Biihler, ZDMG, 48- 63 U and Zachariae, VOJ, 37. 406. : With sections C, H, J, 
and L of this edict cf. the Kautillya, p. 407 ; [Rfaafl^JHiUt ^psfl ^K^rt^^^ii r 

*9^3twra ^ ^fdM^< j '[having acquired a new territory, the conqueror] shall order all prisoners 
to be released « - • '.' . . . . , . and the slaughter (of animals) to be avdided on the Chaturmasyas during 
half a month, on full-moon days during four nights, on the king's birthday and on local festivals 
during one night, (and) shall prohibit the slaughter of femakis and (their) young opes and, the 
castration of males (on the same occasions).' 



DELHI-TOPRA PILLAR; 



SOUTH FACE 



Page 12S 




Scale One-sixth 



DELHI-TOPRA PILLAR; EAST FACE 



Page 129 




Scale One-sixth 



SIXTH PILLAR-EDICT: DELHI-TOPRA 129 

6 ftm wfk ^RiTrft f?r ira ^ fc^Tfa (d) 

10 ^*ft^ftf^Tfain 

1 (A) Devanampiye Fiyadasi laja hevam aha (b) duvadasa- 

2 vasa-abhisitena me dhamma-lipi likhapita lokasa . . 

3 hita-sukhaye se tarn apahata tam tam dhamma-vadhi papova 

4 (c) hevam lokasa hita-[sukhe] ti pativekhami atha iyam 

5 natisu hevam patiyasarhnesu hevam apakatfeesu . 

6 kimam kani sukham avahami ti tatha cha vidahami (D) hemeva 

7 sava-nikayesu pativekhami * (E) sava-pasamda pi me pujita 

8 vividhaya pajaya (F) e chu iyam at[a]na a pachQpagamane 

9 se me mokhya-mate (G) saduvisati-vasa^abMsitena me 
10 iyam dhammaJipi likhapita 

• TRANSLATION , 

.. .: .. . , ,■ . \ 1 ... ■; ' i ' \ . . • ..." . 

(A) King DavanaApriya Friyadar&n speaks thus. 

(B) (When I had been) anointed twelve years, rescripts on morality were caused 
to be written by me for die welfare .and happiness of the people, (in order that), not 
transgressing 3 those (rescripts), they might attain a promotion of morality in various 
respects. ' ■, r ; 

(C) (Thinking) : f thus the welfare and happiness of the people (will be secured) * f 
I am .directing my attention not only * to (my) relatives, but to those who are near 
and far, in order that 6 I may lead-them a to happiness, and I am instructing (them) 
accordingly. r ; 

(D) In the same manner I am directing my attention to all classes. 7 

(E) And all the sects have been honoured by me with honours of various kinds. 8 

1 A superfluous horizontal stroke is attached to the left side of the lower portion of ve ; cf. 
above; p* iso, n. ii. , 

a atuna BUhler; but see Fleet's note, IA, 13. 310. ; 

3 Kern dor tellings p/ 92 £) explained apahata by a-praharta 9 and translated it by 6 leaving 
untouched*. Franke (VOJ, 9, 344, n. %) suggested two slight modifications: apahata may 
correspond as well to *a-prakritva (Skt. a-prahritya) 3 and pra-hri may be taken in the sense of 
' transgressing I adopt this translation, but believe that Kern found the correct Sanskrit equivalent. 
The gerund in -iva would be without parallel in the earlier dialect; see Luders, SPAW 3 1913, 
1024, xl 1. Cf, also the nominative singular nijhapayita in the pillar-edict IV, M. 

4 With atha iyam cf. yathayidmh 9 'just as to Childers' Pali Dictionary* 

5 kimani (or kimmam as three other versions read) appears to be used in the sense of kimti, 
and to be an enlarged form of Skt. Mm, as Pali sudam of Skt svid. See the remarks of Senart in 
I A, 18. 10 f, and those of Franke in KZ, 34* 430. BUhler {EI f 2. 269) preferred to derive it from 
*kimva = kimiva*: 

\ ? See above, p. 35, n. 1^.. . r , 
7 Cfc the rocfcedict XIII, J. 8 Cf- the : rock-edict XII, A* 

1«3 : S 



130 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

■ 

(P) But this is considered by me (my) principal (duty), 1 viz. 2 visiting (the people) 
personally. 9 „, 

(G) (When I had been) anointed twenty-six years, this rescript on morality was 
caused to be written by me. 

■ ■ ^ 

■ I 

SEVENTH PILLAR-EDICT: DELHI-TOPRA 

A. — East Face of Pillar. • 

11 (a) "i<*wlM4 fti^ft HT^n ^n^r (b) if ^rfa^w 

12 mm m&ft |f W ^1 -msm 

14 ^rfs^T (C) TO ^fFiftii ft*!*^ 3Sfll[T (D) TO *t 

15 |qi (E) ^rfrl4iT ^ ^iT?y 3fk$ c7nn% 

16 ^hmmut $rafinr ^%*n fir 3t ^ st^ -srapPTRT 

it 4« A I <N « ««M 

is (g) ftpqg *r% gi^cfqu FT *N^ffe*n ^%*n fir (h) fkx% ^?rft 

19 vp^m^ ttafor fir d) im ^mrft^ fta^fa c*rsn 1H 

20 ^TfT (J) TO ^ |«n (K) MTOFWlft SHTtrarfa TOTffffaft 

21 ^rrarft (l) to 3i% ^rTppfftratafir ^rwpftsrfn 

A- — Hound the Pillar. 

,-* * 

22 qtHftirr ^ ^ts ^frof?r (m) toto $ sraro w^mrfH srraTftmftr 

- 

23 to^it (o) ^T'fft^ ftra^fa 1^ ^n^T (p) to^ h ^g^m^ 
*m*wrf*i ^nfk vm^mm *m -to * r ^ (a) ^r^lfa^ 
ft^ftr c*m IN w^t (r) *rc§ ft $ ft»rtfrfk wlm^difH 
^wfrrofir fftifir M^fam^i ^rerafi^ tftmftm (s) sre- 
^tft^nft ft 3 ^q^nft 

24 ^Hi m rM ri ifq firfa^iT ^ qrnyr ft in (t) ^himhiPh $ ^pjrft hh 

TTrT ^TWlftmft xr^»ft^ H qqfi W P! (u) * * * * * * TO 

1 Cf. the Shahbazgarhl rock-edict XIII, P« 2 C£ above, p. iao, n, 7. 

3 Cf. the rock-edict VIII, E, and atana agacha on the Rummindel and NigaK Sagar pillars* 
Senart (IA, 18. 107 f.) translated atana pachupagamane by c the personal adherence (to the sects) \ 
and Biihler (EI, 2. 368) by ' the approach through one's own free will V 



SEVENTH PILLAR-EDICT: DELHI-TOPRA 131 



«tpr (v) ftftvroT ft ^Fsn*rcrar yQyjHr? ft <*ratf? *m*n ^ 
^srftft <rft (w) 5^ 1 sfaT^sttfift ^qM^M^ii ft im^rr ft 

(x) firofe W 00 *mramr ft ft » 

*ffft§§ ^n^nfl^ ft^raTft TrasfhnH Pift^rw ^ 
* * • * is ft ^ fwrcrft (z) ^Nrafe ft ft 3£ sft fromr 



v ■ 

npiroi itfft ft ft^iaf ft ft ^& fft for m a l ft^ft 



(co) ^ ^ ^ft ^ ^fw ^Rfwift fwTCTft to %sr^ft3 
^ sraft ft ^rcTtafft ft ^|ft^?T TOnSt inft wift 

fjTRmsnft v$t • fts %^ .ftm^ xt (dd) tg^FfiR ft 

^ ft ^ mrt ^ftftiitfri ^ ^rcfts*ig ft^mreT ftfft ft 

WT*RER3Tft ^RT^Tft^fTR (EE) ft WFT^lft tfatTzftft ^ IT 

Vi ^ ^ift S% *Tft% SW% ^ <*fai3 |^ qfe flft ft (FP) 

^Ffftft ti * w^t (gg) *nft ft ^rftft 

SlftpIT HTOWlft ^v?Tft IT cTt^ ^PjJTCHft rf ^ ^^ftfNft (EH) 
ifcriftllT ^ 

^|ft#ft ^ THHlftf?!^ §3STCT SfSlIT ^RjN^M^M * ^r^qffr- 
^Rftq • * * si^ft oH^TT |^ m^l (JJ) gftSR ^ *IT ^4 Wfft 

^rftm §%ft ^ ^n^ff Mtf^roft* ^ ft^ft^T ^ 



ft Sffiflft «'<4ft4lftr (MM) SRlft 



^pi • • * ^rf*nmTft *nrft ft ^ift (nn) ftijftrar ^ ^ ^ gftsw 

^nRloWT^ tfTHR (00) ft JJffTO ^TR 3?i "35% ^HTW|ft% ^3Rgftjft% 

w?y^ ftffi (qq) SHft^rftwftft^T ft ^4 wiftjft ftra^nftwi 

ft (KB) nii^Rft^ (SS) 

S 2 



132 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

+ 

A. — East Face of Pillar. 

IX (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevaih aha (b) ye atikamtaih 

12 amtalath lajane husu hevaih ichhisu kathaih jane 

13 dhamm a- vadh iy a vadheya no chu jane anulupaya dhamma-vadhiya 

14 vadhitha (c) etam Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevaih aha (D) esa me 

15 hutha (E) atikamtaih cha aihtaml[a]m 1 hevaih ichhisu lajane kathaih jane 

16 anulupaya dhamma-vadhiya vadheya ti no cha jane anulupaya 

17 dhamma-vadhiya vadhitha (F) se kinasu jane anu[pa]tipajeya 3 

18 (G) kinasu jane anulupaya dhamma-vadhiya vadheya ti (H) k[i]nasu kani 

19 abhyumnamayeham dhamma-vaclhiya ti (I) etam Devanampiye Piyadasi laja 

hevaih 

20 aha (J) esa me hutha (K) dhaihma-savanani savapayami dh amm anusathin i 

* ■ ■ - 

21 anus[a]sami (L) etam jane sutu anupatlpajisati abhyuthnamisati 

■ 

i 

B. — Round the Pillar. 

22 dhamma-vadhiya cha badham vadhisatp] (II) etaye me athaye dhamma-savanani 

savapitani dhammanusathini vividhani anapitani [ya] \ \ [is]a 3 pi bahune 
janasi ayata e te * paliyovadisamti pi pavithalisamti pi (N) lajukS pi bahukesu 
pana-sata-sahasesu ayata te pi me anapita hevaih cha hevaih cha paliyovadatha 

23 janam dhamma-yu[ta]m (0) [Dev]anampiye Piyadasi hevaih aha (P) etameva me 

amivekhamane dhaihma-thambhani katani dhamma-mahamata kata dham[ma] 
f a K^e 5 kate (Q) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevaih aha (R) magesu pi 
me nigohani lopapitani chhayopagani hosamti pasu-munisanaih amba-vadikya 
lopapita (S) adha-[kos]ikyani pi me udupanani 

24 khanapapitani niihsi[dha]ya * cha kalapita (T) apanani me ba[h]ukani tata tata 

k[a]lapitani patlbhogaye p[a]su-munisanam (U) [la]4 S; 1 /^^ esa patibhoge nama 
(V) vividhay a hi sukhSyanaya pulimehi pi lajihi mamaya cha sukhayite loke . 
(W) imam chu dhammamipatlpali anupatlpajamtu ti etadatha me 

25 esa kate (X) Devanampiye Piyadasi hevaih aha (Y) dhamma-mahamata pi me 

te bahuvidhesu athesu anugahikesu viyapatase pavajitanaih cheva gihithanam 
cha savaPA ^?[d]esu a pi cha viyapatase (Z) saihghathasi pi me kate ime 
viyapata hohamti ti hemeva babhanesu a[j]ivikesu pi me kate. 

26 ime viyapata hohamti ti nigamthesu pi me kate ime viyapata hohamti nana- 

pasarhdesu pi 9 me [ka]te ime viyapata hohamti ti pativisithaih patlyisitham 
tesu tesu [te] mata 10 (AA) dhamma-mahamata chu me etesti cheva 

viya[pa]ta savesu cha amnesu pasaihdesu (BB) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja 
hevaih aha 



1 Read amtalam, which is the reading of Senart and Buhler. 

2 The pa of °pajeya is inserted above the line. 

3 Restore yathapidisa. * ete (in one word) Senart and Biihler. 
5 Restore dhamma-savam* 

0 nimsidhiya Buhler. 7 Restore lahuke chu. 

8 1 Restore sava-pasanidesu*. , ff ^/looks almost like ghi. 

10 Restore te te mahamata* When Fleet's plate (IA, 13. 310) was prepared; the missing letters 
were still visible. 



SEVENTH PILLAR-EDICT : DELHI-TOPRA 133 

27 (CC) ete cha amne cha bahuka mukha dana-visagasr viyapatase mama cheva 

deyinarii cha savasi cha me olodhanasi te bahuvidhena a[ka]lena tani tani 

tuthayatan[a]ni pati 1 hida cheva disasu cha (DD) dalakanarii pi cha 

me kate ariinanam cha devi-kumalanam ime dana-visagesu viyapata hohamti ti 

28 dhammapadanathaye dhammanupatipatiye (EE) esa hi dhammapadane dhamma- 

patipati cha ya iyam daya dane sache sochave madave sadha[v]e cha lokasa 

hevath vadhisati ti (FP) Devaiiarirpiye [P . s . 2 ljaja hevarii aha (GG) 

yani hi [k]anichi mamiya; sadhavani katani tarn, foke anup[a]fipamne tarn cha 
anuvidhiyariiti (HH) tena vadhita cha 

29 vadhisamti cha matarpit[i]su sususaya gulusu sususaya vayo-mahalakanam 

anupattpatiya babhana-samanesu kapana-valakesu ava dasa-bhatakesu 
sarhpatlpatiya; (II) Devaaiamppy 4. 1 i ya]dasi 3 laja hevam aha (33) 
munisanam chu ya iyam dhamma-vadhi vadhita duvehi yeva akalehL dhamma- 
niyamena cha nijhatiya [cha] 

30 (KK) tata chu lahu se dhamma-niyame nijhatiya va bhuye (LL) dhamma-niyame 

chu kho esa ye me iyam kate imani cha imani jatam; avadhiyani (MM) amnani 
pi chu bahu[k]a dhamma-niyamani yani me katani (NN) nijhatiya va chu 
bhuye munisanam dharhma-vadhi vadhita avihimsaye bhutanam 

31 analambhaye pananam (00) se etaye a[th]aye 6 iyam kate puta-papotike chamdama- 

suliyike hotu ti tatha cha anuj)attpajamtu ti (PP) hevam hi anupatlpajarhtam 
hi[da]ta-[pala]te aladhe hoti (QQ) satavisati-vasabhis[i]te3ia me iyam 
dhaihmaJibi likhapapita ti (BR) etam Devanaihpiye 0 aha (SS) iyam 

32 dhamma-Iibi ata athi sila-thambhani va sila-phalakani va tata kataviya ena esa 

chila-thitike siya 

TRANSLATION 

1 . 

(A) King Devanampriya PriyadarSin speaks thus. 

(B) The kings who were in times past, had this desire, that 7 men might (be made 
to) progress by the promotion of morality; but men were not made to progress by 
an adequate promotion of morality, , 

(G) Concerning this, 8 king Devanampriya Briyadarfiin speaks thus. . 
(D) The following occurred to me. 

(B) On one hand, in times past kings had this desire, that men might (be made to) 
progress by an adequate promotion of morality ; (but) on the other hand, men were not 
made to progress by an adequate promotion of morality. 

■ 

1 Buhler (EI a 3* 374, note k) restored paMpadayamti 7 which he translated by c they point out \ 
I suspect that the actual reading of the pillar was paUvedayamti\ &prativedaymhiu in the Jaugada 
rock-edict VI, D. 

2 Restore Piyadasi* 3 Restore °piye Piyadasu 
4 Restore bahukanu * B athaye Buhler. , 

* The late Dr. Fleet drew my attention to the fact that a peculiar mark is attached to the top 
of the de of Devanampiye^ and that there is a corresponding mark above the word a\tK\dye in section 
Op. This double kakapada or caret (cf t Kalh&nzLs Rajatdran^m, IV, 1x7) suggests that the writer 
wanted us to place sections B.R and SS before section 00. 

7 Franke (GN, 1895. 537) attributes to kaiham the meaning of *that'. Buhler . translated it 
by ( in some way \ 

8 Cf. the Shahbazgarhi rock-edict XI, D. 



I3 4 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

(F) How 1 then might men (be made to) conform to (morality) ? 

(G) How might men (be made to) progress by an adequate promotion of morality ? 

(H) How could I elevate 3 them 3 by the promotion of morality ? 

(I) Concerning this, king Devanaahpriya Priyadarsin speaks thus. 
(J) The following occurred to me. 

(K) I shall issue proclamations on morality,* (and) shall order instruction in 
morality (to be given). 

(Ii) Hearing this, men will conform to (it), will be elevated, and will (be made to) 
progress considerably by the promotion of morality- 

(M) For this purpose proclamations on morality wer^ issued by me, (and) manifold 
instruction in morality was ordered (to be given), j[in order that those agents} (of mine) 5 
too, who are occupied c with many 7 people, will exhort (them) and will explain (morality 
to them) in detail. 

(3ST) The Laju&as 8 also, who are occupied with many hundred thousands of men, 
—these too were ordered by me : c In such and such a manner 9 exhort ye the people 
who are devoted to morality Y 

(O) Devanampriya Priyadarsin speaks thus. 

(P) Having in view this very (matter), 10 I have set up pillars of morality, 11 
appointed Mahamdtras of morality, (and) issued [proclamations] on morality, 
(Q,) King Devanampriya FriyafiarSia speaks thus. 
" (R) On the roads banyan-trees were caused to be planted by me, (in order that) 
they might afford shade to cattle and men, 12 (and) mango-groves 13 were caused to be 
planted. 

. — — * 

1 Senart (IA, 18. 30a) explains kinasu = Pall kenasm and Skt. kena-svit ; cf. Childers, Pali 
Dictionary y s. v* assu. For m = svit see above, p. 99; n. 14* 

2 With the optative °namayeJiam cf. \pd\H[paday]e/iath and alabkekam in the Dhauli separate 
edict I, B, and yelmm in four versions of the rock-edict VI, L. " ' 

3 See above, p. 35, n.. 12. 

4 Buhler translated : 1 Sermons on the sacred law I will order to be preached With the 
meaning which I assign to sdvapayami^ cf. iyaiii savane savapiie at Brahraagiri (1. 5), for which 
the ^iddapura edict (1. 1 1) reads \iyd\m savane savite, and the Rupnath edict (1. 3) savane hap. 
These three records and the* Sahasram, Bairat, Maski, and Jatlnga-Ramesvara rock-inscriprions are 
actual specimens of the dhamvia-savanani to which A^oka is alluding here. 

6 See above, p. iso, n. 3. G See above, p. 95, n. 4. 

T With the locative bahzme Buhler (EI, %* 470, n. 68) compared punavasum in the pillar-edict V, 
11, 16 and 18, which, however, might be a dative. 
8 See ahove, p. 134, n. x. 
& Cf. the Dhauli separate edict I, 1. 1 ». 

10 ammhkamam is a nominative singular absolute. See above, p. 96, n. 11, and Liiders, 
SPAW, 1913. 1013. 

n As noted by Buhler (ZDMG, 46. 90)3 this is a reference to the pillars bearing the six first edicts, 

12 Cf. the rock-edict II, D. 

13 In aviba-vadihya and adha-[kos\ikya (below, section S) the h of the two affixes -ka and -ika is 
palatalized through the influence of the preceding vowel *, as frequently at Kalsi ; see there ndtikya^ 
palamiikya^ &c. The form amba-vadika occurs in the Queen's pillar-edict, 1. 3. The first member 
of this compound, amba (for the Sanskrit masculine amra), seems to be used as feminine ; c£ abika- 
hhati ( = *amrika-bkriti) at Junnar (ASWI, 4* 97, No. 36). The second member, vadika % is the 
regular Prakrit equivalent of Skt *vritika (= vriti, 'a hedge 1 ), while its usual Sanskrit synonym, 
vatika, presupposes the form *vartika\ cf. Wackernagel's Aliind* Grammatik, I, p. 168. 



DELHI-TOPRA PILLAR; CIRCULAR INSCRIPTION 



Page 134 




Scale One-sixth 



SEVENTH PILLAR-EDICT: DELHI-TOPRA 135 

i 

(S) And (at intervals) of eight kos 1 wells were caused to be dug by me, and flights 
of steps (for descending into the water) 2 were caused to be built 

(T) Numerous drinking-places 3 were caused to be established by me, here and 
there, for the enjoyment of cattle and men. 

(D) [But] this so-called enjoyment (is) [of little consequence} 4 

(V) For with various comforts have the people been blessed both by former kings 
and by myself. 

(W) But by me this has been done for the following purpose : 5 that they might 
conform to that practice of morality. 

(X) Devanampriya Priyadar&in speaks thus, 

(Y) Those 0 my Makamatras of morality too are occupied 7 with affairs of many 
kinds which are beneficial to ascetics as well as to householders, and they are occupied 
also with all sects. 



1 Fleet (JRAS, 1906. 401 ff.) showed that adha here represents Skt. Oshtan, and not 
ardha. According to Hiuen-Tsiang, Bana, and KautEIya (JRAS, 191a. 339), one yojana = eight 
kos — nine miles was considered a day's march of an 'army, while it would have been unnecessarily 
lavish and unpractical to sink wells and build rest-houses at distances of but little more than 
half a mile. 

3 Buhler read nifitstdhiyd, which he rendered by * rest-houses \ connecting it with nishidiya 
(from Skt. nishidati) in the Nagarjum Hill cave-inscriptions ; cf. also A raliaia-nisidiya-samipe in the 
Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela, 1. 15. LUders (SPAW, 1914* 85a) compares with it 
the Ardhamagadhi $e$ii = Skt. *Uishtu As sed/ii is synonymous with Skt. ireni % he attributes to 
nimsidhiyd the sense of Skt. ntimyani^ c a ladder, a flight of steps'. This meaning would fit the 
text admirably, but the actual reading of the pillar is miizsi\dhd\yai which would correspond to 
Skt. *nislishtaka. For the change of II to ms see Fischers Grammatik, § 74, and for dh ~ original 
$ht cf. adha- = ashta- at the beginning of section S. 

s With dpdna cf- prapd in the Nasik cave-inscription No. io, 1. 3 (EI, 8. 78), and in the 
Palitana plates of Simhaditya (EI, ix. 18, text 1. 13). I cannot refrain from quoting the following 
description from F- Drew's charming work, The Northern Barrier of India (London, 1877), p. 99: 
1 At this time of the year the ground is dry, and all the way from Akhnur the road has been hot and 
thirst-bringing. A good charitable custom of the Hindus brings relief to the traveller. On many 
a spot in the hottest part, perhaps at the summit of one of the steep rises of the uneven road, will 
be found a hut where cool water kept in clean porous vessels is at the service of any who may ask 
for it. The man in charge is probably a Braliman, so that people of every caste can take water 
from his hands ; he may have been placed there by some well-to-do Hindu, whose piety prompts 
him to this good work- It is the Brahman's business to bring the water from the nearest stream, 
which may be a long walk off, and distribute it to wayfarers. When the rains come, and water is to 
be found in every pool and little stream, the establishment will be no longer kept up. 1 The same 
charitable arrangement is evidently alluded to in the text of ASoka's pillar-edict- The Hindus are 
wonderfully conservative ; e. g, the bullock-cart and the carrying-pole (Hindi baJtahgl> Dravidian 
havadi) figured at Bharaut (Cunningham's Stupa of Bharhnt, plate 57 ; 4*j fig- * \ 4*i % 7 \ 45* 
%• 5 ; fig- 8) do not differ from those one sees at the present day, 

4 A similar phrase occurs in the Kalsi and Shahbazgarhl edict XIII, V, and below, section KK. 
fi For atha — athaya see above, p. 3a, n. 3- Although in the dialect of the pillar-edicts 

Skt. artha is generally represented by atha t the form atha (with dental f&) occurs also in section 
OO of the edict VII. Michelson's explanation of etadatkd (IF, 23. 348 f.) appears to me 1 too bold \ 
as he confesses himself. 

6 The pronoun ie seems to refer to section P, above. 

7 Franke (VOJ, 9. 349 £) has pointed out that viydpatase, which occurs twice in this section 
and once in CC, below, is the Prakrit equivalent of the Vedlc nominative plural in -asalu Cf. 
above/ p. 87, n. 3. 



136 THE INSCRIPTIONS. OF ASOKA 

(Z) Some {Makamafras) were ordered by me to busy themselves 1 with the affairs 
of the Sarngha ; s likewise others were ordered by me to busy themselves also with the 
Erahmanas (and) Ajivikas ; 3 others were ordered by me to busy themselves also with 
the Nirgranthas ; 4 others were ordered by me to busy themselves also with various 
(other) sects ; (thus) different Mahamatras (are busying .themselves) specially with 
different (congregations). 5 

(A A) But my Mahamairas of morality are occupied with these (congregations) as 
well as with all other sects, 

(BB) King Devanampriya Eriyadargirt speaks thus, 

(CC) Both these and many other chief (officers) 6 are occupied with the delivery of 
the gifts of myself as well as of the^ queens, and among my whole harem [they are 
reporting] in divers ways different worthy recipients of charity 7 both here 8 and 
in the provinces* - 

(BD) And others 9 were ordered by me to busy themselves also with the delivery 
of the gifts of (my) sons and of other queens' sons, 10 in order (to promote) noble deeds 
of morality (and) the practice of morality. 

(EE) For noble deeds of morality and the practice of morality (consist in) this, 
that (morality), viz. al compassion, liberality, truthfulness, purity, gentleness, and 
goodness, will thus be promoted among men, 

(FP) Emg DevanHmpriya Friyadarfiin speaks thus. 

(GG) Whatsoever good deeds have been performed by me, those the people have 
imitated, and to .those they are conforming, 

(HH) Thereby they have been made to progress and will (be made to) progress in 
obedience to mother and father, in obedience to elders, in courtesy to the aged, in 
courtesy to Brahmanas and £ramanas, to the poor and distressed, (and) even to slaves 
and servants. 



I Literally : ' it has been made by me that these will be occupied \ In the subsequent sentences 
I have translated ime tiy c others \ 

3 Le. the Buddhist clergy. V 

z For the Ajlvika sect see my last note on the first Barabar Hill cave-inscription. 

4 i. e. ,the Jaina monks. 

6 As remarked -by Senart (I A, x8. 305), the officers mentioned in this section are distinct from' 
the Dharma-mahainairas of sections Y and AA. 

6 As at Shahbazgarhl (XIII, 8) and Marisehra (XIII, 9), muhha corresponds to Skt. mukhya. 
Michelson (IF,. 23. 363 f.) prefers to identify it with Skt. muhha y because in mohhya (~ Skt. 
maukhya, . Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VI, 1. 9) the group hhy is not assimilated. But Skt. mtikha 
is always ;neuter, and the masculine mtikha seems to be a fiction of the Ko3as. Thomas renders 
bahtika viukhafoy f many departments'; see JRAS, 1915. 99. 

7 Kern .and Biihler (EI^ 3. 374) explained iuthayatan\a\7d by tiishty-ayatanani) f sources of 
contentment 1 , i. e. * opportunities for charity*. I adopt this suggestion, but prefer to take ayatana 
as a synonym oipatra or &rt&a t and follow LUders (SPAW, 1914. 853) in considering the first 
member of the compound to be tushta in the sense of tushtL . 

8 viz. in Pataliputra* Cf. above, p. 33, n. 10. 

9 Literally: 'these*. Cf. above, n. 1. 

10 Cf, the Kalst edict V, M, where As5ka mentions the harems of his brothers, sisters, and • 
other relatives. 

II See above, p. iao, in 7. Before yd iyam we may have to supply dhamme^ which includes the 
virtues that are enumerated after it ; cf. the pillar-edict II, C. I differ here slightly from Luders, 
SPAW, 1 9 14. 854. . " 



SEVENTH PILLAR- EDICT : DELHI-TOPRA 137 
(II) King Devanampriya PriyadarSin speaks thus. 

(J J) Now this progress of morality among men has been promoted (by me) only in 
two ways, (viz.) by moral restrictions and by conversion. 1 

(KK) But among these (two), those moral restrictions are of little consequence ; 
by conversion, however, (morality is promoted) more considerably. 

(LL) Now moral restrictions indeed are these, that I have ordered this, (that) 
certain animals are inviolable, 2 

(MM) But there are also many other moral restrictions which have been imposed 
by me. 

(NN) By conversion, however, the progress of morality among men has been 
promoted more considerably, (because it leads) to abstention from hurting living beings 
(and) to abstention from killing animals* 

(OO) Now for the following purpose has this been ordered, that it may last as long 
as (my) sons and great-grandsons (shall reign and) as long as the moon and the sun 
(shall shine), 3 and in order that (men) may conform to it 

(PP) For if one conforms to this,* (happiness) in this (world) and in the other 
(world) will be attained. 

(QQ) This rescript on morality was caused to be written by me (when I had been) 
anointed twenty-seven years. 

(SR) Concerning this, Devanampriya says, 6 

(SS) This rescript on morality must be engraved there, where either stone pillars 
or stone slabs are. (available), in order that 8 this may be of long duration. 



II. THE DELHI-MIRATH PILLAR 

FIRST PILLAR- EDICT : DELHI-MIRATH 

1 ♦ • ♦ • ♦ ?j fNvT% 

2 ^ 



• + 4 + + + * 



1 • • • C n am] dhammen[a] v[i]dh[ane] 

2 dha[me] 



SECOND PILLAR-EDICT : DELHI-MIRATH 

i ■ 

- » 

1 (a) ^TRftro fira^fa HTsr i^r * • (b) v§ m% f^i * * * * * fn 

2 (C) 3TCTftfll% ^| *J% ifaft (D) ^§3HT fa ^ 

1 Literally: ( by inducing to meditate'. C£ above, p. 69, n. 4. Thomas (JRAS, 1916. 12a) 
has shown that in Buddhist Sanskrit works nidhyapii has the meaning e reflection \ 
3 See the pillar-edict V, 

3 Cf- puta-pqpotike chamdama^sUriyike on the Samchl pillar, C, d-ckamdama-shuliyam in the 
three Nagarjuni Hill cave-inscriptions (IA 3 ao. 364 £), and a-chandrarkam in Sanskrit inscriptions, 

4 See above, p, 97, n. 3. . . 

6 This section and the next one may have to be placed before section OO ; see above, 

Hena is used in the same way in the Dhauli separate edict I, Y, and II, I and M. 
tits T 



7 



1 



I« r - 



138 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA : 

3 (e) $n^jq^[ qftra ifrwftq $ sig- 

1 (A) De[va]n[a]mpiye Piyadasi laja 1 [hpvam a:] ..(B) dh[aih]me s[a]dh[u] kpy a]m,. 

. , • . [mle ti 

2 (C) a[pa]sinave bahu kaySne daya dane sache sochaye (D) [chakhu-da]iia 2 [pi me] 

3 bahiividhe diihne (E) du[pa]da-ch[a]tu[pa]desu /pakhi-valic;hale[su viv]i[dhe me anu]- 

4 gahe .kate a pana-dakhinaye (F) a[m]aam pi cha me bkh[uni kayanani} 

5 katani (G) etaye me athaye iyam dhariima-lipi li[khapita] • . _." . 

6 anupatipajaihtu chil[am-th]itika cha hot[u] ti (H) ye [cha] . 

7 [sa]ti se; sukatam ka[chha]ti ti. . 



■ m * » • 



. . ■ 



- ■ 

... J ' -r 



■ . - 



THIRD; PILLAR-EDICT : DELHI-MIRATH 



1 (a) Vrtflfl ft^ftr <*t* W *W5T- (b) * ' * * v * * "* * 

- . f ■ - *^*| -*H + - 1 - » ■ h 'l V ■ -J C . I . ■ - -I . ■ 

2; ^? ift (c) % ftprr *ini ^fw $ htc ^fe ft 3$ ^ 
3 nmT ft (d) t?H^I -f ^TT (e) iH ^ lit ^r^ft 

6 , (h) ^ * feft^ si ^ 




r ■ r 



1 (A) Dovanampiye Piyadasi laja 3 hevam aha,(B) kayanamm[eva de] , y 

2 kayane kate ti 4 (C) no min[a] papain dekhati iyam me pap[e. 5 kate ti iyam va] 

3 asinave nam a ti (D) [du]pativekhe chu kho esa (E) hevam chu kho [esa 0 de]khiye 

4 (F) imani asinav[a-gamlni] nama atha chamd[i]ye"ni[thu]li[y]e k[o]dhe t . . , t 

5 mane isya kalanena [va] hakam ma palibha[sa]yi[sa]m (G) n ba[(Jham] 

6 dekhiye (H) iyaih me [hi]dat[i]kaye iyam me palatikaye ; 

■j -v» * ♦ ■ - * - - ■ ' - 



rk ■ ■ 



FOURTH PILLAR-EDICT; DELHI-MIRATH 

I. ,, .V " " - .-*-! -'*»,, -« ^r, -- j..,- , »•«-..• If * . 1 ■ , I I . , t lf , 




♦ ♦ * • + + ^ * 4 4 



2 

4 v * * V 4 ; ; > 4 ; ftjff^ |^ HUT 



1 /«7B Biihler. 8 -\da\nam Buhler. . 

3 Buhler. * ti Buhler. 6 i>5^« Buhler. 

0 . . sa Buhler. Y .> 



DELHI- MIRATH PILLAR; NORTH FACE 



Page 138 




Scale One-fourth 



DELHI- MIRATH PILLAR; WEST FACE 



Page 139 




Scale One-fourth 



FOURTH PILLAR-EDICT : DELHI-MIRATH * 39 

■ 

s (k) sfwjrft ■ ; * * fTTwrnm ^ ftwr 
10 ijEtor *;* • • ' * to*t firfir ft^raift $ 

12 ?rara ^ fa * * * * * ft TPrrarfro 

».* ■*■«*** ■ ■■ Hi- 

13 ^v&m *; * * ■ * * * * : " * l?i fac$qfa ft ^trsyfti 

■ 

1. 
•* . . , » r '» »„ , > 

■■ J 1 ■ 

■ h ■ * 1 l ^ * L ' j 

2 . . . pea] 1 chaghathti [a]ladhk[y]i[tave] , 

3 tu asvathe 3 [ho]ti 

4 vi[ya] ..... * • . • . [l]i[ha]tave hev[aih mam]a 

5 [la]juk[a] 3 . . v . « , . . , ye (J) yen[a] ete a[bh]ita 

- ■ .... t ■ ■ * 

6 asvatna sam . ... ^ .... . [pa]vataye[v]u ti [e]te[na] me 

7 [Iaj]u[ka]n[am] ........ . * ata-patiye kat[e] 

8 (E) ichhitavi .......... [h]ala-samata ch[a] siya 

9 darhda-sa[ma] . * [me] avuti [ba]thdhana-[badh]anam 

10 munisa[narh] ....... . . . yadhanarh tirhni di[va]sani [m]e 

11 y[o]te dimne {Iff) , ; . ■/ payisa[rh]ti j[i]v[i]taye tana[m] 

12 nasaihtam .[v]a ni . . V . . . V . \. : . ti palatikam 

13 u[pa]vasam va k[a] . ..... hevaih nUudhasi^pi [k]alasi 

14 pa[Ia]taifa aladha[ye] .... . ; . . . . vadhati vividhe dhariima-chal[a]ne 

15 samyame da[na] , . 

■ 

' * 4 

■ -- * 1 ■ , , ,,,,,.>-■.- - h - V «1 I 

■ . ' 

■ *■ 

- i - L 

FIFTH PILLAR-EDICT : DELHI-MIRATH 

i ? * * * ^rl% ft ^ ^nfa 

2 * * % (d) ^rftf ^ ^rf^ (e) g% 

3 ****** rfft^ (P) ^T?I3R ftftm^ % 

4 ^nft^ (g) i'ijfft ?fi ijfenrsR (h) ifte ^mrapftg 

7 ft^rift^ (i) ^wift (<«wi(w HR^ft 

8 ?ITft ^Tft ft ^Nft^Rtft faft^lFft 



1 \lajftha\ Buhler. 8 asva\the\ Biihler. 3 Zajuk[a] Buhler. 

T 2 



HO THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

9 (J) ^sfaw^ ^t^st% TO^ra firore 

11 *t HlMHsiriW ^% i&sk *t ft 

12 fflMfiswfo *ft «flc4lWWi (k) ffrmrc strain 

13 ^T^^ft^ 

is ^rifacfciSi iMfafa ^ ^ift icnf?r 

- 

■ ■ 1 + ■ >■ 

1 [potake 1 pi cha] k[a]n[i] ; 

2 ke (D) [vadh]i-kukute no kataviye (E^ tuse saji[ve] 

3 ta[v]iye (F) dave [ajiathaye va vihisaye va no 

4 [jhape]ta[vi]ye (G) ji[v]ena j[iv]e no pusi[ta]viye (H) tlsu chataihmasTsu" s ' 

5 [t]isaya[m] pu[ihna]ma[si]ya[m] timni divasani chavudasarii parimadasam 

6 p[a]tipada dh[r]uvaye 8 cha anuposatham machhe avadhiye no pi 

7 viketav[i]ye (I) etanp] yeva divasani n[a]ga-van[a]si kevata-bhogasi ; 

8 y[ani amnani] pi jiva-nikayan[i] no [ha]mtaviy an! * 

9 (J) atham[i-pakha]ye 6 [cha]vudasaye-pam[na]dasaye tisaye . . 

10 punavasune tfsu chatuihmasisu sudivasaye gone 

11 no nilakhitavi[y]e ajake elake 6 sukale e va pi + 

12 aih[n]e ni[la]khi[ya]ti [no] mlakhitaviye (K) tisaye punavasun[e} 

13 chatuihmasiye chatu[ih]masi-pakhaye asvasa gonasa lakhane 

14 no , . . . [v]iye (L) ya[va]-sa4OTlsati"{va]Ba-albIiisitena me etaye 

15 a[rh]talikaye paranavisati bamdhana-mokhani katani 

■ 1 r h - ■ i 

fc 1 I * r * * 

SIXTH PILLAR-EDICT: DELHI-MIRATH 

# + 4 + + + * + 4 + * + + ** + + + * + + 4 ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ * ♦ 

1 * 4 %Ti*3m*fc (o) qf " 4 4/4 * 4 444 

2 4 4 wf??ft % 4 ***** 

1 ... upagamane se me mokhya-mate (G) saclu 

2 . . isitena me iyaih dhamma-li[pi] li . . i. ; . 



1 ' On Fleet's plate (IA, 19. 134), portions of the preceding word avadhiya are also visible, 

3 Read ckatwh°. 3 dhuvaye BUhler. Cf. above, p.2,ai. 

4 °fani Buhler. 6 atham\l\- Biihler. 
0 edake Buhler ; but see Luders, JRAS, 1911. 1088, 




Scale One-fourth 



FIRST PILLAR-EDICT: LAURIYA-ARARAJ 141 

•■* »; . . . * 

I ' f ' 

,: i , / • 

m. THE LAURIYA ARARAJ-PILLAR 

- 

.FIRST PILLAR-EDICT: LAURIYA-ARARAJ . 

1 i 

m 

A. — East Face of Pillar* 

3 wm 3 5^rw ^r?t ^it* (d) nsr f*§t to 

4 Mh^pfrtt ^ ^ft?f ^fWft (e) ^f^ror ft $ ^ *fa^T 

5 g qfem^ff a ^ w& OTT^rftH% (f) |^ ^m^mmr ft (<*) 

6 V^T ft*HH iffisr *ftift fir 

- " ' 

1 (tf) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) saduvisati-vasabliisitena me 

iyam dhamma-li[p]i . ■ s ' 

2 likhapita (0) hidata-palate dusampatipadaye amnata agaya dhamma-kamataya agaya 

palikhayja] 

3 agaya sususaya agena bhayena agena usahena (D) esa chu kho mama anusathiya 

dhammapekha 1 

4 dhamma-kamata cha suve suve vadhita 2 vadhisati cheva (E) pulisa pi me ukasa cha 

f gevaya cha majhima cha anuvidhlyamti 

5 sampatipadayamti cha alam chapalam samadapayitave (F) hemeva amta-mahamata 

pi (G) esa hi vidhi ya iyam dhammena palana 

6 dhaihmena vidhane dhammena sukh[l}yana dhammena got! tt 

- - , 

SECOND PILLAR-EDICT: LAURIYA-ARARAJ 

i 

i 

1 (a) ^sn?ifa^ fira^fa wist m% (B) ^ w% ftp? ^ vft ft (C) 

2 Ht%^ ft (d) ft $ *i§ft§ f& (e) gr^^f^f nftrmfo^i 

ftft^r $ 3rg*it 



1 dhammapekha Biihler. ' ^ vadliita Buhler. 



142 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



3 m *r n<fisH T5 (p) ^Rtfk fa ^ ft qwratfa *mfa (g) irm^ ft 

4 sigqfeinrg facsfinffar *r itn fif (h) ^ ^ ^rfi^wfii ft §ro 

TO m 

1 (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevaih aha (B) dhamme sadhu kiyam chu 

dhamme ti (0) apasinave bahu kayane daya dane sache 

2 . socheye ti (D) chakhu-dane pi me bahuyidhe djmne (E) dupada-chatupadesu pakhi- 

valichalesu vividhe me anugahe ka£e , r 
P 3 a pana-dakhinaye (P) a[ih]nani pi cha me bahuni kayanani katani (G) etaye me 

athaye iyam dhama-Hpi likhapita hevarh 
4 anupatipajamtu chilam-thitika cha hotu ti (H) ye cha hevarfi sampatipajisati se 

sukatam kachhati ti : . 

* ' V ' l V ■ . ... , , . • i * . ,„.' _ . • 

>* i 

i 

THIRD PILLAR-EDICT: LAURIYA-ARARAJ 

fii (o) ftr?r m ^Tfr ft *nft fw 

2 ^ ^ wftre^ *n*w fir (d) ^rfe^ft -% vm (e) ?N ^ ua^fisft 



*n% ??i ssra^i ^ 5* tit trfppwftRf fii (g) t>h ^ 



1 (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) kayanaihmeva dekhaihti iyam me 

kayane kate, ti (C) no mina papam dekhaihti iyam me pape kate ti 

2 iyam va asiiiave nama ti (D) dupativekhe chu kho esa (E) hevam chu kho esa 

dekhiye (P) imani asinava-gamini nama ti atha chamdiye 

3 nithSliye kodhe mane isya kalanena va hakarii ma palibhasayisaih ti (G) esa badham 

dekhiye (H) iyam me hi4atikaye iyammana me palatikaye ti 

- • - .• i , s ■ . ' . . . . ' : ■ . K , 

■ 

FOURTH PILLAR-EDICT : LAURIYA-ARARAJ 

1 (a) ^it^fTR -Rrq^fe -ffm (b) ^^^rfira^rfvrf^^ ft s?f 

VTrfeftr f^lfMri (C) c^FT ft ^ MM^Iri^ 

2 ^Prl (D) ^ ^ ^rf^^F ^ ^ ^ ^tnrfTW ft ^i? *^f?T 
^^a? Stfftr ^Tf^ tl^rR^iiT ^FW ^RH<^T 

4 jjiTrt ^ WcTra^ (f) t^jrt fci <s^Hir xift^fHw% ii (g) gftymfft 

fn ft t^nfjf. u^xifajrd (h) ft fir ^ ^iftr-.ft*n«iRrfi?r ^ *r 




LAURIYA-ARARAJ PILLAR; EAST FACE 



Page 142 




FOURTH PILLAR-EDICT : LAURIYA-ARARAJ 143 

5 ^fw wwi^m% (i) ott fi? to ftmn%"*ifift ftfef^ 

^ffir fw VTfk ^rfir $ ^ 59 nfo-^ f?r 

7 i$ mvf&i to (k) sfeTW to fifrr fMtfT<^wm ^ flra 
10 (o) 3rs ^ ^sfw faf^re wr<*% wft <w*iftsnft fif - ' ; 

• - 

1 (A) Bevanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) saduvisati-vasabliisitena me 

iyam dhamma-lipi likhapita (0) lajuka me bahusu p an a-sat a-sahas esu 

2 janasi ayata (B) tesath ye abhihale va d[a]ihde va ata-patiye me kate kimti lajuka 

asvatha abhita kammani pavatayevu ti janasa janapadasa 

3 hita-sukharii upadahevu anugahinevu cha (B) sukhiyana-dukhTjranam janisamti 

dhamma-yutena cha viyovadisamti janaih janapadaih kimti hidatam cha ) 

4 palatam cha aladhayevu (P) lajuka pi laghaihti patichaiitave mam (Gr) pulisam pi 

me chhamdariinani patichalisaihti (H) te pi cha kani viyovadisarhti yena mam 

5 lajuka chaghaihti aiadhayitave (I) atha hi pajarii viyataye dhatiye nisijitu asvathe 

hoti viyata dhati chaghati me pamjarh 1 sukhaih palihatave ti 

6 hevam mama laiuka kata janapadasa hita-sukhaye (J) yena ete abhita asvatha 

saihtam achhimana a kammani pavatayevu ti etena me lajukanam abhihale va 

7 daihde va ata-patiye kate (K) ichhitaviye hi esa kimti viyohala-samata cha siya 

damda-samata cha (L) aya ite pi cha me avuti baihdhana-badhanaih 

8 munisa[na]rh tilita-damdanam pata-vadhanarh timni divasani me yote dimne (H) 

natika va kani nijhapayisamti jlyitaye tanaih nasamtam va \ 

9 nijhapayi[ta]ve danaih dahaihti palatikarii upavasaih va kachhariiti (N) ichha hi me 
v hevam niludhasi pi kalasi palatam aladhayevu ti 

10 (O) janasa cha va[clha]ti vividhe dha[ih]ma-chalane sayame dana-saihvibhage ti . 

FIFTH PILLAR-EDICT: LAURIYA-ARARAJ ' 

B.—West Face of Pillar. fc ' ■ 

3 ^WT^ftfc^ ^35 3RftftR% WU^& H^HA WKZ%?h 

1 Read pajam* ' I 2 Read avimam* 



144 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

- i 

7 OT TI^ ^ faffed ^ ^faiiW (©) sft^T Ht "gftlrrf^ (H) 

fftl^i^irfly fast 
s ipranfor "fwfif f^renfk w^st mh*>h trfe^ ^flqq 

11 '^Rfl% *Mt ^fWurifVl U35li ^ ft 

12 (k) ffrtn^ «jhn^ ^i^Hiftfil ^wftrtn^ ffcm *m$i 

1 (A) Devanaihpiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) sadtuvisati-vasabhisitasa me 

imani pi jatani avadhyani 

2 katani seyatha suke salika alune chakavake hamse namdimukhe gelate jatuka 

8 amba-kapilika duli 1 anathika-machhe vedaveyake Gamga-puputake samkuja-machhe 

kaphata-seyake T 

4 pamna-sase simale samdake okapimcle palasate seta-kapote gama-kapote save 

chatupade - * ■ 

5 ye patipogam 3 no eti no cha khadiy[a]ti (C) ajaka nani edaka cha sukali cha 

gabhini va payamina va 

6 avadhya potake cha kani asarhmasike (D) vadhi-kukute no kataviye (E) tuse sajive 

no jhapayitaviye (P) dave 

7 anathaye va vihisaye va no jhapayitaviye (G) jlvena jive no pusitaviye (h) tisu 

chatummasisu tisyam 

8 purhnamasiyaih timni divasani ehavudasaih pamnalasam 3 patipadam dhuvaye cha 

anuposatham machhe avadhye no pi ; y 

9 viketaviye (I) etani yeva divasani naga-vanasi kevata-bhogasi yani amnani pi 

jiva-nik[a]yani 

i : ; ■ - . — ! 

1 dudi Biihler ; but see his Ind. PaL y § i6 r C, 41, and Luders in JRAS, 1911, 1087. 
3 Read paUbhogmh. ■ s pamnadasam Biihler. 



LAURIYA-ARARAJ PILLAR; WEST FACE 



Page 144 




Scale One-sixth 



FIFTH PILLAR-EDICT : LAURI Y A-AR A RAJ 145 

10 no hamtaviyani (J) athami-pakhaye chavudasaye pamnadasaye tisaye punavasune 

tlsu chatummaslsu 

11 sudivasaye gone no nilakhitavtye ajake elake 1 sukale e va pi arime nllakhiyati no 

nilakhitaviye 

12 (K) tisaye punavasune chatummasiye chatummasi-pakhaye asvasa gonasa lakhane 

no kataviye 

13 (L) yava-saduvisati-vasabliisitasa me etaye aihtalikaye pamnavisati bamdhana- 

mokhani katani 

SIXTH PILLAR-EDICT: LAURI YA-ARARAJ 

1 (a) ^Titftro ft^r^ftr <^r w% (b) ^^n^rcnfaflifo ^ ^rftrft 
4 (d) f^sf ^frRti^ trf^wfa (b) jNrofei ftr 3 Tgfkrf ftrf^wra 

1 (A) Bevanampiye Fiyadasi laja hevaih aha (B) duva[da]sa-vasabhisitena me 

dhamma-lipi likhapita lokasa 

2 hita-sukhaye se tarn apahata tarn tarn dhamma-vadhi papova (C) hevaih lokasa 

hita-sukhe ti pativekhami 

3 atha iyam natisu hevaih patyasamnesu hevaih apakafhesu kimmam kani sukham 

avahami ti tatha cha vidahami 

4 (D) hemeva sava-nikayesu pativekhami (E) sava-pasarhda pi me pujita vividhaya 

pujaya (P) e chu iyam atana pachupagamane 

5 se me mukhya-mute a (G) saduvlsati-vasabtasitena me iyam dhamma-lipi likhapita 

■ ■ 

IV. THE LAURI YA-NANDANGARH PILLAR 

.. ■ 

1 

FIRST PILLAR-EDICT: LAURI YA-NANDANGARH 

A.— East Face of Pillar. 

1 (a) ^qnffift fiw^ftr <*m W *m (b) H^fo tf ^Tfi^* $ 
3 wrw n<f\*&\M ^rcra wtn wihT (d) ^ 



1 edake Buhler. • See above, p. 35, n. 10. 

low XT 



i 4 6 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

ft 3 

4 B 

5 ^mi iFWT ^ ^RT ^ 3igft*fWft ^hFdm<«tift ^ 3l<* ^TOc* 

e (p) tiimcmrm fa (g) usn f| ftft *it j$ 

7 rfoft ft 

i , r 

1 (A) Devanampiye Fiyadasi laja hevam a[ha] (B) saduvisati-vasabhisitena me 

iyam 

2 dhamma-lipi likhapita (C) hidata-palate dusampatipadaye arhnata agaya dhamma- 

kamataya 

3 agaya palikhaya agaya sususaya agena bhayena agena usahena (D) esa chu 

kho mama * 

4 anusathiya dhammapekha dhamma-kamata cha suve suve vadhita vadhisati cheva 

(E) pulisa pi me 

5 ukasa cha gevaya cha majhima cha anuvidhiyamti sampatipadayariiti cha alarh 

chapalaih samadapayitave 

6 (P) hemeva arhta-mahamata pi (G) esa hi vidhi ya iyam dhaihmena palana dhaihmena 

vidhane dhaihmena sukhlyana 

7 dhaihmena gotl ti 

SECOND PILLAR-EDICT: LAURIYA-NANDANGARH 

1 (A) ^liffiA ftq^fa <*T5! jpi m% (B) Mft W% ftR ^ ^ ft (0) 

2 ft (d) ft ^ ^|ftv (e) ^^^^i^ 

3 ^rfar^f ftfa$ 3 m hw^hh (f) ^faift ft ^ * 

4 wrBi (g) 3 sraft ^ *fafi*ft ftnarftK iH ^rftxra| 

5 (H) q ^ ^ ^irRfqfswft % SiSft 



1 (A) Devanampiye Fiyadasi laja hevam aha (B) dhamme sadhu kiya 1 chu dhamme 

ti (C) apasinave bahu kayane 

2 daya dane sache socheye ti (D) chakhu-dane pi me bahuvidhe dirhne (E) dupada- 

chatupadesu pakhi- 

3 valichalesu yividhe me anugahe kate a pana-dakhinaye (E) amnani pi cha me bahuni 

kayanani 



hiyam Buhler. 



SECOND PILLAR-EDICT : LAURIYA-NANDANGARH 147 

4 katani (G) etaye me athaye iyam dhamma-lipi likhapita hevaih anupatipajamtu 

chilam-thitlka cha hotu ti 

■ 

5 (H) ye cha hevaih sampatipajisati se sukatam kachhati 

1 • 1 

THIRD PILLAR-EDICT: LAURIYA-NANDANGARH 1 

1 (a) fxp^ftr 1^ to wrN^ffii s?i * 

fir (c) ^ fiR?T tmr 

2 ^fw ^ % ^ ^ ft ^1 ^ W%^% ITRT f?T (D) ^Tft^f f 1§t m 

(E) ^Nf ^ T^t *OT 

3 (f) ^jRrft ^nfaH^rc^ *n*n fir *3fk% fkqfpft 

4 at xifiwwfw fir (a) tot wre \f^R (h) s?i ^ fefirar^ swt *r 

wf?!^ fir 

1 (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) kayanammeva dekhamti iyam me 

kayaiie kate ti (C) no mina papam 

2 dekhaihti iyam me pape kate ti iyam va asinave nama ti (D) dupativekhe cliu kho 

esa (E) hevam chu kho esa dekhiye 

3 (F) imani asinava-gamini 1 nama ti atha chathdiye nithuliye kodhe mane isya 

kalanena va hakaih 

4 ma palibhasayisam ti (G) esa badham dekhiye (H) iyam me hidatikaye iyaihmana 

me palatikaye ti 

FOURTH PILLAR-EDICT: LAURIYA-NANDANGARH 

■ _ 1 

; 

VHfofa fc5 Wqw (o) <^RT 3 
(e) ^pffcw£<^4«i 

5 qf?«rf s pr % *f (g) ijftrerfa ftr 3 tfrttf* ufaM ffi (h) ^ ft 

^ ^srfa f^rctaf^HH * ^rfiT ^nwTvft?r% 



asinave Buhler. 

V 2 



148 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

e (i) 3mr f^ to toHi^i mfire (Hfafaj ^^ra ftfir fom *nfir ^rafir 

10 f ^qfr u f w aftfi raT ^ iron ^ f^rfzm% ^rffir ureyfira 

- ■ ^ -i 

11 fte3«ift ft ^rfyft nicjii otr)^ fir (o) arro ^ ^fH ftft^ 

i 

i 

1 (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) saduvisati-vasabhisitena me 

iyam dhamma-lipi likhapita (O) lajuka me 

2 bahusu pana-sata-sahasesu janasi ayata (D) tesam ye abhihale va damde va 

ata-patiye me kate kimti lajuka asvatha 

3 abhita kammani pavatayevu ti janasa janapadasa hita-sukham upadahevti 

anugahinevu cha (E) sukhiyana-dukhiyanam 

4 janisamti dhamma-yutena cha viyovadisamti janam janapadaih kimti hidatam cha 

palatam cha aladhayevu ti (IT) lajuka pi laghaihti 

5 patichalitave mam (G) pulis[a]ni pi me chhamdamnani patichalisamti (H) te pi 

cha kani viyovadisamti yena mam lajuka chaghamti aladhayitave 

6 (I) atha hi pajam viyataye dhStiye nisijitu asvathe hoti viyata dhati chaghati me 

pajam sukham palihatave ti 

7 hevam mama lajuka kata janapadasa hita-sukhaye (J) yena ete abhita asvatha 

samtam avimana kammani pavatayevu ti 

8 etena me lajukanam [a]bhihale va daihde va ata-patiye kate (K) ichhitaviye hi esa 

kimti viyohala-samata cha siya damda-samata cha 

9 (L) ava ite pi cha me avuti bamdhana-badhanarh munisanam tilita^amdanam 

pata-vadhanam timni divasani me [yo]te dimne (M) natika va kani 

10 nijhapayisamti jivitaye tanam nasaihtaih va nijhapayi[tav]e danam dahamti 

palatikam upavasam va kachhamti (N) ichha hi me hevam 

11 niludhasi pi [kalas]i palatam aladhayevu t[i] (O) janasa cha vadlhati vividhe 

dhamma-chalane sayame dana-savibhage ti 



LAURIYA-NANDANGARH PILLAR; EAST FACE 



Page 148 




.149 

a 

* 

FIFTH PILLAR-EDICT: LAURIYA-NANDANGARH 

B. — West Face of Pillar. 

4 JiJTIi£p$i STfStTO sPRZ^Ri VFRfo fWf$i ^Nfiri 

7 ^n^nfai (d) ^fuff? ^ (e) 3% *t ^mIjwM (*) 
9 yrarfira fwfa f^isifa wjqtf ifrrastf trftxrl ^ ^Mlw 

12 if^J ^TfRT^ ffi^flT^ ^ Wlrifcrifr?) U35^> U 

TOP* ^T^RT 'TtrJH 

1 (A) Bavanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) saduvisati-vasabhisitasa me 

imani pi 

2 jatani avadhyani katani seyath[a] suke salika alune chakavake hamse 

3 namdimukhe gelate jatuka amba-kapilika duli 1 anathika-machhe vedaveyake 

4 Gamga- puputake samkuja-machhe kaphata-seyake pamna-sase simale samdake 

okapimde 



1 dudi BSMer ; but see his Ind. Pal 9i % x6 ? C, 41, and Luders in JRAS, 191 1. 1087. 



ISO THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

5 palasate seta-kapote gania-kapote save chatupade ye patibhogarii no eti na cha 

khadiyati 

6 (C) ajaka nani edaka cha sukali cha gabhinl va payamma va avadhya potake 

cha kani 

7 asammasike (D) yadhi-kukute no kataviye (E) tuse sajive no jhapayitaviye (P) dave 

anathaye va 

8 vihisaye va no jhapayitaviye (G) jlvena jive no pusitaviye (H) tlsu chatummasTsu 

tisiyam 

9 pumnamasiyaih timni divasani chavudasam pamnalasam 1 patipadam dhuvaye 

cha anuposatharh machhe avadhye 

10 no pi viketaviye (I) etani yeva divasani naga-vanasi kevata-bhogasi yani 

amnam pi i. 

11 jiva-nikayani no hamtaviyani (J) athanu-pakhaye chavudasaye pamnalasaye 3 tisaye 

punavasune 

12 tlsu chatummasisu sudivasaye gone no nllakhitaviye ajake elake 3 sukale e va pi arhne 

13 mlakhiyati no nllakhitaviye (K) tisaye puntvasune chatummasiye chatummasi- 

pakhaye asvasa gonasa 

14 lakhane no kataviye (L) yavarSaduvisati-vasabhisitena me etaye athtalikaye 

* pamnavisati \ , / 

15 bamdhana-mokhani katani 

SIXTH PILLAR-EDICT : LAURIYA-NANDANGARH - 

a • a ■ ' ' ' • ; 

4 fW ^rfH ^ ^I^IT^ "fit H*tT ^ f^j|Tffl (D) t^T *nfa*flfl 

5 (e) ssprofer fq 3 ijfcm t¥^wr (p) n ^ ^ ^rr tj^pt^ 

r - ■ 

1 (A) Devanampiye J»iyadasi laja hevam aha (B) duva[la]s[arva]Babhisiteiia * 

me dhamma-lipi likhapita ... 

2 lokasa hita-sukhaye se tarn apahata tarn tarii dhamma-vadhi papova (C) hevam 

lokasa >- - - . 

3 hita-sukhe ti pativekhami atha iyam natisu hevam patyasamnesu hevam apakathesu 

4 kimmam kani sukham avahami ti tatha' cha vidahami (D) hemeva sava-nikayesu 

pativekhami 

5 (E) sava-pasamda pi me pujita vividhaj^i pujaya (F) e chu iyam atana; pachupa- 

gamane 

6 se me mokhya-mute (G) aaduvisati-va[s]abhisiteiia me iyam dhamma-lipi likhapita 

- ■ : ■ • * 

1 panmadasam Buhlen 2 pamnadasaye Biihler. 3 e$ake Biihler, 

* duvadasa- Biihler. 



LAURIYA-NANDANGARH PILLAR; WEST FACE 



Page 150 




FIRST PILLAR-EDICT: RAM PURVA -151 

■ ■ ■ + 

* 

1 

V. THE RAMPURVA PILLAR 

■ 

FIRST PILLAR-EDICT; RAMPURVA 

* 

A. — North Face of Pillar. 

1 (a) ^wfift f*m?fct c*T3f ^ (b) Bf^^^Tf^il^^ ^ 

v^f^fq few i ft a (c) f^tffi*ft 

(f) i^m ^rH^TOtm ftf (g> mr f^f^i 
5 *n ^4 w tor ***** nhft fir 

1 (A) Devanaihpiye P[i]yadasi laja heva 1 aha (B) saduviBati-vasabhisitena me 

iyam dhaihma-Iipi likhapita (C) hidata-palate 

2 dusaihpatipadaye amnata agaya dhaihma-kamataya agaya palikhaya agaya sususaya 

agena bhayena agena usahena 

3 (D) esa chu kho mama amisathiya dhammapekha dhaihma-kamata cha suve suve 

vadhita vaclhisati cheva (E) pulisa pi me ukasa cha 

4 gevaya cha majhima cha anuvidhiyamti sampatipadayamti cha alam chapalaih 

samadapayitave (P) hemeva amta-mahamata pi (G) esa hi vidhi 

5 ya iyam dhaihmena palana dhammena vidhane dha[ih]m[e]na sukhiyana dhaihmena 

got! ti 

■ 

SECOND PILLAR-EDICT : RAMPURVA - 

1 (a) ^Rft^ ftra^ftr <*ra IN (b) *ro ^ ftw "% Mft fir (c) 

2 ^|f3R f^Ff (e) s^f^ nfisrerfo^g fi*fa§ 3 sr^nt 

^ ftw fir (h) ^ |3 tfqftqfsrcrfif % %*st fir 

1 (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) dhamme sadhu kiyam chu 
dhamme ti (C) apasinave bahu kayane daya dane sache socheye ti (D) chakhu- 
dane pi me 



hevam Biihler. 



^2 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

2 bahuvidhe dimne (E) dupada-chatupadesu pakhi-valichalesu vividhe me anugahe 

kate a pana-dakhinaye (F) amnani pi cha me bahuni kayanani katani 

3 (G) etaye me athaye iyam dhamma-lipi likhapita hevam anupatipajamtu chilarii- 

thitlka cha hotu ti (H) ye cha hevam sampatipajisati se sukatam kachhati tt 

■ 

THIRD PILLAR-EDICT; RAMPURVA 

' ■ ■ 

1 (a) ^Rfxft fqn^flr c*nr |^ m% (b) .qnraft^'^tifir ^4 ft ^rorft 

^ fir (c) qt fm viA ^rft ft trrft ^§ fir 

2 ^ wfo# fir (D) ^| TO (B) j3 ^ # ^fe^ 

(f) g*nfir juftp w inftflf ft wn ^f^ Sqfftfi 

1 (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) kay3nammeva dekhamti iyam me 

kayane kate ti (C) no mina papam dekhamti iyam me pape kate ti 

2 iyam va asinave nama ti (D) dupativekhe chu kho esa (E) hevam chu kho esa 

dekhiye (F) imani asinava-gamini nama ti atha chamdiye nithuliye 

3 kodhe mane isya kalanena va hakarii ma palibhasayisaih (G) esa badham dekhiye 

(H) iyam me hidatikaye iyammana me palatikaye ti 

FOURTH PILLAR-EDICT: RAMPURVA 

■ 

\ - _ 

■ 

1 (a) "^rf^ ftra^fft <*nr ini m% (b) *t|3terfwsraTfaftft* ft ^ 

fty^rftw (c) csysjcRr ft 3gg trnwnra?ft§ 

2 sPtfer mm (b) M % wf*i5& ^ <i ^ smqfir^ ft *sk f^fir *m 

mtito #nrf*j T^nrii^fir m*ws& 

f^ratafi$ifw fitrfir vjm ^ 

4 ^nHTO^ffT (F) cFfffl fc| T^fH HP^r<yJH% (G) ^fcOTT^T fa ft 

5 ^if% WfTrefarrt (i) sror f| nsr form$ *nf?r^ fft ftrfag wft 

itfw f^RB vrfw ^rafir ft to ^ tjfi^^% fir l^r <;j^i m 
e 5rr?m^r %^r^ (j) ^ i»S ^ft?r ^ra^ir ^nf ^rf^mPT *)Fnt>r n^nr%^ 
fir ft <sy^iH ^cfa^T^ ^ ^ «f ?sifnrf7T^ 

(b) ^i^t ^ fq ^ ft ^iP|fir ^^mpf ^tout i fl fad ^ R 



RAMPURVA PILLAR ; NORTH FACE 



Page 




Scale One-sixth 



FOURTH PILLAR-EDICT: RAMPURVA 153 

L 

9 (n) ?j5i f| % |^ #fc^m% fir qnwftmpiii ^nwre^fii (o) sere 
* *«fif fMW **** ^irnrafwtfa 



1 (A) Devanampiye Fiyadasi laja heyam aha (B) saduvisati-yasabliisitena me 

iyaih dhamma-lipi likhapita (C) lajuka me bahusu pana-sata-sahasesu 

2 janasi ayata (D) tesam ye abhihale 1 va dartide va ata-patiye me kate kimti lajuka 

. . asvatha. abhTta kammani pavatayevu ti janasa janapadasa ; ; 

3 hita-sukham upadahevu anugahinevu cha (E) ^ sukhiyana-dukhlyanarh janisarhti 

dhamma-yutena cha viyovadisamti jariam janapadarh kimti hidatam cha 

. palatam cha . ■ t Y- : ' 'r ' . V. : -! 

4 aladhayeyu ti (F) lajuka pi laghaihti patichalitave marh . (G) . pulisani pi me 

chhamdamnani patichalisamti (H) te pi cha klni viyovadisamti yena mam 

JajuRa „- ■ ; ; • .. . . i ; * - . <:■.*' . 

5 chagharhti aladhayitave (I) atha hi pajam viyataye dhatiye nisijitu asvathe hoti 

viyata dhati chaghati me pajam sukharii palxhatave ti hevaih mama lajuka 
. . ■ Kara , * ~ . ■ ; . . ,■ . . i i . . ; , [ ; . . - / , . • , , : * , ■ • ,? * 

6 janapadasa hita-sukhaye (J) yena ete abhlta asvatha samtam avimana kammani 

pavatayevu ti etena me lajukanarii abhihale va darh^e va ata-patiye ka^e 

7 (K) ichhitaviy e hi esa ki[ih]ti 2 viyohala-samata cha siya damda-samata cha (L) ava 

ite pi cha me' avuti ' baihdhana-badhaiiaiii munisanam tilita-damdanam 
pata-vadhanaih ' r - 

8 timni divasani me [y]dte dimne (M) natilca va kani nijhapayisarhti jlvitaye tanam 

nasamtam va nijhapayitaye danam dahamti palatikarii upavasaih va kachhamti 

9 (N) ichha hi me hevaih niludhasi pi kalasi palatarh aladhayevQ ti (O) janasa cha 

yadhati vividhe dhamma-chalane sayame dana»savibhage ti - : ^ 



-J . F I , 



1- ; ^ 



; FIFTH PILLAR-EDICT: RAMPURVA ■-" I 

I ■ .r . ■:, . . ' B.— South Fate of Pillar. ; ■■ ., 

(a) fN^r ^ |^ m% (b) ^i^gfir^^nftfti^r ^ 

ifrij!^ ^^h^l ^n?K%^% ^t?i% ftr^-'--^IA-': , «iWH8.:TO^ 

1 Read abhihale. s ^ftf Biihler. 

lew a X 



154 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

5 uraStarr Stfrai ^ ^mif%^i (d) ^R*§§* St ^ftft 

(e) g% snfft St ^rafimfiR 

6 (F) ^ ^ ^jqftwf^ (G) aft^T 3?t% St 

7 fwfa f^wnft irasS nfcx^ *prra ^ ^iftare St 

fxr ft%?rft% (i) unrft 3far 
s f^trrft iFFrcfar ^reSfcnfa -qrf^T ^nfn ft sffaf^irrfH St 

9 X W5^R fro-n^ Tpr^p iftg ^piStf ^R^fttA St* St facjfatrf^ 

^*i«h 3db^ 

10 g fir ^ «flrtfa iif?f St Stoftmfifi (g) faqre i^t^ Jmft ft 

11 SI ^f^% (l) ur m ; jl ^ rfd^ i ft ' ftr^ r ^ mfirart 

1 (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) saduv5sati-[va]saTbhisitena me 

imani pi jatani avadhyani katani seyatha 

2 suke salika alune chakavake hamse naihdimukhe gelate jatuka amba-kapilika duli 

anathika-machhe vedaveyake 

3 Gamga-puputake samkuja-machhe kaphata-seyake pamna-sase . simale samdake 

okapimde palasate seta-kapote 
, 4 gama-kapote save chatupade ye patibhogarii no eti na cha khadiyati (C) ajaka nani 
elaka cha sukall cha gabhini va 

5 payamina va avadhya potake cha kani asammasike (D) vadhi-kukute no kataviye 

(E) tuse sajive no jhapayitaviye , 

6 (F) dave anathaye va vihisaye va no jhapayitaviye (G) jivena jive no pusitaviye 

(H) tisu chatumma[s]isu tisyam purhnamasiyaih 

7 timni divasani chavudasam pamnadasarii patipadam dhuvaye cha anuposatham 

machhe avadhye no pi viketaviye (I) etani yeva 

8 divasani naga-vanasi kevata-bhogasi yani arhnani pi jiva-nikayani no harhtaviyani 

(J) athami-pakhaye chavudasaye 

9 pamnadasaye tisaye punavasune tisu chatummasisu sudivasaye gone no 

nilakhitaviye ajake elake sukale 

10 e va pi amne mlakhiyati no nilakhitaviye (K) tisaye punavasune chatummasiye 

chatuihmasi-pakhaye asvasa gonasa 

11 lakhane no kataviye (L) yava-saduvisati-vasabhisitena me etaye amtalikaye 

pamnavisati bamdhana-mokhani katani 



•••• • *55 

SIXTH PILLAR-EDICT.: RAMPURVA 

■ f ■ • . 

i (a) "^t^W fxn?^|% oJR (b) <^swf>rfa?frT 3 wftyfa 
(e) ^fcmfer ft $ ^rdra fafaqR ^rnr (p) *r ^ 3?l 

* H 

1 (A) Devanampiye Fiyadasi laja hevam aha (B) duvadasa-vasabhisitena me 

dhamma-lipi likhapita lokasa hita-sukhaye se tarn apahata 

2 tarn tarn dharhma-vadhi papova (C) hevam lok[a]sa hita-sukhe ti pativekhami atha 

iyarh natisu hevam patyasamnesu hevam apakathesu kimmarh kani 

3 sukham avahami ti tatha cha vidahami (D) hemeva sava-n[i]kayesu pativekhami (E) 

sava-pasamda pi me pujita vividhaya pujaya (F) e chu iyarh 

4 atana pachupagamane se me mokhya-mute (G) saduvi8at[i]-vasaMrisitena me 

iyaria dhamma-lipi likhapita 

i 

H 

VI. THE ALLAHAB AD-KOS AM PILLAR 

t 

A. THE SIX FIRST PILLAR-EDICTS 
FIRST PILLAR-EDICT: ALLAHAB AD-KOS AM 

■ ■ t 

1 (a) ^rtfift fira^tflr <vm |i (b) *f#fffw^nfa^'T % 3?i 

2 ^rtt wrw mmmnm m*rm v tftmv wm igjniT 3pt*i 

4 ^Hc* OTRXlftw^ (F) ^rTT^THTrlT ft (G) W "% ftft 

i 

1 (A) Devanampiye Fiyadasi laja hevam aha (B) saduvlsati-vasabhisitena me 

iyam dhamma-lipi likhapita (C) hidata-palate dusampatipada[y]e 

2 aihnata agaya dhamma-kamataya agaya pallkhaya agaya sususaya agena bhayena 

a[g]ena usahena (D) esa chu kho mama anusathi[y]a 

X 2 



156 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



dharhmapekha dhamma-kamata cha suve suve vaclhita vadhisati ch[e]va (E) pulisa 
pi me ukasa cha gevaya cha majhima cha anuvidhiyarhti sampatipadayarhti cha 

alam chapalam samadapayitave (P) hemmeva 1 aihta-mahamata pi (G) esa hi vidhi 
y^ [i]yam rdharhmena palaria : dharfimen^ vidhane dhaihmena sukhiyana 
dhammena [gut]i [ti s cha] 3 . , 



r,- ' ■■>-■ 



SECOND PILLAR-EDICT: ALLAH ABAD-KOS AM 

■■ I- ■ i 

i (a) <wm W ( B ) srg ■ fW ^ ^ fir (o) 

^tnf*R% ^| <[R wsft (d) ^n^ft fir 5 

1 (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) dhamme sadhu kiyam chu 

dhaihme ti (C) apasinave bahu kayane daya dane sache sochaye (D) chakhu-dane 
pi me -r ^ ■ ■ . ... , . 

2 bahuvidhe dirhne (E) dupada-chatupadesu 4 pakhi-valichalesu vividhe me anugahe 

kate a pana-dakhinaye (F) arhnani pi cha me bahuni 6 kayanani katani ' 

3 (G) etaye me athaye iyarii dhamma-lipi likhapita hevarh anupatipajariitu chila- 

thitlka cha hotu ti (H) ye cha hevam sampatipajisati se sukatarh kachhati ti 



■•i ■ n 4^- d - ■ - 



THIRD PILLAR- EDICT : ALL AH ABAD-KOS AM 



^ fif V(b) ftrc to^ ^ ^ inxfts fir 



i 1 i 'V i ! ._ ; * - * i .4. . j 



(A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laj a hevam aha (B) kayanameva dekhati iyarh me 
kayane kate ti (C) no mina papakath dekhati iyarh me papake kate ti iyam va 
asinave nama ti ■ 



. 1 



1 Itemeva Biihler. ' ; 1 V ; ' \ ; . ■ ; r - , ■ 

2 As remarked by Fleet (IA, 13. 31 note), the vowel i is attached before, not after the /. 

3 chu Buhler.; ; : ; : \ 7 . " • 1 ' • ' :: 

4 The apparent Ariusvara after da of dupada- is probably accideiitaL 
6 ^to/BuhIer. . ■ ^ ; - { ; ; - ^ 



ALLAHABAD-KOSAM PILLAR; UPPER HALF 



Page i 




(-1 (M 



157 



FOURTH PILLAR-EDICT: ALLAHABAD-KOSAM 

■ h 

1 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^tffjft (k) sfgjrf^ f| 

3 (Iff) ^ Wfk f^Tftwfa sftfttlT^ HR 5TOrf *tT f^WSJlftfTT 

4 (n) fHc^rftr fir itthh w<*to^ (o) ^ 

; n r 

/ 

1 [kanarh at>hihale va daihde va ata-pa]t[i]y[e kate] (Z) [i]chh[i]t[a]v[i]y[e] 

h[i e]s[a] k[im]t[i] i 

2 la-sama[t]a cha 2 siya da[m]da-samata cha (L) ava a ite pi cha me avuti 

bamdhana-badhanarh munisanam tilita-daihdanaih pata-vadhanam tirhni divasani 
yote dimne * 1 

3 (M) . . , . [k]a va kani nijhapayisaihti jivitaye tanaih nasamtaih va nijhapayita danarh 

dahaihti palatikath upavasam va [ka]chha[rii]ti 

4 (BT) , . . . [h]i me hevam niludhasi pi kalasi palatarh aladhayevjVj (O) janasa cha 

vadhati vividhe dhamma-chaJane sayame dana-savibhage 



■ 



FIFTH PILLAR-EDICT: ALLAHABAD-KOSAM 

1 (a) * * M ftmqft mm 94 w (b) a|4taf^Tfafa?Nf $ 

2 • ■• • • w ^h^t ^Tftjfqftyw ^ ^rf^m% ^*re> 

4 ••••••••••s^vsnr--- 

5 f?! ^ra^ •♦♦♦♦♦♦* ♦ 

7 * * 

8 ^f^R (L) ' 

_ ^ A_! 

1 Biihler omitted this line, 2 cha Buhler. 3 ava Buhler. 



i 5 8 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

1 (A) [p]iye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) saduvisati-vasabhisitena me 

imani jatani avadhiyani katani seyatha suke salika alune chaka[v]ake 

2 , . . . [namdi]m[u]khe gelate jatuk[a] 1 amba-kipilika dudl 3 anathika-machhe 3 

vedaveyake Gamga-p[u] p[u] t ake s a rhku j a-m ach h e kaphata . , , , k[e] p[a]mna- 
sase simale samda . . 

3 [ta]-kapote gama-kapote sa[v]e chatu[pa]de ye pat[i]bhogaih [no] 

■ na [p]a[ya]ml . ... 

4 . sajlve no jha[pa] . . . . . 

5 [n]i cha[v]u[da]sarh [pa]mcha[da] 

0 [n^i • . . • 

1 ■ i ■ ■ i 

7 

i n . .1 

8 [Iakha]n[e no kataviye] (L) [y]a 



H 1 



SIXTH PILLAR- EDICT : ALLAH ABAD-KOSAM 



■ 4 



(o) iH -fftm 

$m -mfa •• •*• fasgifa (d) fsrifa sra • • 3ii^ 

3 (E) ^RHW^T fei %ff^WT ftfw^l ^WT^I (f) H ^| ^fiT?TT M^UJ|U% 

% ^ ^isr^ (g) * * f&tft fe^rPfflT frr 

1 (A) ...... [p]iye [P]iyada[s]i l[a] ......... . t[am] : . . . ; [dh]i [pa] 

(C) heva[ih lokasa] 

2 hita-sukhe ti pativekhami atha [iya]m . [va]rh [paty]asa[rii]ne[su heva]m 

; apaka[th]e[su] kimarh [k]a[ni] . . [vj[dah]ami' hevarhmeva [sa]va 

. . [k]ayesu pativekhami ; ■ - 4 

3. (E) [sa]va-pasarhda pi me , pujita vividhaya [pu]jaya (F) e chu iy[a]m atana 
pachupagamane se me mukhya-mute (G) . lipl * likhapita ti 

. -- - i ! ' - ' - . . , ' . - . ■ . ' f " i 

»*--'■ l » i * _■■ .« , . ■ r , . .; < n . i * 1 * 

* ■ j 1 

B. QUEEN'S PILLAR-EDICT : ALL AH ABAD-KOSAM 



i i 



1 (A) ^^f^T^PSR'IT *H*fiTT , 

2 TsnrfsRT (B) u |rrr ^f^TR ^fft 

5 Slffanft^Pni fff ift«lc4«ltf ^Trpr 



I < 



^tfafe? Buhler. 2 dadl Buhler. 3 anaihika- Buhleh 4 A>" Buhler. 



ALLAHABAD-KOSAM PILLAR; LOWER HALF 



Page 158 




QUEEN'S PILLAR-EDICT: ALLAH ABAD-KOSAM 

1 (A) Bevanampiyasha v[a]chanena savata mahamata 1 

2 vataviya (B) e heta 2 dutiyaye deviye dane 

3 arfaba-vadika va alame va dana-[gah]e [va 3 e va pi a]mne 

4 kichhi ganiyati taye deviye she nani (C) [hejvaih . . [na] . . * 

5 dutiyaye deviye ti Tivala-matu Kaluvakiye 



J 59 



TRANSLATION 



■ 

(A) At the word of D § vanampr iy a, the Mahamatras everywhere have to be 
told (this), 

(B) What gifts (have been made) here by the second queen, (viz.) either mango- 
groves, 5 or gardens, or alms-houses, or whatever else, these * (shall) be registered 7 
(in the name) of that queen. 

(O) This (is) [the request] of the second queen, the mother of Trvala, 8 the 
Kaluvaki. 9 



C. KAUSAMBI PILLAR-EDICT: ALLAHABAD-KOSAM 

1 (A)^r#ft% ^nrafH (b) *imm 

2 * * (d) shrffc Hff^ 

4 ^TntiT ^Rtfa ^^mrf^ SPTTCraftl HRR t W 

L + 

1 (A) [Devaixaih*Jp]iye anapayati (B) Kosambiyam 10 maham[a]ta " 

2 . . . . [sa]ma[ge ka]t[e] (D) sa[m]gh[a]si no 13 l[a]hiye 13 

3 [samgharh bhajkhati 14 bhikh[u] v[a] 15 bhikh[u]ni 10 va [se pi] cha 17 

4 [o*]dat[a]ni 18 dusani [sa]namdhapayitu a[nava]sas[i 19 a]v[a]sayiy[e] 2fi 



1 mahamata Senart and Buhler. ■ : i" * s heta Senart and Buhler. 

3 va Buhler.-' : . - : , » . : ■ , J . * ;. ■ v 

4 Restore perhaps vinati (= Skt. vijiiapti) ; see JRAS, 1911. 11 13- ■ ■ 

5 Cf. above, p. 134, n. 13. 

c For the pronoun nani see above, p. 137, n. 10. 

n "With ganzyati cf. ganana or ganana in the rock-edict III, E- . . 

8 Buhler (LA, 19. 124) noted that Tivara occurs (a thousand years after A^oka) as the name of 
a king of Kosala; see Fleet's Gupta Imcrs^ ^. 393, and EI, 7. 103. ' 

* As stated by Buhler (IA, 19. iz3) s this is probably the name of the queen's famfly, and it may 
be connected with the Vedic gdtra of the Karus. 

M Q Uya Buhler and Boyer. 11 mahamata Buhler and Boyer- 

12 na Buhler and Boyer. 13 chi ye Buhler. bhohhati Buhler and Boyer, 

16 va Buhler. 16 hhi\klm\nl Buhler. 

17 [pa\cA& Boyer ; Buhler and Boyer add a at the end of the line. 

' lB The syllable da is missing in my materials, but is visible on the plate in I A, 19. 135. 

13 ana[pe]sa Buhler, anavasasi Boyer. 20 avd° Boyer. 



ALLAHABAD-KOSAM PILLAR ; MINOR EDICTS 



Page 159 



QUEEN'S EDICT 




KAUSAMBI EDICT 




Scale One-fifth 



i6o THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASQKA 

■ 

■ . * 

TRANSLATION 

(A) [Devanam]priya commands (thus). 

(B) The MahamMrciS at Kosambi 1 ......... . 

(C) is made united. 3 v 

(D) should not be received s into the Samgha. 

(E) And also that monk or nun [who] shall break up the Samglut^ should be 
caused to put on white robes 5 and to reside 6 in a non-residence. 7 

THIRD PART: MINOR PILLAR-INSCRIPTIONS 

* 

I. THE SAMCHI PILLAR 

■ ■■- ■ . 

■ 

-1* 

2 V ^TT * % (C) •'• % 4 * * * ' ffjf ifc 

3 ft^ff ^ fn^H: srr fir tjirc- 

4 %fff\^^jf*ft% (D) $ *N 

7 H% ^TOTtfaWi (E) ^ST ^ "fii- 

i 

X . . . • ■ • * • ... - i , *%."!" ■ . „ . ■ * ■' . : ' - , . . 

2 . . [y]a 8 bhe[ta] ;. 9 (C) . . [gh]e" . . , : . mage " kate . • .7 V'.N 

3 [bM*3khuna[m] cha 18 bhi[khun]Tna|th ch[a]" ti [p]uta-pa- . : . 

>... ,! ■ : „. ■ .■ ""iw - - _ . ■ „< I 
■ ^ - ■ , rr^ ~_ _„ . _.. . ^ , 

. \ This ancient city {Kattsdmbim Sanskrit) corresponds to the modern Kosam ; see Fleet's 

Gupta Insers.) p. % and EI, >ri. 141; •■■ ► ; , . , - - ' 

2 Cf. the SarhchT pillar, a -v. 

8 may Be derived from the root ; cf. the gerundiye avdsayiyexti 1. 4 of this inscription, 

arid in 1. 5 of the Sarnath pillar-- Boyer (JA (io), 10, 131) connects la/dye with the root 
4 Veriis (JPASB, 3. 3) has identified bhakhati mth:Sky\bhd&kshyaU^ 

6 Boyer (p. 130) quotes a passage from Buddhaghoslia's Samantapdsadikd^ in which Asoka is 
stated to have given white robes {setabani vaithani) to the heretical monks whom he expelled ; see 
Vinaya-pitaka^ ed. by Oldenberg, vol. Ill, p. 31a, with which Bigandet's Life or Legend of 
Gmidama {4th ed, s 3. 139) agrees, and cf. Dtpavamsa^ VII, 53, and Mahavamsa^ V, 370. The proper 
colour of the robes of a Buddhist monk is yellow. 

fl dvdsayiye is a gerundive formed from the causative avasayati y and corresponds to Skt. . 
dvdsya. Senart (CR, 1907- 38) appears to consider it an optative passive. 

7 i. e. a residence unfit for members of the Samgha* Venis (JPASB, 3. 3) quoted Buddha- 
ghosha's explanation of the term andvdsa\ see SBE, 17. 388, n. 1, 

8 y\avi\ Biihler. 

9 bhe[dd\ Boyer. Restore perhaps bhetave^ as on the Sarnath pillar, 1. 3. 

10 The syllable ghe is almost certain ; restore samtghe. 

11 Restore samage^ as in 1. 8. 13 \va\ Biihler. ^ Buhler, cha Boyer. 



Page 160 




Scale One-third 



SAMCHI PILLAR-INSCRIPTION 161 

4 [po*]tike cham[da]m[a-su]ri[y i]ke 1 (D) ye sathgham 

5 bh[a]khati 2 bhikhu 3 va bhikhuni va odata- 

6 ni dus[an]i sanam[dhapay]itu anajva]- 

7 ■ sasi va[sa]petaviy[e] (E) ichha hi me kiri> 

8 ti samghe samage 4 chila-thitike siya ti 

- 

TRANSLATION 

(A) .......... 

(B) [cannot] be divided. 5 

(O) The Smhgha both of monks and of nuns is made united as long as (my) sons 
and great-grandsons (shall reign, and) as long as the moon and the sun (shall shine). c 

(D) The monk or nun who shall break up the Samgha, must be caused to put on 
white robes and to reside in a non-residence. 7 

(E) For my desire is that the Sathgha may be united 8 (and) of long duration. 



It THE SARNATH PILLAR 

s 

■ 

1 (A)^T 

2 ITo* 

3 to*- * ^ §Rftr % $rr% (d) it ^ # 

5 ^raraf^ (e) fa^sftr ^ ft^Grchrfti ^ f^r- 



1 See JRAS, 191 1. 167 f. 2 bhokhati Buhler and Boyer. 

3 bhihhft Boyer* 

* samghasa mage Buhler and Boyer; see JRAS, 19 11. 168. 

5 Cf. the Sarnath pillar, C. 

6 Cf, puta-papotike chamdama-mliyike hotu ti in the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, 1. 31. Other 
instances of the Prakrit affix -ika are vadhanike and vejayike in two Pallava inscriptions and in the 
Koijdamudi plates. See EI, 1. 6, text 1 9 ; 6. 87, text 1. 5 f.; 6. 317, text, 1. 8 f. 

7 With this section cf. above, p. 160, n. 4, 5, 7. 

8 Cf. samaggQ hi samgho . . . . w phasu vikaraii in the Pdtimokkha, JRAS, 1876. 75, § 10 ; siikha 
samghassa sdmctggl samaggdnam iapo sukko in the Dhammapada^ verse 194; samgho samaggo 
hnivana iad&kasi uposatham in the Mahavamsa^ V, 374. 

ism " Y . 



162 ■ . THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

10 f^rcrcniro pi ^ f^wr (J) t^r s^f #7fore$ ^ 

1 (A.) !D©\TS( 1 « a • t ■ « • « ■ '* 

3 Fata s - , ye 3 kenapi saihghe bhetave (B) e chum kho ■ - ■ * ~ ^ 7 

4 [bhikh]u [va bhikh]uni va saihgham bh[akha]t[i] ^ s[e]* odatani dus[an]i 

[sa]ihnamdhapayiya ariavasasi 6 • ' , ■ * . / ["■) 

5 avasayiye (E) hevaih iyam sasane bhikhu-samghasi cha bhikhuni-samghasi cha 

virimapayitaviye • t - . : - <■ r.i : V (J) 

6 (P) hevaih Devanampiyo aha (G) hedisa cha ika lip! tuphakamtikarh huvati 

samsalanasi nikhita •■■ . ' ' ) 

7 ikam cha lipiih hedisameva upasakanaihtikarii nikhipatha (H) te pi cha upasaka 

anuposatham yavu 

8 etameva sasanam visvamsayitave anuposatham cha dhuvaye ikike mahamate 

posathaye ■ 

9 yati etameva sasanam visvamsayitave ajanitave cha (I) avate cha tuphakaih 



» ■ ? 



10 savata vivasayatha tuphe etena viyamjanena (J) hemeva savesu kota-vishavesu 6 

etena 

11 viyamjanena vivasapayatha 

TRANSLATION 

(A) Deva[nampriya] ....... .\ • 

(B) . . . . . . . .\ . Patapiputra]^ . . . /. . . \ .7 

(C) . . . . . the Samgha [cannot] be divided by any one. 1 

(D) But indeed that monk or . nun who shall break 1 up the Samgha^ should be 
caused to put on 0 white robes and to reside 10 in a non-residence. 11 



8 



\ These are, the two first syllables of the! title Devanampiya* \ , '.\" r , 
2 These are probably the two first syllables of the name Patalipitia* 
? Boyer ingeniously restores nasakiye* 

4 The correct reading of this word is due to Venis. Vogel and Senart read hhihhai% and Boyer 
bhokhaiu * ' 
• 5 The Samchi and KauiambI edicts read anavasasi. * 

0 Venis justly remarked that the second syllable of this word differs from so; and is probably 
meant for ska. 

7 This is the ancient name of the. city of Fatna, the capital of Chandragupta and Aloka. It is 
mentioned also in the Girnar edict V, M. The Sarnath edict was probably addressed by the king 
to the Mahamatras at Pataliputra, as the Kau^ambl edict to the Mahamatras at Kausambi. 

8 With savighe bhetave '~cf. samgham bhindaH^to cause divisions among the priesthood', in 
Childers' Pali ' Dictionary > t s. v. bhindaii\ samgham bhinditva in the Jataka^ vol. IV^ p. 200 s 1. 6; 
samaggassa samghassa bhedaya in the Patimokkha, JRAS, 1875. 75, § 10 ; Buddha-vachanam 
b/tindiitisu in the Dlpavamsa^ VII, 54. ''' \ , . •' , . 

0 \sa]ihnamdhapdyiya 9 instead of which the Samchi and Kausambl edicts read sanamdhapayitu, 
corresponds to Skt. samndhya ; cf. Senart, CR a 1907. 38. ; 

10 For avasayiye see above, p, 160, n. 6. 11 See above, p. 160, n. 7. 



SARNATH PIIXAR-INSCRIPTIQN 



Page 162 




SARNATH PILLAR-INSCRIPTION 163 

(E) Thus this edict must be submitted both to the Samgha of monks and to the 
Sathgha of nuns. , > 

(P) Thus speaks Devanampriya : 

(G) Let one copy of this (edict) 1 remain 3 with you a deposited 4 in (your) office ; n 
and 0 deposit ye another copy of this very (edict) with the lay-worshippers. 

(H) These lay-worshippers may come on every fast-day {posatha) * in order to be 
inspired with confidence in this very edict ; 8 and invariably on every fast-day, 9 every 
Mahamatra (will) come to the fast-day (service) in order to be inspired with confidence 
in this very edict and to understand (it). 10 , 

(I) And as far as your district 11 (extends), dispatch ye (an officer) 12 everywhere 
according to the letter of this (edict). 18 

I Literally: 6 one writing of this description.' 

3 Senart (CR, 1907, 30) explains huvati as a subjunctive. 

3 As remarked by Vogel (EI, 8. 170), tuphdkamtikaih stands for tttpkdkam athtikarh, and 
npdsahdnamtiham in 1. 7 for upasakdnam mhiiharii* Cf. E. Muller's Pali Gra?umar } p. 64, and 
Geiger's Pali, § 71* 

4 Venis (JPASB, 3. 2) translated ni-kskip by 1 inscribing'- Cf. the Raghuvmhsa, VII, 65, where 
Mallinatha explains nikshepiia by lekhita % and nikkhiita-vannam in the Sakuntala, ed, by Cappeller, 
p. 33, 1. 16. But as the word nikhtid is placed after samsalanasi^ and nikhipdiha in the next 
sentence after updsakdnamtikam, it is more natural to take ni-kship in the sense of * depositing 

6 Senart (CR, 1907, 30 ff.) is probably right in considering samsalana Skt. saihsarana) the 
designation of some locality, Venis (JPASB, 3, 4) translated it by 1 place of assembly 1 , 

6 As remarked by Senart (CR, 1907. 30), the double cha in hedisd cha ikd Upl and ikmh dta 
lipim hedisameva co-ordinates the two sentences- The same is the case in the next section, where 
the cha after te pi corresponds to the dm after anttposatham in 1. 8. Cf also above, p. 47, n. 9. 

7 In the form posatha, which occurs also in the $ataha (ZDMG, 48. 63), the initial u of 
Sid. upavasatha has been dropped* Cf posaha in Pischel's Granwzatik, § 141, and the artificial 
form pdshadfta (Bohtlingk's two dictionaries, s. v.) in the language of the Northern Buddhists. 

s With visva?hsayitave cf- asvasa\ii\iya in the Jaugada separate edict II, section J. 
0 Cf. above, p. ia8, n. 3. 

10 Sections E to H do not add anything new to the king's order, of which two other specimens 
are preserved at Samchi and Allahabad, but provide merely for the proper circulation of the edict 
among all the parties concerned. This the king tries to ensure (1) by communicating his edict to 
the monks and nuns, whom it chiefly concerns, and (a) by ordering that one copy of it should 
be retained by the Mahamatras and another by the lay- worshippers, to be studied by both of them 
respectively at the fast-day (services. The two last sections of the inscription contain further 
provisions for ensuring a still wider circulation to the king's edict The preceding paragraphs had 
arranged for its publicity among the citizens of Pataliputra. In sections I and J the king orders 
the Mahamatras of Pataliputra to make it known in the district surrounding Pataliputra and in the 
jungle tracts beyond this district* 

II Kern pointed out that ahala (spelt ahdla at Rupnath) corresponds to the well-known 
territorial term dfidra, 'a district'; see EI, 8. 170. The meaning * food' is excluded here, because 
the words tuphdkam dhdle are contrasted with savesu kota-viskavestt in the next section. For 
other ancient inscriptions in which the word dhara, f a district % occurs, see Luders' List of Brdhmt 
Inscriptions (EI, 10. Appendix), p. 214, s. v. 

12 As Thomas states (J A (10), 15. 517), the usual Pali equivalent of vivasati is vippavasati; see 
Childers, Pali Dictionary , s.v. The verb vivdsayaii (vivaseti in the Rupnath edict, I. 5) is the 
causative, and vivdsdpayati in section J a double causative, of vivasati. Venis (JPASB, 3, a) 
translated mvdsayati by * making known ' ; but this meaning is not supported by other instances. 
Thomas (JRAS, 1915. na) renders it by 'expelling 1 . But it would be hazardous to assign to it a 
different meaning from vivasetaviye at Rupnath, I supply the missing object of the verb from the 
first separate rock-edict (Dhauli, Z-CC ; Jaugada, AA-DD), viz. mahdmdtranu 

? 3 Literally : * by this letter \ The word vyaiijana is used in Buddhist literature in the sense of 

Y 2 



i64 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

■I -i - ' 

■ 

(J) In the same way cause (your subordinates) to dispatch (an officer) according 
to the letter of this (edict) in all the territories (surrounding) forts. 1 

■ i - r ^ 

HI. THE RUMMINDEI PILLAR 

i (a) ^hhG&i ftjRfiH pjrfsiR ^NrfNfflftrfea^ 

i t, . 'i * * - 

4 VJJR ft (C) cfrfaftPTO ^ff5% *BZ 

* ■■ ■ ■ 

1 (A) Devana[pi]yena Piyadasina lajina visatLvasabhisitena 

2 atana agacha mahiyite hida Budhe jate Sakyamuni ti 

3 (B) sila vigadabhi cha kalapita sila-thabhe cha usapapite 

4 hida Bhagavam jate ti (O) Lnmmini-game ubalike kate 

5 atha-bhagiye cha 

h. ■ 

= - ' . ...... , .. 1 

, ' i , - ' : 

TRANSLATION 

y - ■ • ' ■ - ' - > ■ 

(A) When king Bevanampriya Priyadar£in had been anointed twenty years, 
he came himself^and worshipped (this spot), because the Buddha Sakyamuni was 
born here. 2 ^ 

(B) (He) both caused to be made a stone bearing a horse (?) 3 and caused a stone 
pillar to be set up, (in order to show) that the Blessed one was born here. 4 



* letter' as opposed to f sense* {atiha) ; see Childers, Pali Dictionary* s. v. vyanjanam. In the rock- 
edict III, E, it is coupled with keiu 9 * reason \ A number of Pali sentences in which it occurs, were 
collected by the late Dr. Neumann (ZDMG, 67. .345 f.), who rendered it by ( specification \ Senart 
(CR, 1907. 36) translates: 'with the text of my instructions'; i.e. he takes the instrumental etena 
viyamjanena in the sense of the saciative; cf. Speyer's Sanskrit Syntax (Leyden, i886) a § 59. 
. 1 This seems to refer to outlying jungle tracts (perhaps in the Nepalese Tarai) which were not 
fully pacified, but were held by means of military posts, such as the 'forests' mentioned in the 
Shahbazgarhl edict XIII, M. -i.-- 

; 2 In the Ma/iapdrmi66ana-sttfta (JRAS,,^^^ the Buddha himself is reported to have 

said: * dgamissanti kho Ananda saddhd bhikklm-bhtkkhuniyo upasaka-itpasikayo idha Tathagato 
jato tV In accordance with this quotation I connect the words from hida to ti with section A, 
while Fleet (JRAS, 1908. 486) joined them to B„ ; ; , : ^ , 

v> > 3 This is Charpentier*s explanation of the obscure and much-discussed word vigadabhi \ see IA, 
43. 19 f. The syllable -bill might certainly; represent Skt. -bhrit ; but, that vigada means ' a horse \ 
remains to be proved by more substantial evidence. Sir R. Bhandarkar (JBBRAS, ao. 366, n. 14) 
and Fleet (JRAS, 1908. 477, 8*3) joined bhicha into one word, and explained it by Skt Hhittikty 
'a wall'. . As, according to Pischers Grdmptatih^ §§ 49, 219, vigada is an ArdhamagadhI form of 
Skt. vikrita, sila-vigada bhicha might mean c a (brick) wall decorated with stone But, as 
Charpentier (I A, 43. 17) remarks, the change of Hhittika to bhicha *is wholly improbable from 
a linguistic point, of view,, as consonants were iiot dropped to such an extent at that early stage 
of Prakrit dialects,' ; • 7 - r r , \ , 

* With the words hida Bhagavaih jate z$\ Divydvaddna^ p. 389: ^asmin maharaja prade&e 
Bhagavdii jdtdh' 



RUMMINDEI PILLAR-INSCRIPTION 



Page 164 




2 



4 



NIGALI SAGAR PILLAR-INSCRIPTION 




Scale One-fourth 



RUMMINDEI PILLAR-INSCRIPTION 165 

■ 

(C) (He) made the Tillage of Lummini 1 free of taxes, 2 and paying (only) an 
eighth share (of the produce).* 

IV. THE NIGALI SAGAR PILLAR 

1 (a) ^nHfa^r ftni^R <syrf^R ^SB^nfafaW?? 

3 I) ml4n * win vim* tflftt 

4 inftt 

1 (A) Devanampiyena Fiyadasina lajina chodasa-vasa[bli]i[si]t[e]n[a] 

2 Budhasa Konakamanasa thube dutiyarii vadhite 

3 (B) . . ; sabhisitena 4 cha atana agacha mahiyite 

4 . - . . papite 6 

7 ■ . 

TRANSLATION 

(A) When ting Devanampriya Priyadarsin had been anointed fourteen 
years, he enlarged the Stupa of the Buddha Konakamana 6 to the double (of its 
original size). 7 

(B) And when he had been anointed [twenty] years, he came himself and 
worshipped (this spot) [and] caused [a stone pillar to be set up]. 



1 In the Nidanakathd {Jataka, vol. I, pp. $% and 54), the site of the Buddha's birth is called 
Lumbini-vana. For other forms of the name see Charpentier in I A, 43. 18. The word Lummini 
survives in the modern designation Rummindei ; see V. A. Smith in I A, 34. 1. 

2 For uhalika as Skt. *udbalika see Barth, Journal des Savants^ 1897, p. 73, a s'j Buhler, EI, 
5. 5 ; Fleet, JRAS, 1908. 478 £ ; Sir Charles Lyall, id. 850 £ ; and Thomas (id; 1909. 466 £), who 
quotes the similar term uchchhulka from the Kautiltya. 

s The Divyavadana (p. 3go) reports that Asoka spent at LumbinT-vana 100,000 (gold pieces). 
In accordance with this legend, Barth (loc, cit), Buhler (EI, 5. 5), and Neumann (ZDMG, 68. 731 f.) 
took atha = Skjt. ariha and translated atha-bhagiya by ' partaking of riches \ Fleet (JRAS, 1908. 
479 f.) explained aihorbhaga by Skt. ashta-bhaga, *an eighth share \ which the king is permitted by 
ftlanu (VII, 130) to levy on grains- In the Kautiltya (p. 116, 1, a from bottom) chaiurlha-pancha- 
bhagika is actually used with the meaning * paying a fourth or a fifth share (of the produce) *. 
I therefore agree with Thomas (JRAS, 1914. 391 £) in believing that -bhdgiya must mean 'paying 
a share', and not, as Fleet thought, * entitled to a share*. In the case of 'the village of Lummini, 
bureaucracy prevailed against charity. For the affix 4ya (= Skt. -ika) see above, p. 134, n. 4. 

4 Buhler restored visati-vasabhisitena^ as on the Rummindei pillar, i 1, 

5 Biihler restored sila-thabhe cha usapapite on the strength of L 3 of the same inscription. 

c This mythical Buddha is called Kdnagamana by the Southern Buddhists (Konagame?za at 
Bharaut; I A, 31. 239, No. 30), and Kanakamuni or Konakamuni by the Northern ones; see 
Kern's Mamial of Indian Buddhism* p. 64. , , 

7 With duiiyam vadhite cf. diyadhiyam vadhisati (or vadhisiti) at Sahasram, section I, and in 
the corresponding sections of the other minor rock- edicts. Previous translators rendered dutiyam 
by 1 for the second time 1 * 



166 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



1 



FOURTH PART: MINOR ROCK-INSCRIPTIONS 

■ 

I. THE RUPNATH ROCK-INSCRIPTION 

■ 

m (c) 3t *nft (d) i-nftS% •% ^m. n ffa 

2 *nft ^ (E) Tft ^TTT^T ^BloTTZT ^iff^fti ^tStot INl f!| ft 

<tf* f*m .tot (f) wrft % tot m$ (g) % ^ m\ tmm\ 

^ *|^r ^ ^st<7t ^ *RtWjj ft mm ft siwj 
4 ftft ft^ft^i fe^T (i) ft ^ -atfk ^rftfaft ftip ^ ^ftftft 

^TR*ft$WT ft?ift3 Sfftfli! (J) 1? ^ 31% T^fftf ^^iTWW 

(K) IV ^ ^ft 

^TT*" f^R%rRHI ft (M) sp?n 357 (N) ^oo 

Mo % 
6 rf ft^TO FT 



■ ■ 



« r 



(A) Bevanarirpiye heya[m] aha (B) sati[ra]kekani 1 a<Jliati[y]ani va 3 ya sumi 
prakasa [Sa]k[e] 8 (C) no chu badhi pakate (D) satileke chu chhavachliai'e * 
ya sumi haka[m] sagh[a] up[e]te ■ \ 

I , -■ - . + "lip p ■ ^ " + 1 L p '"'"'- pt 

2 badhi ch[a] 5 pakate (E) ya° [fjmaya kalaya Jambudipasi amisa deva husu te dahi 
ni[i]s[a] kata (P) pakamasi 7 hi [e]sa phale (G) no cha esa mahatata p[a]potaye 
. . khudakena 8 . . ... . . ' ' ■ . . 



:: : <saii\Ie\kani Senart khd B^ler,;jr^d sd^ekdnurri , l 
: a This seems to be an abbreviation for vasani^ which is the reading of the Bairat, Brahmagiri, 
and Siddapura rock-inscriptions. : , . ; ; <V . ^ . : . ^ : : :: - ; 

3 The first akshara of prakasa, looks like pa ; but cf. above, p. 9, L ip. There is a vacant space 
aifter this word. .Biihler read paka> (which: he considered a mistake for Ziaka, i. e. kakam) \_sava\ke. 
The reading was suggested to me by the new Maski rocWnscription. which reads Bu\dhd\~ 

iSafc&, 1 ,~ : , ■ i t . ■ .: l v ■ *•• 

* As the Brahraagiri and Siddapura versions prove, this is a clerical mistake Sox savackhare\ 
see I A, 37. 23, and JRAS a 1910. 145 f. 

G ^«BuhIer. m 6 X*TBQhler. 

7 Three other versions of this edict read pakamasa* 

8 Senart and Biihler add the two syllables hi £a, I believe these are in reality meaningless 
scratchesj beyond the proper area of the inscription. 



RUPNATH ROCK-INSCRIPTION 



Page 166 



LEFT HALF 




RIGHT HALF 




Scale Ohe-foueth 



RUPNATH ROCK-INSCRIPTION 167 

3 pi pa[ka]mam[i]nena 1 sakiye pipule 2 pa 3 svage arodheve 4 (H) etiya athaya cha 

savane kate kh[u]daka cha udala cha pakamatu 6 ti ata pi cha janarhtu iya G 
paka[ra 7 va] 

4 kiti chira-thitike siya (I) iya hi athe vadhi vadhisiti vipula cha vadhisiti apaladhiyena 

diyaclhiya vadhisata 8 (J) iya cha athe pavatis[u] lekhapeta valata (K) hadha & 
cha athi . 

5 sala-th[abh]e 10 sila-tha[m]bhasi lakhapetavaya 11 ta 12 (L) etina cha vayajanena 

yavataka tupaka 13 ah ale savara 14 vivasetava[ya] 15 ti (BI) vy[u]thena savane 
kate (K) 200 50 6 sar 

6 ta vivas a ta 10 

■ TRANSLATION 

+ 

(A) Devanampriya speaks thus, 

(B) Two and a half years 17 and somewhat more (have passed) since I am 
openly a Sakya^ 

(O) But (I had) 10 not been very zealous. 30 

(D) But a year and somewhat more (has passed) since I have visited 21 the 
Samg/ia 22 and have been very zealous. 

I parumaminena Buhler. 3 Read vipttle. 

3 Read//, which is the reading of Senart and Buhler. 

4 arodhave Biihler ; read dradhe\ta*]ve. $ pakamanttu Senart and Buhler. 
G iyam Senart and Buhler. 

7 Senart proposes to read pakame ; cf. the Siddapura and Sahasram rock-inscriptions. 

8 Read vadhisiti. 

0 Buhler and Senart correct Jiidha. Instead of it, the context seems to require yata {= Skt. 
yatra) ; but this change would be so violent that it cannot be seriously entertained, 
10 Read sila- s which is the reading of Senart and Buhler ; -ihubhe Buhler. 

II Read ima°. 12 Read ti. 

13 Read perhaps titpkakaiih as on the Sarnath pillar, 1. 9. 

14 Read savata, as on the Sarnath pillar, 1. 10. 

15 °viya Senart, °va\_yti\ Buhler ; read vivasetaviye and cf. vivasayatha at Sarnath, 1. 10, 

16 Read tu 

17 As was first remarked by Oldenberg {Vinaya-pitaha, Introduction, p. xxxviii, note, and 
ZDMG, 35. 474,, note), adhatiya is the Pali addhatiya, 'two and a half. 

13 Instead of this, the Sahasram, Bairatj and Siddapura versions read upasake 9 ( a lay-worshipper * 
but the Maski version reads Bu\dhd\-£ahe* On the Rummindel pillar the Buddha himself receives 
his well-known epithet &akyamtmu Varahamihira uses the tribal name Sakya in the sense of 
'a Buddhist' ; see BOhtlmgk and Roth's Dictionary, s. v. In the Kauiiliya the word Sakya has the 
same meaning; see Shama Sastri's Translation, p. 251, n. 3. As Professor Jolly kindly informs me, 

the Munich MS. reads at<fcH^*KI^H> which is meant for STRSTrafaRfT^K; the ediiio princeps 

(p. 199, 1. 3 f.) has ^rr: 1 wN^n^K* ■ 

*° The word husam is inserted in the Mysore versions. 

20 The Mysore versions add c for one year 3 . Thomas (JA (10), 15, 515 f.) and Sylvain Levi 
(id. 17. lai f.) take pakamati in the sense of ' travelling about 1 . But the various readings of the 
Sahasram and Bairat edicts suggest that pakamati has to be understood as a synonym o/ipala- 
hamate 'to exert one's self, to be zealous'; see Fleet's remarks in JRAS, 1909. 993, and cf. the 
rock-edict VI, L and N, and X, C and E. In section G the participle pa\kd\ma7}i\f\nena (Rupnath) 
or palakamammena (Sahasram) corresponds to dfiama-yute\fta'] i 'devoted to morality', at Maski, E. 

31 Buhler translated up\e\ie by 'entered J ; see IA, 6. 156, and EI, 3. 140. I adopt Senart's very 
cautious rendering, which is more natural and supported by Buddhist tradition ; see IA, 30, 334. 

22 i. e* the Buddhist clergy. 



168 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF AS OKA 

(S3) Those gods who during that time had been unmingled (with men) 1 in 
Jambudvlpa, 3 have now been made (by me) mingled (with them). 3 

(F) For this is the fruit of zeal. 

(G) And this cannot be reached by (persons of) high rank 4 (alone), (but) even 
a lowly (person) is able to attain even the great heaven if he is zealous. 5 

(H) And for the following purpose has (this) proclamation been issued, 0 (that) both 
the lowly and the exalted may be zealous, and (that) even (my) borderers 7 may know 
(it), (and) that this same zeal may be of long duration. 

(I) For, this matter 8 will (be made by me to) progress, 0 and will (be made to) 
progress considerably ; it will (be made to) progress to at least one and a half, 10 



1 Sylvain L£vi (J A (io), 17. 134 £) first showed that misa represents Skt. misrah ; but his 
translation of deva by 1 kings * is inadmissible. The word deva is not used anywhere else in the 
Asoka edicts except in the title Devdnampriya, where it certainly does not mean * a king for which 
the word raja is regularly employed; see JRAS, 191 1- 11 14. Senart (JA (n), 7. 438 ff.) still 
upholds Biihler's view that misa stands for Skt, mruha^ which is represented by musd in Pali, 
in Ardhamagadhi (Fischel's Grammatih^ § 78), and in the Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription, L 6. 
Granted that this explanation might account for the curious compounds misam-deva and ammisam- 
deva at Sahasram, — the nasalized final occurring also in the Ardhamagadhi form musam, — it would 
create two serious difficulties : (1) the compound misibhuia at Maski would offend against the 
Vdrtiika on Panini, VII^ 4, 33, which prohibits the change of the final a of indeclinables to I 
(cf. Mahabhashya on I, 1, 41), and (a) it forces Senart (loc. cik, p- 441) to render the words misa 
devehi\ s mingled with the gods', in the Mysore edicts, by 1 out iU {rdduits d apparaitre comme) 
faussement (mis an nombre) des dieux\ and to consider the instrumental devehi an ablative 
partitive (?). 9 * 

2 i e. in India. 

s As I have shown in JRAS, 1913. 654 f. 3 this enigmatical sentence can be explained by 
comparing a similar, but more explicit statement in the fourth rock-edict* It refers to certain 
religious shows at which A^oka had exhibited to his Subjects in effigie the gods whose abodes they 
would be able to reach by the zealous practice of Dhar?na. The wprd deva corresponds to divydni 
rupani in the Girnar edict IV, B. 

4 As the Brahmagiri version suggests, maliataffi corresponds to Skt. mahatmatvat 

G Cf. the parallel passage in the rock-edict X, E. , 

0 Fleet (JRAS, 1909. 1014) and Thomas (J A (10), 15. 510) were of opinion that the 
few following words : * let both the lowly and the exalted be zealous 1 represent the text of an 
address delivered by A^oka himself on a previous occasion, and quoted succinctly by him here. 
But a glance at the parallel passages collected by Thomas himself on the next page (511) will 
suffice to show that Senart was right in believing that the following words are rather referred to by 
eiiya athdya, and that here, as well as in section M, the word f proclamation ' refers to the whole of 
the Rupnath edict itself. 

7 According to the Kalsl and Shahbazgarhl rock-edict XIII, Q, these borderers were 
Antiochus II of Syria and four other Greek kings (in the west), and the Chodas and Pandyas 

• in the south. Cf. also the rock-edict II, A, and V, J- 

8 i.e. apparently the subject-matter or contents of Asoka's proclamation, viz. the Buddhist 
propaganda ; see section J. 

9 With vadhi\ih**\ vadhisiti cf. dkamma-vadhi vadhiia in the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, J J 
and NN. 

10 Cf. above, p- 165, n. 7. 



RUPNATH ROCK-INSCRIPTION 169 

(J) And cause ye this matter 1 to be engraved on rocks where an occasion presents 
itself. 2 

(K) And (wherever) there are stone pillars here, 8 it must be caused to be engraved 
on stone pillars.* 

(L) And according to the letter of this (proclamation) 5 (you) must dispatch (an 
officer) 6 everywhere, as far as your district 7 (extends). 
(M) (This) proclamation was issued by (me) on tour, 8 
(N) 256 (nights) 9 (had then been) spent on tour. 1 * 



IL THE SAHASRAM ROCKJNSCRIPTION 

w 

■ 

i (c) 1 ^ "TO T&rfift 

2 (D) Wftfti I *f * * * * ^ (E) TJJ|5T ^ 3TH^T I II 

^fw^n i sir 

> — ■■ — - — ■ — — — 1 

1 Instead of the nominative iya cha athe we should have expected the accusative ima cha athath, 
as at Sahasram, 1. 7. The nominative would be in its proper place if we adopt Senart's conjecture 
lekhapetavtye ti for lekh&peta valuta ; but this change is so extensive that it must be pronounced 
doubtful, 

2 Literally: *in consequence of an occasion* (varatah) ; see JRAS, 19x1. 11 16. 
s viz, * in my territory '* Cf. above, p. n. 3. 

4 Cf. the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, SS. 
* See above, p. 163, n. 13. 

c See above, p. 163, n. 12. Fleet (JRAS, 191 1. 1106) translated vivaseti by *■ spending a night 
in worship'. I have shown that this meaning is rendered improbable by the context of the 
corresponding passage of the Sarnath edict; see JRAS, 191a. 1053 ff. 

7 Cf. above, p. 163, n. 11. 

8 Cf. the rock-edict VIII. For the two terms vyutha and vivasa t which have greatly exercised 
all earlier interpreters, see now Thomas, J A (10), 15. 513 ff. The instrumental vy\ti\thena t which 
depends on savane ka% must refer to A£oka himself, because the preceding text of the proclamation 
shows the latter to have been the edict of a king to his officers, who are addressed in the second 
person plural (tupaka, 1. 5) ; see JRAS, 1909. 739. I therefore follow Thomas (IA, 37. rsa) in 
supplying maya. 

9 The three figures c 256 * were explained by Buhler as a date after the Nirvana of the Buddha. 
Other scholars interpreted them in different ways (see Fleet, JRAS, 1908. 817), until in 1910 
(J A (10), 15. 507 ff.) Thomas showed that the Sahasram version of the Rupnath edict combines with 
them the word /<z#=Skt. ratri, *a night*. On the (redundant) word sata } f a hundred 1 , see 
Thomas, ibid., p. 521, and Fleet, JRAS, 1911. 1104, n. a. Since the publication of Thomas' 
discovery of the word laii at Sahasram, the '356 nights' have been discussed by Fleet (J R AS, 
1910. 1301 ff., 1911. 1091 ff., and 1913. 655 ff.), Sylvain L&ri (JA (to), 17. 119 ff.), D. R. Bhandarkar 
(I A, 41. 170 ff.), Neumann (translation of the Digha~nikaya % %. %%& f., and i?. Accademia dei Lincei, 
Rendiconti) %i* 695 ff.), Thomas himself (JR AS, 1916. 113 ff.), and Senart (JA (n), 7. 434 f.), who 
takes lati = Skt. rati, as at Kalsi, VIII, F. 

10 In JRAS, 1 9 xo. 1309, I interpreted the word viydsa, which corresponds to vivutha at 
Sahasram, as an ablative singular. But it seems more natural to follow Thomas, who considers it 
a nominative plural. 

1813 Z 



iyo THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

3 gfon 'Mb* i (p) ^ * * stf to (g) *fr • • * *i 

4 mffon ftij& ft * ; ftra w<*t ****** % i (h) % vjnv 

qftwft I ftp*" ft ^ MfJwfif 

6 f^nfotf 3ra<sftw f^rfe*} ^ferfw i (j) ^ ^ shr ft^$H (k) 

7 sht ik%*u ft *oo Mo § (l) sjr ^ ^ xrafhg fty^wn (m) *r • • 

8 ft %m %?rw^ m ft fadu ms ft 

^ . - / 

I 

1 (A) Devanampiye he[vam] [[a]] 1 [[iyani savachhala]][ni | a]m 

upasake sumi \ (C) na chu badham [palaka]ih[t]e 

2 (D) sav[a]chhale 2 sadlii[ke] [[i am]] ........ [[te]] (E) [ete][[na cha amta]]Iena i 

Jambudipasi \ ammisam-[de]va 3 1 samta * 

3 munisa [m]isam-deva [[kata | (P) pala]] . . [pyam phale (G) [n]o]] .... 

[[yam]] mahatata va chakiye pav[a]t[a]ve i khudakena pi pala- 

4 kamammena vipule pi s[u]ag ... [k]iye 5 [a][[la]] ...... [[vejj [i] (H) se etaye 

ath[a]ye iyaih savane 6 | khudaka cha udala cha pa- 

5 [la]kamamtu amta pi ch[a] janamtu ( chila~thit[lke] 7 cha p[a]l[a]kame 8 hotu [ (I) 

iya[m] cha [athe] vadhisati \ vipulam pi cha vadhisati 

6 diyadhiyaih aval[a]dhiyena diy[a]dhiyam vadhisati | (J) iyaih [[cha savane]] 

[v]ivuthena (K) duve sapamna lati- 

7 sata vivutha ti 200 50 6 (L) ima cha atham pavatesu p][[ikha]][pa]yatha (JUL) 

ya . . D [va] a- 

8 th[i] beta sila-tham[bh]a tata pi 10 Qikhapayatha t]i 



1 The letters enclosed in double brackets are now broken away, but are still visible on an old 
photograph of the rock which I owe to the kindness of Sir John Marshall, 

2 The top of va is damaged by a slanting cross-line, and there happens to be a faint vertical 
stroke behind it which gave rise to the imaginary syllable vim in Cunningham's copy. A later idea 
of Buhlers (IA S 23. 299), the group dva> is equally non-existent; as stated by Fleet (JRAS, igio. 
147), it is already impossible because the 4& would then have to stand on the level of the line, but 
not above it, and the va would have to be entered below, but not on the level of the line* These 
tedious details have to be noted here because the fanciful reading sadvackhale, combined with the 
actual blunder cJthavachkare at Rupnath, is the starting-point of a (now exploded) theory which has 
obscured the chronology of As*5ka J s inscriptions for a long time. 

3 Read amzsam-. * sam\ta\ Buhler. 5 Restore mage chakiye* 
6 Read savane. 7 -[t/i\iti6 , Buhler. 

* palakame Senart and Buhler. 9 Restore yata. 

10 The syllable// was entered above the line. 



SAHASRAM ROCK-INSCRIPTION 



Page 170 




FROM MR. BEGLAR'S PHOTOGRAPH 




Scale One-fourth 



SAHASRAM ROCK-INSCRIPTION 



171 



TRANSLATION 

(A) Devanampriya [speaks] thus. 

(B) years since I am a lay-worshipper (upasa&a). 

(C) But (I had) not been very zealous. 

(D) A year and somewhat more (has passed) since 

(E) And men in Jambudvipa, being during that time unmingled with the gods, 
have (now) been made (by me) mingled with the gods. 

(F) [For] this is the fruit [of zeal]. 

(G) cannot 1 be reached by (persons of) high rank alone, (but) even a lowly 

(person) is able to attain even the great heaven if he is zealous. 

(H) Now, for the following purpose (has) this proclamation (been issued), (that) 
both the lowly and the exalted may be zealous, and (that) even (my) borderers may 
know (it), and (that this) zeal may be of long duration, 

(I) And this matter will (be made by me to) progress, and will (be made to) 
progress even considerably ; it will (be made to) progress to one and a half, to at least 
one and a half. 

(J) And this proclamation (was issued by me) on tour. 

(K) Two hundred and fifty-six nights (had then been) spent on tour, 2 — (in 
figures) 256- 3 

(L) And cause ye this matter to be engraved on rocks. 

(M) And where there are stone pillars here (in my dominions), there also cause (it) 
to be engraved. 

III. THE BAIRAT ROCK-INSCRIPTION 

1 (A) "^nqififa wit (b) snfrT 

2 ^mfH 1 ^4 ^trrcrci (c) ^ ^ »•■•••♦•♦»• 

4 SI^Tfa STftWT 57^5 fa TST * * & 

5 (g) f% im n^w^r ^faR • ^mft^rr 

Mc4«fW(| "fir 

1 For ckak, a variant of the root sak, see above, p. 97, n. 4. 

2 Thomas (JA (10), 15. 530, note) compares the word vivutka (corresponding to vivasd at 
Rupnath) with vyushtam, a division of time which is mentioned in the KauHUya, p. 60, 1. 3 from 
bottom. His suggestion that the latter may have the sense of vvyprtfLtpov, 'a night and a day', is 
perhaps correct. At any rate, in Asoka's time both vivutka and vivasa apparently meant 1 a civil 
day spent in travelling, an absence of twenty-four hours from headquarters '. 

3 The actual purport of this important passage was cleared up by Thomas (JA (10), 15. 520), 
who discovered in it the word latt, 'a night', which had escaped the attention of his predecessors for 
thirty-three years. He pointed out, at the same time, that panna is a recognized Prakrit form 
of panchasat, and that expressions like dve skatpanchas'e r&tri-sate are used in archaic Sanskrit 
as well. Cf. ekam rattim vippavasati, 'to spend a night away from home', in Childers' Pali 
Dictionary, p. 581. 

z 2 



ij2 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

■ _h 

7 mn ft ^ m*fy ft ft<*fiw * * * * * ft ^ftgft *-•••• — •*- 

1 (A) Bevanampiye ah[a] (B) s[a]ti v / * ,v . . # 

2 vasan[i] ya hakam 1 upasake (0) [no chu] badharii ......... „ 

3' am mam ay a saghe ■* [u]payate [ba]dha cha - . . V .... - 

4 Jambudipasi 3 amisa 4 na devehi ...... [m]i . [ka]masa esa . l[e] 

5 (G) [no] hi e[s]e ma[ha]taneva chakiye . ......... kamaminena 

6 vipule pi Svage [cha]kye [a]ladheta[v]e (H) /ka cha [u]d[a]la cha 5 

[pala]kamatu [t]i 

7 [aih]ta pi cha janaihtu ti [ch]ila-thit .......... laiti pi vadhisati .......... 

8 diyadhiyaih vadhi[sa]ti . , . . ! 

, * 1 r ■ . . . 

l ■ r ' I ■ > m 

■ . " ' . ■ " ■ . : i J '. ,} * * i ■ ■ - .''.-......'.I" . 

i - -i . '. _ i 

IVi THE CALCUTTA-BAIRAT ROCK-INSCRIPTION 

2 (b) ftf^ ^ ^mr^i cm ^ft *taft shrcft ft »n<^ ^ iwri^ ^ 

(C) T? Vft 

4 fN^ftfH% ftatft ft ^t^Tftr ^ if -snH% (e) x*nft * 
*rf^n*nft ft«"Wy^<*S 

6 ^ g«r«ri< ^iftft^i w^im ^ Hift^ T^mft wtffo*n*nft 

s (p) ^np^iT ^ ^irftFRT (g) Tgtfn ^ ^ fOTiwftr 

1 (A) Pr[i]yadas[i] e I[a]ja Magadhe 7 saihgham abhiyade[tu]naih 8 aha ap[a]badhatam 

cha phasH-vihalatarii cha 

2 (B) vidite v[e] bhariite avatake h[a]ma Budhasi dhammasi saihghasi ti galave 9 

chain prasade 10 cha (C) e kechi 11 bhamte ' 

1 haka Bfihler. y ^ * sa]ni\ghe Biihler. 3 Buhler. 

4 The syllable was entered above the line. ' e ^ a Buhler. 

6 Piya* Senart " ' - ' ; ' '■■ 

7 Magadhmh Senaft ; but the e of is quite distinct, and what has been taken for an 
Anusvara is in reality a horizontal dashi " . . : . ! 

8 abhivadatiam Senart ; but see JRAS, 1909. 737. 1 

9 ^w&ztf Senart. .... 10 f^sade Senart. 11 kemchi Senart. 



BAIRAT ROCK-INSCRIPTION 



Page 172 




<M Til tO qo 



C ALC UTT A- B AI RAT ROCK-INSCRIPTION 



Page 




C ALC U TT A-B Al RAT ROCK-INSCRIPTION 173 

3 bhagavata Budhe[na] bhasite sarve 1 se subhasite vS (D) e chu kho bhamte 

hamiyaye diseya hevarh sadharhme 

4 chil[a-thi]tike hosati ti alahami hakaih ta[m] v[a]tave 2 (E) imam bhamt[e dhajmma- 

paliyayani Vinaya-samukase > 

5 Aliya-vasani 8 Anagata-bhayani Muni-gatha Money a-sute Upatisa-pasine e cha 

Laghulo- 

■ ■ - ■ 1 

6 vade musa-vadam adhigichya* bhagavata : Budhena bhasite etani 5 bhamte 

[ . dharhma-paliyayam ichhami 

7' kiihti bahuke bhikhu-[p]aye cha bhikhuniye 6 ch[a] abhikhinam sun[e]yu 7 cha 
upadhal[a]yeyu B cha 

8 (P) hevammeva upasaka cha upasika cha ' (G) eterii 9 bhamte imam likha[pa]yami 
abhipfetaih 10 me janarhtu 11 tl 



1* *■ * 



TRANSLATION 



(A) The Magadha king Priyadar^in, 1 2 having saluted the Satkgha™ hopes they 
are both well and comfortable. 14 

(B) It is known to'you, Sirs, how great is my reverence and faith in the Buddha, 
the Dkarma™ (and) the Saniglia^ ' */ r i " ' -. C : ' \ / " ' ."■ ': . 

(C) Whatsoever, Sirs, has been spoken by the blessed Buddha, all that is quite 
well spoken. 

(D) But f Sirs, what would indeed, appear to me 1T (to be referred to by the words 
of the scripture) ; 1 thus the. true Dkarma will be of long duration*, 1 8 that I feel bound 
to declare. V ? r -\ ■ : y '\\'\- x =V< * 

(E) The following expositions of the Dkarma^ Sirs, (viz.) (1) the Vinayarsamtikasa y 
(2) the Aliya-vasas™ (3) the A nagata-bhayas^ (4) the Muni-gdthas, (5) the Money a-sftta, 



I save Senart- :s vatave Senart. s -vas&ni Senart. 

4 This word is quite distinct, and the reading adkigidhya proposed by Michdson (IF, 27. 194 f.J 

is impossible. ; . . , 4 ■ 

e etana Senart* c bhakhuniye Senart. 7 sunayu Senart- 

8 npadhaleyeyu Senart. 9 Read etena m : / ' 

10 abhihetam Senart; but the horizontal stroke attached to pa is probably intended for r* Cf. 

aprakamnamhi in the Girnar edict XII, 1. 3/ ' ' 

II majanmhta Senart. : f : : ■ - / >* : - 

12 Cf. e. g. r/y^z Mdgadho Seniyo Bimhisaro in the Vinaya-pitaka (passim) ; Magadho 
Ajatasattu at the beginning of the MahapaHnibbana-stitta (JRAS, 1875. 49) ; and raja Pasenaji 
Kosalo in a Bharaut inscription [IA, 332, No; 58). 

13 i. e. the Buddhist clergy, " ' ' f 1 

14 Literally: 'pronounces both (their) being in good health and (their) being (in the enjoyment) 
of pleasant life*. Cf. at the beginning of the Mahdparimbbdna^sttttai ' appabadham appaiankam 
lalmttlidnam balam phdsti-viharaih piieJichka \ and see Neumann's translations of the Majjkima- 
nikaya (%* 617, note) and Dtgha-mkaya '(2. i'aifi, n, 3). ' ' 1 ■■ 

15 i. e. the Buddhist doctrine. : . 1 r ■ 

10 These are the so-called ' three jewels' ; see Childers' Pali Dictionary \ s. v. ratanam. 

?7 Kern (IA, 5. 357) explained diseya as the optative of the Pali dissati = Skt. drisyate ; cf. 

jras, 1909, 728. ■ \ 7 * ; \~ " ■ : ■ : .;• • ' : 

18 As suggested by the late Professor Hardy (JRAS; I90x. 314), these words seem to contain a 
quotation from the Buddhist scriptures* 

19 is a defective spelling for vamsa ; see IA^ 41. 39. ' ' * 



174 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



• ♦ • • 



(6) the U pattsa-pasina, and (7) the Laghulovada which was spoken by the blessed 
Buddha concerning falsehood, 1 — I desire, Sirs, that many groups of monks and (many) 
nuns may repeatedly listen to these expositions of the Dharma^ and may reflect (on 
them). 

(F) In the same way both laymen and laywomen (should act). 

(G) For the following (purpose), Sirs, am I causing this to be written, (viz.) m 
order that they may know my intention* 

. ' ■ ' ' - ■'. . ■ ■ . ... 

t 

V. THE MASKI ROCK-INSCRIPTION 

■ . . : ; 

1 (a) l^THtfrafl ^rataw * * • * * * * * * * wfii- 

2 * * fk wfH 1 ^ ^fa (c) • • * ♦ fift 

4 * ' * • fa ^ srfw p & <crfh fflftPi?n (e) 33 to ^ 

5 ^FT ft? tft'trftPllft (F) «T |3 ^ftrafN^ <33K 

e H% ^ ^rf*i»T%?^T fw (g) ^ -^m* ^ to- 

1 (A) De7[a]iia[iii]piyasa;Asok[a]sa .* [a]dh[a]t[i]- 

2 . . ni 8 vasha[ni] | am 4 sump] Bu[dha]-£ake 6 (C) . . . . . . . v.;. [tjire . ... . 

3 , . [m]i 6 [s]amgha[m] u[pa]gate [uth] m[i] u[pa]gate 7 (D) pure 

4 . . . . s[i 8 ye amtsa deva husu] te [da]n[i] misibhuta (E) iya a[the khu]da- 

" - - ■ 

1 For identifications of these texts see Oldehberg, Ymaya-piiaka, Introduction, p. xl, n. 1 ; 
Sylvain L6vi, JA (9), 7. 475 ff.; Neumann, VO J, 11. 159 c ; Rhys Davids, JRAS, 1898, 639 t; 
Oldenberg, ZDMG, 53. 634 ff.; Bloclyid., 63, 335 ff. As the late lamented Mr. V. A. Smith 
kindly informed me, No. 1, Vinaya-mmukasa % is identified by A. J. Edmunds {Buddhist 
Bibliography, San. Francisco, 1904) with Buddha's First Sermon. According to Dharmananda 
Kosambi (IA, 41. 40), Nos. % and 3 occur in the A&giittara-nikayai Nos. 4-6 in the Sutta-nipata> 
and No. 7 in the Majjhima-nikaya. 

8 Senart fills up this break by vachanma adhikanu As the instrumental vachanma would 
require a verb, for which there is no room on the stone, I suggest reading savane (or sasane) 
(B) adhikanu . , ; ■ 

3 Restore adhaiiyanu * vasdni [yd]m am Krishna Sastri. 

5 bum[pa\saks K.S. The point after bu does resemble an Anusvara, but it stands on a higher 
level than the other Anusvaras of this inscription. Besides, an Anusvara would make no sense 
here. Krishna Sastri remarks that * the letter pa appears to have been corrected from some other 
and Senart (J A (ix) f 7. 428) suggests that the writer may have wavered between upasake and 
Budhupdsake* I agree with him in believing that the writer originally wanted to write upasake, 
which is the reading of Sahasram, Bairat, and Siddapura. On second thoughts he changed npa to 
Budha and added Sake, which corresponds to [,Sa]£jV] at Rupnath. The abnormal shape of the 
dha of Budha is due to its having been corrected from pa* * 

6 Restore s dtireke am stmii and, before these three words, perhaps saihvachltarei 

7 Restore perhaps uthanam cka stimi npagate^ which would convey the same meaning as the 
corresponding passage at Brahmaglri : badham cliame pakamte* Krishna Sastri and Senart restore 
badham cka stimi npagate* V ■ 

8 Restore Jambudtpasu Of the four next words faint traces are visible. 



p > < 



MASK I ROCK-INSCRIPTION 175 

5 ke[na pi] 1 dhama-yute[na] sake adhigatave (P) na hevaih dakhitaviye [uda]- 

, 6 lake va ima adhigachh[e]ya ti (G) [khudak]e [cha udjalake cha vata- 

7 viya hevaih ve kalamtam bha[dak]e [se a] 8 t[i]k[e] 3 cha va[clhi]- 

8 siti cha diya[dhi]yam he[vam] ti * 

TRANSLATION 

(A) [A proclamation] of Devanampriya Asdka. 

(B) Two and a half years [and somewhat more] (have passed) since I am a 
BuddhoSakya? 

(C) [A year and] somewhat more (has passed) [since] I have visited the Samgha 
and have shown zeal. 

(D) Those gods who formerly had been unmingled (with men) in Jambudvipa, 
have how become mingled (with them). 

(E) This object can be reached even by a lowly (person) who is devoted to 
morality. 8 

(P) One must not think thus, — (viz.) that only an exalted (person) may reach this. 
(G) Both the lowly and the exalted must be told : ' If you act thus, 7 this matter 
(will be) prosperous and of long duration, and will thus progress to one and a half. 

VI. THE BRAHMAGIRI ROCK-INSCRIPTION 

1 (a) g^NWft wf^m *%rmnm ^ mfim s%c*fa ^^mrm ^rctfira 

2 (c) ^fwftf srsTfrreTft srarfa i ^ * • • # a% (d) 3 5ft mi 

j&fc |# smst (e) grffra <j 

3 V tf% ^tfft W ^ *T (P) STj&RT ^ ^THH 3RfiWT ^IRT 

4 fam^f? (g) vm* f| (h) *t ^ *rrotw% 
e. ^tttit ^ 3?* wig fir ^ ^ 1^ fatfarfii 

1 K. S. * y &e ^ K _ s> 

3 Restore perhaps se athe ckira-lkilike. 4 diyadhiya h\e\sati K. S. 

c Cf. above, p. 167, n. 18. 

6 Instead of this, the other versions of the short edicts read ' if he is zealous '. This cor- 
respondence is valuable, because it confirms indirectly the meanings which I have assigned to 
pra-kram or para^hram and to dkarma-yukta; cf. above, p. 167, n. 30, and p. 134, n. 6. 

7 For the nominative singular absolute kalamtam see above, p. 35, n. 5. Its subject, ve 
(= Skt. vah) t is originally an oblique case of the plural. 



i 7 6 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

s sffefsfrT <K) 3?r ^ arrt sraifqrt (l) *oo mo % <m) % |^ 

9 W% (N) Tnmf¥?r^ g^r^Wf »T^g HT%g 3.%rN *R 

10 snrW % ^ OT^T H^rfarrf^TOT (O) |Sfa"3ft^TftRT 

11 ^rtT^Tf^rrirara STlfrRig ^ 4 ^ * * tRfrrafiw 

12 (P) TOT TTtTHJIT iTf^rft ^ TO (Q) HTO ^ifef^ 

13 (r) w?r fctfxnw^r 

1 (A) [S]uv[a]mnagirite 1 ayaputasa mahamatanam cha vachan[e]na Isilasi 
mahamata arogiyam vataviya hevarh cha vataviya (B) Devanampiye 
• • anapayati ....-.,„,- . , • ' 

.2, (C) adhikani adbatiyani v[a]sani ya hakarh .... sa[ke] 2 (D) no tu kho 
badhaih prakamte 8 husam ekaih savachbaraih (E) satireke tu kho 
samvaehbarem * 

3 yam maya sarhghe upaylte badharh cha me pakamte (F) imina chu kalena amisa 

samania mumsa J ambudlpasi 

4 mi[s]a devehi (G) pakamasa hi iyam phale (H) no hlyarii sakye mahatpeneva 
! , ; papotave kamam tu kho khudakena pi 

5 paka[m]i . . nena 5 vipule svage sakye aradhetave (I) e[t]ayathaya iyarh savane 

sayapite ;. ■ 

6 . . . .c . . . . 6 mahat[p]a cha imam pakame[yu t]i amta cha mai 7 janeyu chira- 

thitlke cha iyarh \., 

7 [paka] . . . ... 8 (J) iyam cha athe vadhisiti vipularh pi cha vadhisiti avaradhiya 

diyadhiyam 

8 [vadh]isiti (K) iyam cha savan[e] sav[a]p[i]te vyiithena (L) 200 50 6 (M) se hevam 

Beva^ampiye 

9 aha (N) mata-pitisu ; susus[i]taviye hemeva garu[su] 9 pranesu .drahyitavyarh 

sacharh ... . : , 

10 vataviyam se ime dhamma-guna pavatitaviya (O) hemeva arhtevasina 

11 achariye apachayitaviye fiatikesu cha [ka]rh 10 ya . . raham 11 pavatitaviye % 



1 This word looks almost like Suvemna", but the Siddapura version reads Suvmhna* 
distinctly. 

2 Restore upasake, as at Siddapura. a pakamte Buhler. 
4 Read samvachhare ; sa\m\vackhar[d\m Buhler. 

s paka\mami\nend Buhler; x^aApakamamlnena and cf. the Sahasram edict, 1. 3 f. 
6 The Siddapura version reads yatha khu\daka cka\. 
. 7 Read me. ' ■■}. 

8 The Siddapura version reads pakame koti (hptu at Sahasram). 

9 garut[vaih] Buhler. ■ ., •'"'%?] Buhler; see above, p. 31, n. 6. 

" Restore yatk&raktm and cf. the Siddapura version, L 20, and the Jatinga-Ramesvara 
version, 1. 18. 



BRAHMAGIRI ROCK-INSCRIPTION 177 

12 . (P) esa pora[n]a pa[k]iti d[igh]avuse 1 cha esa (Q) hevam esa kativiye 2 

13 (R) Chapadena likhite s li[pi]karena 4 

TRANSLATION 

■ 

(A) From Suvarnagiri, 5 at the word of the prince (aryaputra) 6 and of the 
Makam&tras, the Mahmnatras at Isila must be wished good health 7 and be told this : 

(B) Devanampriya commands (as follows). 

(C) More than two and a half years (have passed) since I (am) 8 a lay-worshipper 

(D) But indeed I had not been very zealous for one year, 5 

(E) But indeed a year and somewhat more (has passed) since I have visited 

■ 

the Samgka and have been very zealous. v 

(F) But men in Jambudvlpa, being during that time unmingled, (are now) 
mingled with the gods- 10 

(G) For this is the fruit of zeal. 

(H) For this cannot be reached by (a person) of high rank alone, but indeed even 
a lowly (person) can at liberty attain the great heaven if he is zealous. 

(I) For the following purpose has this proclamation been issued, 11 [that both the 
lowly] and those of high rank may be zealous in this manner, 13 and (that even) my 
borderers may know (it), and (that) this zeal may be of long duration. 

(J) And this matter will (be made by me to) progress, and will (be made to) 
progress even considerably ; it will (be made to) progress to at least one and a half- , 
(E) And this proclamation was issued by (me) on tour- 

■ ■ ■ « 4 1 

1 d[igti\dvuse Buhler. 3 Read kaiaviye. ~ 3 U[k!i\it\am~\ Buhler, 

4 This word is written in Kharoshthl characters. 

5 This place seems to have been the capital of the province administrated by the Aryaputrd 
and his Mahamairas. Buhler (EI, $> 137) compared the second separate edict at Dhauli, according 
to which a Kumdra and his Mahamairas resided at Tosali. The separate edicts of Dhauli and 
Jaugada were addressed by the king to the local authorities themselves, while in the Mysore edicts 
the king commands the authorities of the Suvarnagiri province to communicate his orders to their 
subordinates at Isila. In Fleetjs opinion the Mysore edicts were issued from Suvarnagiri by Aioka 
himself; and he identified this place with one of the hills, still known as Sonagiri, near Rajagriha in 
Bihar; see JRAS, 1909. 998-' H* Krishna Sastri connects .Suvarnagiri, Le. 'the gold mountain \ 
with the country around Maski\ which abounds in ancient gold-workfags ; see his remarks on the 
Maski edict, p. x. Perhaps it may be identified with its synonym Kanakagiri, south of Maski and 
north of the ruins of Vyayanagara ; see Constable's Hand- Atlas &f India, plate 34, C, b. 

6 Biihler (VOJ, 13. 75 f.) traced the word ayyapuita % * a prince *, in the jfdtaka, vol. VI, p. 146 f. 

7 Cf, the preamble of the Calcutta-Bairat rock-inscription. 

8 The word sum is added in the Rupnath, Sahasram, and Maski edicts. 

0 The words 'for one year 1 are missing at Rupnath and Sahasram, As Senart (JA (8), 19. 
481 £) has shown, they are of great importance for the chronology of the A^oka inscriptions, 
because they imply that the period of f more than two and a half years for which, at the time of 
the Sahasram, Bairat, and Siddapura edicts, Aioka had been an upasaka (or Sakya, as the Rupnath 
and Maski edicts read), must be subdivided into two shorter periods, viz, (1) one year (with, no 
doubt, a little more) during which he had not been very zealous, and {%) a year with the balance of 
the whole period, during which he displayed great zeal s and which commenced from his visit to the 
Samgha. Cf- chapter IV of the Introduction, 

10 For the meaning of this section see above, p. 168, n> 3. 

ai Cf. the Delhi-Topra pillar-edict VII, K and M, and above, p. i68 f n. 6. 

13 With imam supply pahamam \ cf. vadhi\ih*\ vadhisiii in the Rupnath edict, section I, and 
above, p- 168, n, 9. 

ww a a 



178 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

m 

(I>) 2S6 (nights had then been spent on tour). 1 
(HE) Moreover, DevanSmpriya speaks thus. 2 

(N) Obedience must be rendered to mother and father, likewise to elders; 
firmness (of compassion) must be shown towards animals ; the truth must be spoken : 
these same moral virtues must be practised. 

(O) In the same way the pupil must show reverence to the master, and one must 

behave in a suitable manner towards relatives. 

■ 

(P) This is an ancient rule, and this conduces to long life. 
(Q) Thus one must act, 8 
(B) Written by Chapada the writer. 



VIIo THE SIDDAPURA ROCK-INSCRIPTION 
1 (A) ^mWft ^H*£t\H TITTIHT- 

¥ ■ 

3 ^Rtfrre ^frf^r (b) ^n^rft^ ^ 

4 (c) siftrarfa ^TfrrirfH wfa 

e (e) mftdfr f *i iwt tf§ ymfft 

7^3 TO* (F) ^ftRT ^ qn^T STfiTOT *WTTT ^ 

8 * * * * ^1^*;- * * * "fonWI (G) 33 tfi$ H) ff ^ 

10 fir ir * ♦ * * * * * * rt fk%$ ^rt wfr 3nti*fri% 

11 (i) s * ■ * • * • • • • n ^ *rrf^ tot ^ 

12 ^cRt ^ TT^TrqT ^ 3*T frf ^ 

14 (J) * * * V * ; * * * ciffcfarfw fkqps fir ^ ^feftrfk 

16 • ' • * - • • • * (L) 300 Mo % (M) ITT > ftmf^ 

it *"* * • * • * * • * ftm^ sre -qw * '*' 4 3$ *i*^3 

18 ,'• * \- (W) jSN ^ * • • * * * * * ^nR3 OT^TflfTf^ i 

19 * * * 4 • * * (o) x^T irtaw * * fanft ^ (*) i*N * * 

20 m*f® • i V * * • to? ^rfira^ * * *r • • 

21 «heM (R) *. ** 

22 vf 

1 Cf. section J of the Sahasram edict 

2 This section is omitted in the Siddapura and Jatihga-Ramesvara versions. 

3 At the beginning of this section, the Jatmga-Rame^vara version inserts : ' This is the morality 
of Devanampriya \ 




Scale One-ninth 



SIDDAPURA ROCK-INSCRIPTION ; LOWER HALF 



Page 179 



20 




Scale One-ninth 



SIDDAPURA ROCK-INSCRIPTION 179 

1 (A) Suvamnagirlte ayaputasa mahamata- 

2 nam cha vachanena I[s]ilasi mahamata 

3 arogiyam ,vata[v]i[ya] (B) [Dev]a[na]iiipiye hevarh 

4 aha (C) adMkani a[cQia]t[i]y[ani] vasani - 

5 ya ha[karh u]pasake (D) no tu kho badha pakamte husam ek[aih] sa[vachlia] , . 1 

6 (E) [satirejke tu kho samvachliare [yam maya samjghe upaylte badham 

7 [cha me] p[akam]te (F) i[m]ina chu kalena [a]misa sama[na] mu * 

8 . . . . J ambu[d] [mi]sa devehi (G) pakamasa hi iyam phale (H) no [h]i t- 2 

9 ya sake [ma] . . . . [ne]va papo[ta]ve kamam tu kho khudakena 

10 pi [pa] . na [v]ipul[e] svage sak[e] aradhetave 

11 (I) [s]e ya [iya]m savane savite yatha khu- 

12 [daka cha ma]hatpa cha imam [pa]kameyu ti ata s cha 

13 [chira]-thi[t]ik[e] 4 cha iyam pakame hoti 6 

14 (J) * - - va[dh]isiti vipu[la]rh p[i] cha vadhisiti [a] 

15 [yadhiya]m vadhisiti (K) i[ya]m [cha] sa[va]ne 

16 (L) [200] 50 6 (M) [ma] [si]taviye 

17 [hyijtavyam §a[cha]m va[ta] . . [ya]m im[e] dhamma-gu 

18 (N) [heme]va [a]m ........ [acha]riye apachayitaviye su 

19 (0) [es]a [p]o[r]a[na] . . . [ki]ti di[gha]vu[se] cha (P) heme[va] 

. . , m[t]evisme 6 cha - ' r 

20 achariy[e] tharaham pavatitav .......... m . * . 

21 sa 7 [ta]tha kataviye (B) Chapa .......... 

22 [na] 8 / ; 



VIII. THE JATINGA-RAMESVARA ROCK-INSCRIPTION 



1 (A) TfTT ^ ^ ***** * 

4 lit TO * • *■>'* * •' (E) ffft% 

• * M ♦ • * • ♦ ♦ » V » 



r 



* • « 



5 • * sit 

6 

7 ^ ..... ...... 

8 
9 

ii • * fq ♦ • • • • -:• • "'-arf^l 



♦ » * ♦ 0 * 



1 jojwz*z Biihler. 2 Buhler omitted iV 3 Buhler. 

*-^feBiihler. *.>;-.-. * to[«] Buhler. 

6 . . XteVuasine Biihler. Read amUvasine* 7 era Buhler. ' 
a This syllable is in the KharoshthI alphabet. 



i8o THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 

12 (K) V • • • •♦♦♦•* (Ii) *00 MO % (M) |^cj 

13 TnrnftilR * • * 4 ftraf^ ^ — 
is |q MMfirafaMi (n) ^ * ft *nras 

19 ffraf^ (o) Tj^iT TTttro *rfasft ■'• ^ (p) * * t 4 * 

22 * * ft^ST ' •••• - 

* - ■ 

1 (A) . [t]ana [cha va] . ...... 

2 Isi [ v i]ya (B) Dev[a]n[a] ...... 

3 ya hakam . 

4 kho badha ...(E).. ti[reke] . 

5 [ya]ih..[ya] 

6 [na] 

7 [h]i i£yara] 



10 [cha] [dhi]s ... 

■ 

11 . , [p]ulam pi [ya]clhiyarh ........ 

12 (K) } s[avane] ........ [th]e[na] (L) 200 SO 6 (HE) [heme>a 

13 [ma]t[a]-pitusu . . . . [s]itav[i]y[e] he[m]e[va] .... [na] . a . es[u] 

14 . . hy[ita]v[y]arh sacham vataviyam [se] 1 i[me] m 

15 hevam pa[va]titaviya (N) [svaa]m na te s . t . va[s] 

16 taviya 3 hemeva achari[ye] amtevasin[a] 

17 ..... . [r]ana paki[ti] .... sita[v]iy[a] [v]i[y]e 8 ' 

18 . . chariy[e] a 4 [a]char[i]ya£a natika te . . ya[tharaha]ih [pava]- t " * 

19 titaviye (O) esa [po]ra[na pa]kiti 6 d[Tgh]a .... cha (P) [he]me[va] £a . e . a < , 

20 [cha] ya vati[tav]iye (Q) hevam [dhamm]e * Devanaihpiy * . . 7 , 

21 . . [va]m kafaviye (B) .... dona [likhita]m 

22 . . [pika]rena 8 



e Biihler. 2 I am unable to make out the meaning of the opening .words of this section. 
. i\v\e Biihler- 4 am Biihler. 5 [pak]iti Biihler. 6 hevam [nt\e Biihler. 

°pi[y\e Biihler. Restore °piya$a. 8 This word is written in Kharoshthi characters. 



JATING A-R A MESVARA ROCK-INSCRIPTION; UPPER PIALF 



Page 180 




Scale One-eighth 



JATINGA-RAMESVARA ROCK-INSCRIPTION ; LOWER HALF 



Page 181 




Scale One-eighth 



FIRST CAVE-INSCRIPTION: BARABAR HILL 181 

r 

4 ' * 

IX. THE BARABAR HILL CAVE-INSCRIPTIONS 

■ 

FIRST CAVE-INSCRIPTION : BARABAR HILL 

1 lajina Fiyadasina duvadasa-[vasabliisitena] 1 

2 [iyam Nigohaj-kubha 1 di[na ajlvikehi] 1 

TRANSLATION 

■ *■(■-* ~ ' 

By king Priyadarsin, (when he had been) anointed twelve years, this Banyan- 
cave 2 was given to the Ajivikas. 3 

." - ■. _ t 

SECOND CAVE-INSCRIPTION : BARABAR HILL 

* ' r 

_ 1.1. 

1 lajina Piyadasina duvar 

2 dasa-vasabhisitena iyam . 

3 kubha Khalatika-pavatasi 

4 dina [ajivfjkehi 4 

TRANSLATION 

i ^ - * < « 

* - 1 ' 

■ ' i ■ - 

By king FriyadarMn, (when he had been) anointed twelve years, this cave 
in the Khalatika mountain was given to the Ajivikas. 

1 The bracketed letters are more or less injured. Evidently an attempt has been made to 
efface them. 

2 This seems to have been the name of the cave. Cf. the other names of caves at the 
beginning of the three cave-inscriptions of Dasaratha (LA, so. 364 f.). 

3 The Ajlvika sect was founded by Gosalaj a contemporary of both Gautama and MahavTra- 
Kern, with whom Bubler sided, considered the Ajivikas to have been a Vaishnava sect ; see 
IA, so. 361 f. This view was combated by D. R. Bhandarkar, JBBRAS, 399 ff., and I A, 41- 9P> 
286 ff. Cf. Neumann's translation of- the Dtgha-nikaya^ a, 248, n. 139, and Charpentier in 
JRAS, 1913? 669 ff. For full information see the late Dr. Hoernle's learned article 1 Ajivikas 3 
in Hastings' Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. 

4 The bracketed letters are effaced; c£ above, n. 1. In the first of the three Nagarjuni Hill 
cave-inscriptions of Dasaratha also an attempt has been made to chisel away the word apvihehi\ 
see the plate in I A, so. 365, D. 



i82 THE INSCRIPTIONS OF ASOKA 



THIRD CAVE-INSCRIPTION: BARABAR HILL 




5 



- I> 



1 laja Piyadasx ekunavi- 

2 sati-vasa(bh]isi[t]e ja[Iagh]o- 

3 [sagama]thata [me] i[yarh kubha] 

4 sufpliMe Kha . . . ;vV; . . - 1 Fdil- 



5 ha 2 



_ 



TRANSLATION 



When king P^adarSiii had been anointed nineteen years, this cave in the 
very pleasant Kha[latika mountain] was given V^y-m^'?'forXshdter during) the rainy 



season. 4 



1 Restore KhalaHkatfavataH in accordance with the second inscription on p. i8i, above. 
' 2 The ^nd;pf the'i^CTi^ioii is marked by a w^/^.and.a dagger, and by a fish below them. 

3 This pronoiin iri^ riefer to an unnamed donor 6rV with a clumsy change in the construction, 
to the king himself. In either case the words laja to °site are nominatives absolute. 

4 Literally : f for the sake {atJiata — Skt. arthaiah in the sense of arihaya ?) of the approach of 
the roar of waters C£ vasha-n iskidiydye y 1 for a dwelling during the rainy season \ in the three 
* cave-inscriptions of Daforatha (IA, 20. 364 f., and EI, %* 574). r , 



BARABAR HILL CAVE-INSCRIPTIONS 



Page 




Scale One-fourth 



APPENDIX: 
SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



I. THE FOURTEEN ROCK-EDICTS 



FIRST ROCK-EDICT 



dr. 

Kal. 

Shah. 

Man. 

DJiau. 



(A) iy[am] 
{A) iyarh 

(A) [aya] 
(A) ayi 
(A). . 
{A) iyarh 



dhamma-lipi 
dhaihma-lipi 
dhrama-dipi 
dhra[ma]-dip[i] 

[■ 

dhamma-lipi Khepi[m]galasi 



pava]tasi 
pavatasi 



Devanampriyena 

Devanampiyena 

Devanapriasa 

Devanam[priye]na 

[D]e[v]a[na]mp[iy] . . 

Devanampiyena 



i L 

Gir. Priyadasina ran a 
KaL Piyadas[i]na 

Shah. rano 

Man. Priya[draSina rajina 

Dhau . . . . [na lajina 

?au. Piyadasina lajina 



lekh[a]pita 

[lekhitla 

likhapitu 

li]khapita 

l]i[kha] . 

likhapita 



(B) [i]dha 

{B) [h]ida 

(B) hida 
(B) hi[da] 



na kimehi 

no kichhi 

no kichp] 

no kichhi 



{B) hida 



jivarn 

jive 
jive 



[i]varh alabhitu 
no kichhi jivam alabhi[t]u 



arabhitpa r^f°/ d 



alabhitu 
ara[bhitu] 
ara[bhitu] 



Gir. prajuhitavyam (C) na cha 
KaL pajohitaviye (t) no pi ch[a] 
Shah, [p]rayuhotave (C) no pi ch[a] 
Man. pra[johi]taviye {€) no pi [cha] 

Dhau. pajo[h] (C) [no pi cha 

Jau. pajohitaviye (C) no pi cha 



samajo katavyo (D) bahukam hi dosam 
samaje kataviye {D) bahuk[a] hi dosa 
samajja] katava (D) ba[hu]ka [hi] dosha 
samaj[e] kataviye (D) bahu[ka] hi [dosha] 

sam]ajje] 

samaje kataviye (D) bahukam hi dosam 



pasati Devanampriyo 
Devan[am]piye 
Devanapriy[e] 
Devanampriye] 



Gir. samajamhi 
KaL samajasa 
Shah. sa[maya]spi 
Man. [samajasa 
Dhau. [samajja . . 
Jan. samajasa drakhati Devanampiye PiyadasI laja 



Priyadasi raja 

Pi[ya]dasl laja 

PriadraSi ray[a 

Priyadra&i raja 



dakhati 

da]khati 

[da]kha[ti] 



(E) asti 
(E) athi 
(£) [a>ti 
(E) asti 

{E} t m * * 

{£) athi 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jau. 



m 

P* 
PI 

Pi 
[Pi 
[pi 
Pi 



tu 

ch[a 

chu 

chu 

chu] 

chu 



ekacha 
e]katiya 
ekatia 
eka]tiya 

— Mto] 5 

ekatiya 



samaja 

samaja 

samaye 

samaja 

[sam]ajja] 

samaja 



sadhu-mata 

sadh[u]-mata 

sasu-mate 

sa[dhu]-mata 

s[a]dhu-mata 

sadhu-mata 



Devanampriyasa 
Devanampiyasa 
Devanapiasa 
Devanapriyasa 

Dev , . 

Devanampiyasa 



184 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Giv. Priyadasino 

Kal. Piyadasis[a] 

Shah. PriadraSisa 

Man, Priyadra£i[sa] 

Dhau. [Piyadasine 

Jan. Piyadrasine 

Gir* Priy[a]dasino 

KaL Piyadasisa 

Shah. FriadraSisa 

Man. Pri[yadra]§isa 

Dhatt. Piy[a] 

Jan. Piyadasine 



rano 

lajine 

rano 

rajine 

la]j[ine] 

lajine 

r 

rano - 
lajin[e] 
rano 
rajine 



(F) pura 
{F) [p]ule 
(F) pura 
(F) pura 

(n 

{F) puluvath 

anudivasam 
anudivasam 
anudivaso 
anudiva[sa 



mahanas[amhi] 

mahanasasi 

mahana[sas]i 

maha[nasa]si 

[mah] . . . 

maha[nasa]si 



Devanampriyasa 
Devanampiyasa 
[D evana]pr[i]asa 
[Devana]pri[ya]sa 



Devanampiyasa 



lajine 



anudivasam 



bahuni 
bahuni 
bahuni 
ba]hum 

• IXF 

bah[u]ni 



prana-sata-sahasrani 
pata-sahasani 
pra[na]-§ata-sahasani 
prana-6a[ta]-sahas[r]ani 

[p]ana-[sa]ta . . 

pana-sata-sah[a]sanr 



Gir. arabhisu supathaya 

KaL alambhiyisu supathay[e] 

Shah. [arabhi]yis[u] supathay[e] 

Man. [arabh]isu supa[thra]ye 

Dhau* [a]labhiyisu supathay[e] 

Jau. alabhiyisu supa[th]aye 



{G) se 
(G) se 
(G) s[o 
{G) S [e] 
(G) se 
(G) se 



aja 

i[d]ani 
i]dani 



• ■ 



aQa] 
aja 



yada 

ya[da] 

yada 

..[da] 

ada 

ada 



ayam dha[th]ma-lip[i] 

iyaih dhamma-lipi 

aya dhrama-dipi 

ayi dhrama-dipi 

[iyam dha]m[ma]4ipi 

iyaih dhammaJipl 



GtK 

KaL 

Shdk. 

Man. 

Dhau, 

yau. 



likhita 

lekhita 

likhita 

likhi[ta] 

likhita 

likhita 



tada 
tada 
ta[da] 



tl eva 

tirhni yeva 

trayo vo 

ti[ni] y[eva] 



prana 

panani 

prana 



arabhare 
alabhi[yam]ti 
hamnamt[i] _ 
[ara]bh[iyamti] 



supathaya dvo 



pra[na]ni 

tim [ala]bh[iy] 
timni yeva panani ala[m]bhiyamti 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 
Man. 
Dhau t 
Jan. 



mora 
majul[a] 
duv[i] 2 
majura , 



eko 
eke 
mrugo 
[e]k[e] 



mago so 

mige se 

1 so 

m [ r M e l s L e l 



m 

PI 
PI 
PP 



[chu] 
chu] 



mago 
mige . 
mrugo 
mrig[e] 





duve 




majura 




du[v]e [2] 




duve 


na 


dhruvo 


no 


dhruve 


no 


dhruva[m] 


no 


dhruvam 



majula .■ eke mige 



se pi chu mige no dhuvaih 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jan. 



(U) ete pi 

{H ) e[t]ani pi 

{H) eta pi 

(H) [e]tani pi 

{H) etani pi 



tri 

ch[u] tini 

prana 
chu [tini] 
. „ . [t]imni 
chu tiriini 



prana 

pana[h]i 

trayo 

pranani 

panani 

panani 



pachha 

pacha 
pacha 
pachha 
pachha 



na 
no 
na 
no 

*[°] 
no 



arabhisare 
alabhi[y]isa[m]ti 
arabhiSamti 
ara[bhi] 

al[ath]bhiyisa[m] t[i] 
ala[bh]iyisamti 



SECOND ROCK-EDICT 



Gir. (A) sarvata 

KaL (A) sav[a]ta 

Shah. {A) sav[r]atra 

Man. (A) sa[vatra 

Dhau. (A) [sa]vata 

jfau. (A) savata 



vijitamhi 

vijitasi 

vijite ■ 

vijjitasi 

[v]i[jt]tasi 

vijitasi 



. Devanampriyasa 
Devanampiyas[a] 
[De]va[nam]priyasa 
Devanapriyasa 
[D]e[v]anampiyasa 
Devanampiyasa 



Piyadasino 

Piyadasis[a] 

Priyadrafiisa 

PriyadraSisa 

Piyadasi[ne 

Piyadasine 



rano 
lajine 



raj me 

!]■..•• 

lajine 



SECOND ROCK-EDICT 



185 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau, 

Jan. 



evamapL 
ye cha 
y[e] cha 
ye cha 



prachariitesu 
aihta 
[a]ihta 
ata 



e va ' pi aihta 



yatha 

[a]tha 

yatha 

atha 

[atha] 

atha 



Cho<Ja 
.Choda 
[Choda] 
[Choda] 



Facia 

Parh[di]y£L 

Pamdiya 

Pa[mdi]ya 



Satiyaputo 
Satiyaputo 
Satiyaputro 
Sa[ti]ya[p]u[tra] 



Chocla Pamdiya Satiyapu[t]e 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dkau. 



Ketalaputo 
Ke[lala]puto 
Keradaputro 
Keralaputra 



a TambapamnT Amtiyako Yona-raja ye va pi 

Tarhba[pa]mni Amtiyoge [n]ama Yona-laja ye cha amne 

Tarhbapamni Amtiyo[k]o nama Yona-raja ye cha amne 

[Tamjbapani [A]tiyoge nama Yona-[raja] ye cha [a] . „ 

• . [tjiyoke nama Yo[na]~laja [e] va [p]i 

w . . ... 1 Amtiyoke nama Yona-laja [e] va pi 



Gir. tasa 

KaL tas[a 

Shah, tasa 

Man. . - sa 

Dkau. [ta]sa 

Jati* tasa 



Amtiy[a]kas[a] 

A]mtiyogasa 

Amtiyokasa 

[gasa] 

Amtiyo[ka]sa 
Amtiyokasa 



samlp[arh] 

sa[ma]mta 

samathta 

samata 

samamta 

samariita 



» 



rajano 
la[j]ano 
rajano 
rafjane 
lajane 
lajane 



sarvatra 

[sa]vata 

savratra 

sa]vratra 

savat[a 

savata 



D evanampriyasa 
Devanampiyasa 
Devanariipriyasa 
. • . , . priyasa 
D]eva[namp]i[ye]na 
D evanampiyen a 



■ ■ 



Gir. Priyadasino rafio dve chikichha kata manusa-chikichha cha 

KaL Piyadasisa lajine duve chikisaka kata manusa-chikisa cha 

Shah. Priyadra£isa rafio du[vi] 2 chik[i]sa [kr]i[ta] manuSa-chikisa 

Man. PriyadraSisa rajine [duve 2] chikisa [ka]ta manuSa-chikpsa 

Dhau. P[i]yadasi[na] ............ [s]a 

Jan. Piyadasina )aji [ch]ikisa 



cha] 
cha 
cha 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jan. 



pasu-chiklchha 

pasu-chikisa 

pa[£u-ch]ikisa 

pa£u-[chi]kisa 

p[asu-ch]i[k]is[a] 

pasu-chikisa 



(2?) osudhani cha y£ni 
(B) osadhinp] 
(B) [o]sha[dha]ni 
(B) osha[dha]ni 
(B) . . . , . dhani 



cha 
cha 
[cha] 
cha 
cha 

cha (B) osadhani 



an[i 
ani 



m[a]nusopagan[i] 

manusopagam 

manuSopakani 

manu ... - ka[ni 

m]u[nisopa]gani 

munisopagani 



cha 
cha 
cha 
cha] 



Gir. 


paso[pa]gani 


cha 


yata 


yata 


nasti 


sarvatra 


harapitani cha 


Kat. 

* 


pasopagani 


cha 


a[ta]ta 




n[a]th[i 


sa]vata 


[h]alapita cha 


Shah. 


paSopakani 


cha 


yat[r]a 


yatra 


nasti 


savatra 


harapita cha 


' Man. 


pa ... . [kani 


cha 


atra 


atra 


nasti 


savra]tra 


[ha]rapi[ta cha] 


Dhau. 


pasuHjpaganp] 


cha 


atata 




na[thi 
nathi 


savata 


ha]Iapif£a] cha 


' yatt. 


pasu-opagani 


cha 


atata 




sava[ta] 


* > > 



Gir. ropapitani cha 

KaL lo[p]apit[a] cha 

Shah, vuta cha 

Man. ropa[pita] cha 

Dhau. [lo]pap[i]ta [cha] 

Jau. . . - . 



IMS 



(C) mulani cha phalani cha yata yatra 

(C) [e]vameva mulani cha phalani cha a[ta]t[a] 

(C) e[va]meva mulani [cha] phalani [cha] a[tra a]tra 
(C) mu[l] • 

cha atata 

b b 



1 86 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



sarvata 
savata 



Gir. nasti 
KaL nathi 
Shah. 

Man. [na]sti [savra]tra harapita 

Dhau v [ a X a ] halapita 

Jau. nathi s[a]vatra halapita 



harapitani cha rop[a]pitani cha (D) pamthesu kupa 



halap[i]ta cha lopapita [ch]a (D) ma[g]e[s]u [lu]khani 



cha ro[pa]pita 
[cha] lo[p]apita 
cha lopapita 



cha (D) ma[geshu] ruchhani 
cha (D) ma[g]e[su udu]panani 
cha (D) magesu udupanani 



Gir. chakhanapita vrachha cha ropapit[a] paribhogaya pasu-manusanam 

KaL lopitani ud[u]panS[n]i cha khanapitani patibhogaye pasu-munis[a]nam 

Shah. (C) kupa cha khanapita pratibh[o]gaye pa£u-manu§anarh 

Matt. [ropa]pi[tani] ■. [pi]tani patibhogaye pa£u-m[uni]£anaih 

Dhau. khanapitani lukhani cha lopa[p]itani p[a]tibhogaye [na]rh 

Jan. khanapitani lukhani cha 



THIRD ROCK-EDICT 



Gir, 


{A) Devanampiyo 


Piyadasi 


r[a]ja 


evam 


aha 


(B) dbadasa- 


KaL 


(A) De[va]nampiye . 


Piyadasi 


laja 


h[e]vaih 


aha 


(B) du[v]adasa- 


Shah. 


(A) Devanampriyo 


FriyadraSi 


raja 




ahati 


(B) badaya- 


Man. 


(A) Devanapriye 


Priyadrafii 


raja 


eva 


a[ha] 


(B) duva[<Ja]£a- 


Dhau. 


(A) Devanaihpiye 


Piyadasi 


laja 


hevaih 


aha 


(B) duvadasa- 


Jau % - 


(A) Deva[na]ihpiye 


Piyadasi 


laja 


hevam 


aha 


(3) duvadasa- 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jan. 



vasabhisitena maya idam an[a]pitarh (C) sarvata 

v[a]sabhisitena me iyam anapayite (C) savata 

vashabh[i]si[tena] . . . . . . [a]napi[tam] (C) savatra 

vashabhisetena me iyam [anapayitje (C) savrat[r]a 

vasabhisitena me iy[a]rii anap[ay]i . . (Cj . . . - [ta 

vasabhisitena me iyam fa] . . 



vijite 
vijitasi 
ma[a] 
vijitasi - . 
v]i[j]it[a]si m[e] 



mama 
[mama] 
vijite 



Gir. yuta cha rajuke cha pradesike cha pamchasu parhchasu vasesu 
Kal. yuta laj[u]k[e] padesike pa[m]cha[s]u parhchasu vasesu 

rajuko prade£i[ka pamcha]shu pamchashu 5 vasheshu 

[ra]ju - pradesike [pam]chashu pam[chashu] 5 vashesh[u] 

la[j]u[k]e parhchasu pamchasu vasesu 

cha - pad[e]sike cha pamchasu parhchasu 



Shah, yuta 

Man. . . ta 

Dhau, yut[a] 
jfait. 



vasesu 



Gir. anusamy[a]na[m 

KaL [a]nusa[rh]yanam 

Shah, anusamyanarh 

Man. anusa[m]yana[m] 

Dhau. anusayanarh 

Jau* anusayanam 



n]iyatu 

nikham[am]tu 

nik[r]amatu 

nikramatu 

nikhamavu 

nikhamavu 



etayeva athaya imaya 

etaye va a[th]aye imaya 

etisa vo karana imisa 

etaye va athraye imaye 



dharhmanusastiya 
dharhmanusathiya 
dhrammanuSastiye 
dhramanuSastiye 



Gir. yatha anaya 

KaL yatha arh[naye] 

Shah, [tha] ariaye -, 

Man. ya[tha] anaye 

Dhau. atha amnaye 

J ait. atha amnaye 



pi kammay[a] 

pi kammaye 

pi kraihmaye 

pi krama[ne] 

pi [ka]m[ma]ne 

pi kamma[n]e 



hevam ima[y]e [dham]manus[ath]iy[e] 



THIRD ROCK- EDICT 



187 



Gh\ 

KaL 

Shah* 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jau. 



(D) [s]adhu matari cha pitari cha susrusa 
(D) sadhu mata-pitisu 
(D) sadhu mata-pitushu 
(D) [sadhu mata}pi[tu]shu 
{D) [s]adh[u] mat[a}p[i]t[i]su 



mitra-samstuta-natinam 
sususa mka-samthuta-natikyan[am] cha 
sufirusha mitra-sarhst[u]ta-natikanam 
[s]u[^rusha mitra]-sa[rh]stuta-natikanarh cha 

su[s]us[a m] - natisu cha 

. [s]a mita-saihthute[s] . . . natisu ch[a] 



Gir. bamhana-samananarh 

KaL bambhana-sama[na]naih 

Shah. bramana-[§ra]rnana[nam] 

Man, bra[ma]na-£ramanana[rh] 

Dhau. barhbhana-samanehi 

Jau, barhbhana-samanehi 



sadh[u d]anaih prananaih sadhu anararhbho 
[cha] sadhu d[a]ne pananam ana!ambh[e] 
........ [prajnanam [anaraih]bho 

sadhu dane pranana [anarajbhe 
sadhu dane jlvesu analaihbhe 
sadhu dane jivesu [a]nalarhbhe 



Girl apa-vyayata apa-bhadata sadhu (£) parisa pi yute 

KaL sadhu [a]pa-v[i]yata [a]pa-[bha]m[da]t[aj sadhu [E) palisa pi cha yutani 

Shah, sadhu apa~vayata apa-bhamdata sadhu (E) pari [pi] yutani 

Man. sadhu apa-[va]yata apa-bha[data] sadhu (E) parisha pi cha yutani 

Dkau. sadhu apa-viy[a]t[a] apa-bh[arii]data sadhu {JS) p[a]lisa pi cha , . . , [nas]i 

Jan. sadhu . . 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah, 

Matt. 

Dkau. 



anapayisati 

[ga]nanasi 

[ga]nanasi 

ga[na]nasi 

y[u]t[an]i 



gananayaih 
anap[a]yisaihti 
anapesamti _ 
[anapa]yi£a[ti] 
a[na]p[ay]is[a]ti 

• - • lyj ■ • • - 



hetuto 

hetuvata 

hetuto 

he[tute] 

[he]tut[e] 

hetute 



cha 

cha 

cha 

cha 

ch[a] 

cha 



vyaihjanato 
viyariijanat[e] 
varhnanato 
vi[yamja]nate 
vi[yaihja] . . 
viyamjanate 



cha 
cha 
cha 
cha 



cha 



FOURTH ROCK-EDICT 



Gir. {A) atikatam 

KaL (A) atika[m]taih 

Shah. {A) atikratam 

Man. (A) atikratam 

Dhau. {A) atikamtam 

Jau. (A) a[t]ikamtam 

Gir. pranarambho 

KaL pa[na]laxhbhe 

Shah, pranarambho 

Man. pranaram[bh]e 

Dhau. pana[Ia]mbhe 

Jau+ panalarhbhe 



aiht[a]ram 

a[m]ta[la]m 

amtaram 

ata[ram] 

amtalarh 

amtalam 

vihimsa 
vi[h]Lsa 
vihisa 
vihi[sa] 
vihisa 



bahuni 
bahuni 
bahuni 
bahuni 
bahuni 
bahuni 



vasa-satani 


vadhito 


eva 


vasa-satani 


v[adh]it[e] 


va 


vasha-Satani 


vadhito 


vo 


vasha-£a[ta]m 


vadhite 


vo 


vasa-satani 


vadhite 

■ 


va 


vasa-satani 


. vadhite 


va 



cha 


bhutanam 


natisu 


a[s]ampratipatl 


cha 


bhutanam 


natina 


asam[pa]tip[a]ti 


cha 


bhuta[na]rh 


natina 


asampatipati 


cha 


bhutanam 


natina 


asapa[t]ipati 


cha 


bhutanam 


natisu 


asampatipati 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah* 

Man. 

Dkau. 

Jan. 



bra[m]hana-sramananaih 
s amana-b [a rhjbhanan am 
£ramaiia-bramanana[m] 
£rama[na]-bramanana 
s am ana-babh a[ne]su 



asampratipatl 
asampatipati 
a[sam]patipati 
asa[rh]patipati 
asampatipati 
•.. • 
b b 2 



(5)ta 


aja 


Devanarhpriyasa 


{B) s[e] 


aja 


Devanampiyasa 


{B) [so 


aja 


Devana]mpriyasa 


{£) se 


aja 


[De]vanapriyasa 


(£) se 


aja 


Devanampiyasa 


(B) se 


aja 


Devanampiyasa 

■ 



i88 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. 


Priyadasino 


rano 


dham ma-charanena 

■ 


[bhe]ri-ghoso 


aho 


Kat. 


Piyadasine 


lajine 


dhathm[a]-chal[an]ena 


bheli-ghose 


aho 


Shah. 


Priyadra&sa 


[rano] 


dhrama-charanena 


bheri-ghosha 


aho 


Man. 


Priyadraiine 


rajine 


dhrama-[cha]ra[ne]na 


bheri-ghoshe 


aho 


Dhau. 


Piyadasine 


lajine 


plhamma-chalanena 


bheli-ghosam 


a[h]o 


Jan. 


Piyadasine 


lajine 


dhamma-chalanena 


bhe[l] 


* ■ * 



Gir. dhamma-ghoso vimana-darsana 
KaL dhamma-ghose vimana-dasan[a] 
Shah, dhrama-ghosha vimanana[m] drafianam 
Man. v dhama-ghoshe vimana-drafiana 
Dhau. dhamma-[gho]sam vimana-dasanarii 
Jan. . . . 



cha hasti-da[sa]na cha agi-kh[a]rhdhani 
[ha]thini agi-karhdh [a]ni 

[a]stina joti-kamdhani . 

asti[ne] agi-kamdhan[i] 
hathini [a]gi-kamdhani 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah, 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jan. 



cha 



[a]nani 

amnani 

anani 

ana[ni 

amnani 



cha divyani 
cha divyani 
cha divani 
cha] di[vani] - 
cha [di]vi[y]ani 
divi[y]ani 



rupani 

lupani 

rupani 

rupani 

lupan[i] 

lupani 



dasayitpa 

dasayitu 

drasayitu 

draSeti 

dasayitu 

drasayitu 



janam 

jana[sa] 

janasa 

janasa 

munisanam 

munisanam 



(Q yarise 
{C) [a]disa 
(C) yadi£arh 
(Q [a]di£e 
{Q ad[i]se 
{€) adise 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jaw. 



bahuhi 

ba[h]u[hi 

bahuhi 

bahuhi 

b[a]huhi 

bahuhi 



v[asa]-satehi 

v]asa-[sa]tehi 

vasha-£atehi 

vasha-£a[tehi] 

vasa-sa[t]ehi 

vasa-sate 



na 
na 
na 
na 
no 



bhuta-puve 

huta-puluve 

bhuta-pruve 

[hu]ta-pr[u]ve 

huta-puluve 



tanse 
tadise 
tadi£e 
tadise 
tadise 



aja 

aja 

aja 

[a]ja 
aja 



vadhite 

■ 

vadhite 
vadhite 
vadhite 
va[dhite] 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah, 

Man. 

Dhau, 

Jatt. 



Devanampriyasa 
D e vanarhpiyasa 
D evanaihpriyasa 
[ De] vanapriyasa 
[De]vanampiyasa 



Priyadasino 

Piyadasine 

Priyadra^isa 

Priyadra£ine 

Piy[a]dasine 



rano 

PJajine 

rano 

rajine 

tejinje] 



dhammanusastiya 

dhammanusathiye 

dhrarhmanu£a[sti]ya 

dhramanugastiya 

dham[m]anus[a]thi[y]a 

dhammanusathiya 



anaram[bh]o 

a[n]alambhe 

anararhbho 

anarabhe 

an[ala]rhbhe 

analathbhe 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man, 

Dhau. 

Jan. 



prananam 

pananam 

prana[nam] 

pranana 

pananam 

pananam 



avihisa 
avihisa 
avihisa 
avihisa 
avihisa 
avihisa 



bhutanam 

bhutanam 

bhutanaih 

bhutana 

bhutanam 

bhutanam 



natlnam 

n&ti[nam] 

natina[m] 

natina 

natisu 

natisu 



sampatipati bramhana-samananarii 
sampatipati bambha[na-sa]mananarh 
saihpa[ti]pati [bra] mana- £ramanana 
sampatipati bamana-£ramanana 
sampatipat[i sama]na-b[a]bhanesu 
[sampa] » , . , 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhattr* 

J an. 



sampatipati matari pitari [s]usrusa thaira-susrusa {D) esa ane 

sampatipati mata-pitisu sususa {D) ese cha arhne 

sampatipati mata-pitushu vu4hana[m]susrusha (D) e[ta] afiam 

sa[m]patipati mata-pitushu su£ru[sha] vudhrana [su]Srusha (D) eshe. an[e] 
sampatipati m[a]t[i]-pitu- sususa vu[dha]-sususa (D) esa aihne 

. . . . . . • {D) esa amne 







■ 


FOURTH ROCK-EDICT 




189 


Gir. 


cha 


bahuvidhe , 


[dha]mma-charane 


va[dhi]te 


i 

{£) vadhayisati 


* 

cheva . 


KaL 


cha 


ba[h]uvidhe 


dhamma-chalane 


vadh[i]te 


(E) vadmyisati 


cheva 


Shah. 


cha 


bahuvidham 


dhrama-charanam 


vadhitaih 


(B) vadhl£ati 


cha yo 


Man. 


cha 


bahuvidhe 


dhrama-charane 


vadhrite 


{£) vadhrayi£ati 


yeva 


Dhau. 


cha 


ba[h]uvidhe 


dh[a]mma-chaiane 


vadhite 

* 


(£) vadhayis[a]ti 


cheva 




cha 


bahuvidhe 


dhamma-chalane 


vadhite 


(E) va[dhay]i . 


* • 



Gir . . 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jatt. 



Devanariipriyo 
Devanarhpiy[e] 
D evanampriyasa 
Devanapriye 
Devanampiye 



[Pri*]ya[da]si raja 

Piyadasi laja 

PriyadraSisa rano 

PriyadraSi raja 

Piyada[s]i l[a]ja 



ima[ih] 



dhamma-[cha]ranam 
dha[m]ma-chalanarh 
dhrama-charanam 
dh am a-[ch a] ra na 
dhaihma-chalanarii 



idam 

ima[ih] 
ima[rh] 
imam 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau< 

Jan. 



(F) putra 
(F) puta 
(F) putra 
(F) [putra] 
(F) puta 



cha [p]otra 

cha kam natal e 

pi cha karii nataro 

pi cha ka natare 
pi chu nati 



cha prapotra cha 

cha panatikya ch[a] 

cha pranatika cha 
cha panatika 

[pa'nati].. [cha] 



Devanampriyasa 

Devanarhpiyasa 

Devanarhpriya[sa] 

De[va]napriyasa 

Devanarhpiyasa 



Gir. Priyadasino rano 

KaL Piyadasine lajine 

Shah. Priyadra£isa rano 

Man. Priyadafiine rajine 

Dhau. Piyadasine lajine 

Jan. Piyadasine lajine 



[pra*]vadhayisamti 

[pa]v[a]dhayisamt[i 

pra[va]dh[e]^amti 

pavadhayiSamti 

pavaihayisamti 

pavadhayi[sa]m[t]i 



ch]ev[a] 

[y°3 

yo 

yeva 

[y]e[va] 



idam [dha]mma-charanam 
dharhma-chalanarh 
dhrama-charanam 
dhrama-charana 
dharhma-chalanarh 
dhamma-cha[la] . . 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jau. 



i[maih] 
ima[m 
imam 
imam 



ava savata-kapa dhammamhi silamhi 

ava-kapa[m] dhammasi s[l]lasi 

ava]-kapa dhrame £ile 

falva-kapam dhrame £ile 



tistamto 

cha chithit[u] 

cha tithiti 
* 

cha [chi]thitu 
ch[a ch]i[th]itu 



[dha]mmam 
dhammam 
dhramam 
dhra[marh] 
[dhammam] : 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jau* 



anusasisamti (G) [e]sa hi seste kamme ya 
anusasisamti (G) ese hi sethe kamm[arh] am 
anuSa&Samti (G) eta - h[i s]retham k[r]ama[m] yam 
anu[£a]£i£amti (G) eshe hi srethe a[m] 
[a]nus[a]sisarh[t]i {G) esa h[i] se[the karh]me ya 



dhammanusasanam 

dhammanusasanam 

dhraman[u]£a6ana[m] 

dhramami§a£ana 

dhammanusasana 



Gir. 


(ff) dhamma-charane 


Pi 




na 


[bha]vati 


asllasa 


(I) [ta] imamhi 


KaL 


{//) dhamma-chalane 


Pi 


cha 


no 


hoti 


asilasa 


(I) se im[a]s[a] 


Shah. 


{U) dhrama-charana[m] 


pi 


cha 


na 


bhoti 


a£ilasa 


(I) so imisa 


Man. 


{H) dhrama-[cha]ra[ne] 


* 

PV 


[cha] 


na 


hoti 


a£i[la]sa 


(/) se imasa 


Dhau. 


[H) dhamma-chalane 


pi 


chu 


no 


hoti 


asllasa 


(/) se imasa 


yau* 


(//) dhamma-chalane . 


Pi 


chu 


no 


ho[t]i 


■ • 


• • ■ * 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shafu 

Man, 

Dkau. 

Jau. 



athamhi 

[a]thasa 

athrasa 

athrasa 

athasa 



[va]dhi cha ahlni 



v[a]dhi 
vadhi 
vadhri 
v[a]dhT 



ahini 
ahini 
ahi[ni 
ahini 



cha 
cha- 
cha 
cha] 
ch[a] 



sadhu 
sadhu 
sadhu 
sadhu 
sa[dhii] 



(7) e[t]aya 
(y) etaye 
(7) etaye 
(7) etaye 
(7) et[ay]e 



athaya 

[a]thaye 

athaye 

athraye 

[athay]e 



ida[m] 

iyarh 

ima[m] 

i[yaih] 

iyam 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Mmu 

Dhau. 

Jan. 



lekhapitam imasa atha[sa] v[a]dhi yujaihtu 

likhite imas[a] a[tha]s[a] vadhi yujaihtu 

nipistam imisa athasa vadhi yujaihtu 

li[khi]te e[ta]sa [athra]sa vadhra yu[jath]tu 

likhite imasa athasa vadhi yujaihtu 



hlni 
hini 
hini 



ch[a no] lochetavya 
ch[a] ma alochayisu 
cha ma lo[ch]e[sh]u 
cha ma [alo]chay[i]su 
hini cha ma alochayisu 
[hfjni cha ma aIoch[ay]i - , 



Gir, 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jati. 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dkau. 

Jan. 



(K) dbadasa-vasabhisitena 
(K) duv[a]das[a]-va£[a]bhisitena 
(K) badaya-vashabhisitena 
(K) duva[da]&a-vashabhisitena 
(K) duvadasa vasani abhisitasa 



Devan[a]rhpriyena 
Dev[a]namp[i]yen[a] 
D e vanampriy ena 
Devanapriyena 
Devanarhpi[ya]sa 



Priyadasina 

Piyada&na 

PriyadraSina 

Priyadra&na 

Piyadasine 



ran[a] 

lajina 

rafia 

rajina 

lajiixe 



idam 

fianarh 
iya[m] 
yam 



hi[da] 
[idha] 



lekhapitam 

lekhita 

nipesitam 

likhapite 

likhite 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT 



Gir. 


(A) D[e]vanampriyo 


Piyadasi 


raja 


evarh 


aha 


(JB) kalanam 


KaL 


(A) Devanampiye 


Piyadasi 


laja 




aha 


(£) kayane 


Shah* 


(A) Devanapriyo 


Priyadra^i 


raya 


eva[m] 


hahati 


(£) ka[k]na[ih] 


Man. 


(A) De[vanaih]priyena 


PriyadraSi 


raja 


eva[m] 


aha 


(B) kalana[m] 


Dhau* 


(A) [Dev]anampiye 


Piyadasi 


laja 


h[eva]rh 


aha 


(B) kayane 


Jan, 


(A) Deva[na]mpiye 


Piya[da] 











Gzr. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jati. 



dukaram (C) y[o 
dukale i (t) e 
dukara[m] (C) [yo] 
dukara[m] (C) ye 
dukale (Q 



adikaro] 
adikale 
a[dikaro 
adikare 



kalan[a]sa 

kay[a]nasa 

kala]nasa 

kayanasa 

k[a]y[a]n[a]sa 



so dukaram 
se dukalam 
so du[ka]raih 
se dukaram 
s[e] dukalam 



karoti (D) ta 
kaleti (D) se 
karoti (D) so 
karoti (D) tarh 
kal[e]ti (D) se 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dkau. 

Jau m 



maya bahu kalanam katam (£) t[a] mama puta cha 
mamaya bahu kayane kat[e] (£) t[a ma]m[a puta] ch[a] 
maya bahu kalam ki[t]raih (£} tarn maa putra cha 
maya bahu [ka]yane [ka]te (£) [ta]m ma[a] putra [cha] 
me b[ah]uke kayane kate (B) tarn ye me [p]ut[a] va 



pota 

natfale] 

nataro 

natar[e] 

n[a]t[i] 

nat[i] 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT 



Gir. cha param 

KaL [cha] palam 

Shah, cha para[ih] 

Man. cha para 

Dhau. [va] 

Jan. va palam 



m 



cha 

[cha] 

cha 

cha 

cha 

cha 



tena y[a] me [a]pacham ava samvata-kapa 

tehi [ye] apatiye [m]e ava-kapam 

[tena y]e me apacha vrakshaihti ava-kapaih 

t[e]na ye apatiye me [a]va-[ka]pam 

t[e]na ye apatiye me ava-kapam 



te 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man, 
Dhau. 
Jan. 



armvatisare tatha so sukatam kasatx (F) yo tu eta desaih 

tatha anuvatisa[m]ti s[e] s[u]katam kachharh[t]i (F) e chu het[a] desam 

tatha ye an[u]vati£aihti te s[u]kita[m] kashamti (F) yo chu ato . . kam 

tatha anuvatiSati se sukata ka[sha]ti (F) ye [chu] atra de£a 

tatha anuvatisamti s[e] sukatam kachh[am]ti (F) e heta d[esa]m 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau, 

Jau* 



pi hapesati so [du]kataih kasati (G) sukaraih hi papaph] 
pt hapa[y]i[sat]i s[e] dukatam kachhati (G) p[a]pe hi nama supadalaye 
pi hapeSadi so dukatam kashati (G) papam hp] sukaraih 
pi hapesati se dukata kashati (G) pape hi nama supadarave 
pi hapayisat[i] se dukatam kachhati (G) pa[p]e hi [nama] supadalaye 

* s[u]padalaye 



Gir. (&) atikatam amtaram na bhuta-pruvam dhamma-mahamata nama 

KaL {H) se atikamtam amtalam no huta-puluva dham[ma]-mahamata nama 

Shah. {H) sa atikratam atara no bhuta-pruva 

Man. (B) s[e] atikrata[rh] a[m]tara[m] na bhuta-pruva 

Dhau. {H) s[e] at[ikam]tarh amtalam no huta-puluva dhamma-mahamata nama 

Jan. [H) se [a] - . ■ • * * * - ■ • * ■ • 



dhrarhma-ma[ha]ma[tra] nama 
^ dhrama-[ma]hamatra nama 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jan. 



(J) ta, m[a]ya traidasa-vasabhi[s]i[tena] 
(7) t[e]dasa-vasabh[i]sitena mamaya 
(I) so toda£a-vashabhisitena maya 
(7) se treda5a-va[sha]bhisitena maya 
(/) se tedasa-va[sa]bhisitena me 



dhamm[a]-mahamata 
dhamma-mahamat[a 
dhrama-mahamatra 
dhr am a-mah am atra 
dhamma-mahamata nama 



kata 

ka]t[a] 

kita 

w 

kata 
kata 



Gir. {J) te sava-pasamdesu vyapata dhamadhistanaya 
KaL (J) [te] sav[a]-pasath[de]su viya[pa]ta dham[m]adhitha[naye ch]a dharhma- 
Shah. (J) te savra-prashamdesh[u] vapata dhrammadhithanaye cha dhrama- 
Maii. {J) te savra-pa[sha]desha vaputa dhramadhitha[na]ye cha dhrama- 
Dhau. \j) te sava-pasamde[su] v[i]y[apata] dhammadhithan[a]ye dhamma- 
Jau [dha]m[m]a[dh]i[th]ana 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jan. 



vadhiya 
vadhiya 
vadhriya 
[va]dhiye 



hi[da]-sukhaye va 

hida-sukhaye cha 

hida-sukhaye cha 

hita-sukhaye [cha] 



[dha]mma-yutasa 

dhamm[a]-yutas[a] 

dhrama-yutasa 

dh[r]ama-yutasa 

dhamma-yutas[a] 



cha Yona-K[a]mbo[ja]' 
Yona-Kamb[o] j a- 
Yona-Kamboya- 
Yona-Kamboja- 
Yona-Kathbocha- 



IQ2 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 



Gamdharanarh 
Gamdhalanarh 
Gamdharanam 
Gadharana 
Gaihdhalesu : 



Ristika-P[e]tenikanam 

Rathikanam Pitinikanam 
- 

Rathika-Pitinikana 
Lathika~[P]itenikesu 



ye 
e 

ye 
ye 
e 



va 

va 

va 

va 

va 



P 1 

PV 

Pi 

P* 



a[m]n[e 
amne 

ane 
amne 



ajparata 

apalamta 

aparamta 

aparata 

apalamta 



Gir. 

Kal. 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jatt. 



(K) bhatamayesu va 
{K) bhatamayesu 
(K) bhatamayeshu 
(K) bha[ta]mayeshu 
(K) bhati[mayesu] 



bambhanibhesu anathesu [v]udhesu hida- 
bramanibheshu anatheshu vudheshu [hita]- 
bramanibhyeshu anatheshu vudhreshu hida- 
babha[n]ibhi[yes]u anathesu ma[hala]kesu cha h[i]t[a}- 
- . bhanibhi . . . . • ■ . " . 



Gir. [su]kha[ya dharhma]-yutanam 



KaL sukhaye 
Shah, sukhaye 
Man. su[khaye] 
Dhau. sukhaye 
Jau. 



dhamma-yutaye 
[dhram]ma-yutasa 
dhrama-yuta- 
dharhma-yutaye 



apar[i]godhaya vyapata te (L) ba[rh]dhana- 

apalibodhaye viyapata te (L) barhdha[na]- 

apalig[o]dha vap[a]ta te (L) badhana- 

apalibodhaye viya[p]uta te (L) badhana- 

a[pa]Iibodhaye viya[pa]ta se (L) bamdhana- 



Gir* badhasa patividhanaya . . . . - . . . 

KaL [badha]sa patividhanay[e] apalibodhaye mokh[a]ye cha eyam anubadh[a] 

Shah* badhasa patividhanay[e] apalibodhaye mo[kshaye] ayi anuba . . 

Man. badha[sa] pativi[dhanay]e apalibodhaye mokshay[e cha iyam] anubadha 

Dhau, [ba]dhas[a] p[a]ti[vidhana]ye apalib[o]dhaye mokhaye cha iya[m] anubamdh[a] 



Jau. 



mokhaye 



Gir. 

Kal. 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau, 

Jau+ 



[p]raja katabhikaresu va 

pajava ti v[a katabhika]Ie ti va 

prajava kitabhikaro va 

pjYJaja t[i] va katrabhikara ti va 

p[aj]a [t]i [va ka]tabhik5[le] ti va 



thairesu va 

m[ah]a[Ia]ke ti v[a] 
mahalake va 

mahalake ti va 

mahalake ti va 



vyapata te 

viy[a]pata te 

viyapata [t]e 

'viyaprata te 

viyapata se 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 



M) Patalipute cha bahirasu cha . • . . . . 

M) hid[a] bapijilesii cha naga[l]esu s[a]ves[u olodha]n[esu] 

M) ia bahireshu cha nagareshu savreshu orodhaneshu 

M) hida bahireshu cha nagaresh[u] savreshu [o]rodhaneshu 

M) hida cha bahilesti cha nagalesu savesu s[a]vesu olodhanes[u] 



Gir. . . . . ... , . [y]e va pi me 

KaL bha[tina]ih cha ne bh[agi]ni[na] e va [pi] ^ 

Shak. bhratuna cha me spasana cha ye va pi 

Man. bhatana cha spas[u]na [cha] ye va pi 

Dhau. [me] e va pi bhatp]naih me bhaginlnam va arhnesu 

Jau m , . e [v]a . - . ' . 



ane . 
aihn[e] 
amne 
ane 
va 



FIFTH ROCK-EDICT 



193 



Gir. natika . sarvata vyapata te (N) yo ayam dharhma-nisrito ti va 

KaL natikye savata viya[pa]ta (N) e iyam dharhma-nisite ti va 

Shah, natika savatra viyaputa (N) y[e] ayam dhfr]ama-ni£ite ti va 

Man, natike savratra viyapata (N) [e] iyaih dhrarna-ni&to to va 

Dhau. [nat]i[su sava]t[a] v[i]yapata (N) e iyam dhathm[a-n]isite ti va 

' (XtHm s . . . * • ■ j ■ ■ m m m • • ■ • 

Gtr. ..*•••■••#•■■■•• 
KaL. dana-suyute ti [v]a sav[a]ta v[i]jitas[i] mama [dha]mma- 
Shalu dhrama[dhitha]ne ti va dana-s[a]yute ti va savata vijite maa dhrama- 
Man. dhramadhithane ti va dana-sariiyute ti va savratra vijitasi maa dhrama- 
Dhatt. dhammadhlthane ti va dana-sayute va s a va-pu th a viy am dha[m]ma- 
Jan . - 

Gir ; [t]e [dha]rhma-mahamata (0) etaya athaya ayam dharhma- 

KaL yutasi viyapata te dhamma-m[a]ham[a]ta (0) etaye athaye [i]yarh dhamma- 

Shah. yu[ta]si viyapata te dhrama-mahamatra (0) etaye athaye [a]yi dhrama- 

Man. yutasi vaputa [te] dhrama-mahamatra {0) etaye athraye ayi dhrama- 

Dhau. yutasi viyapata ime dhamma-maham[a]ta (0) [i]m[a]ye athaye iyarh dharhma- 
Jan. 

Gir. lipi likhita . 

KaL lipi lekhita chi[la]-thitikya hotu ^tatha] cha me [pa]ja [a]nuva[ta]tu 

Shah* ' dipi nipista ch[i]ra-thitika bhdt[u] ta[tha] cha [m]e p[r]aja anuvatatu 

Man., dipi likhita chira-thitika hotu tatha cha me praja anuvatatu 

DJutti. lip[i] li[kh]i[ta] chila^thitxk[a ho]tu t[atha] cha me pa[ja anu]vatatu 

Jan. ,,....*•»...-•- 

SIXTH ROCK-EDICT 

■ 

Gir. (A) [Deva] . . [s]i raja evam aha (B) atikrat[a]ih amtara[rii] 

KaL (A) Dev[a]narhpi[y]e Piyadas[i] laja hevarh aha (B) atikamtam amtalarh 
Shah. (A) Devanampriyo PriyadraSi raya eva ahati {B) atikratam amtara 
Man. (A) Devanapriye Priyadrasi raja [e]va[m] aa (B) atikratam ataram 
Dhau. (A) Dev[anamp]iye Pi[yada]si laja £he]vam [a]ha (B) atikam[tam a]rh[ta]lam 
Jan. (A) . . « . [na]mpiye PiyadasT laja Tievam aha (B) atikamtam amtalarh 

Gir. na bhuta-pru[v] • [s] . [v] . . . [1] . atha-kamme va pativedana va 

KaL no huta-puluv[e] sav[a]m kalam atha-k[am]me [v]a [pat]i[veda]na va 

Shd/i. na bhuta-pruvarh sava[m] kala[m] atha-kramam va pativedana va 

Man. na huta-pruve [sajvram kala athra-[krama] va [pa]tivedana va 

Dhau. no [h]u[ta]-puluve s[a]vaih kalam atha-ka[ih]me va [pa]tiveda[n]a va 

Jan. no huta-puluve savarh kalam atha-kamm[e] pativedana va 

^ 

Gir. (C) ta may a evarh katam (D) s[a]ve kale bhumj[a]manasa me 

KaL. (C) s[e] ma[may]a hevaih kate (D) s[a]vaih kalarh adamanas[a] me 

Shah. (C) ta[rh] maya eva[m] kita[ih] (D) savram kalam a^ am anas a me 

Man. (C) ta maya evam kitam {D) savra kalam a£atasa me 

Dkau. (C) se mamaya kate (D) sa[va]m [kalam] .... [mana]sa me 

Jaw,. (C) se mamaya kate (Z?) savarh kalarh [sa m]e 

1013 C C 



194 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah, 

Man. 

Dhau. 

yau* 



orodhanamhi gabhagaramhi 



olodhanasi 
orodhanaspi 
orodhane 
arhte olodh[a]nasi 
amte olodhanasi 



gabhagalas[i] 

grabhagaraspi 

grabhagarasi 

ga[bha]g[ala]si 

gabhagalasi 



vachamhi va 

va[chas]i 

vrachaspi 

vrachaspi 

v[achas]i 

vachasi 



vinltamhi cha uyanesu 
vin[itasi u]y[anasi] 



vinitaspi 
vinitaspi 
jVjinltasi 
vimtas[i] 



uyanaspi 
uyanaspi 
[u]y[a]n[asi] 
uyanasi 



Gir* 


cha 


savatra pativedaka stita 


athe 


me [jajnasa pativedetha 


KaL 




[sava]t[a pative]daka 


athajm] 


janasa 


, . ♦ . vedetu 


Shah, 




savatra pativedaka 


athaih 


janasa 


pativedetu 


Man. 




savratra pa[t]i[ve]da[ka] 


athra 


janasa 


pativedetu 


Dhau. 


[cha 


sa]vata pativedaka 


janasa 


atham 


[pa]tived[a]yarhtu 


Jati. 


cha 


savata pativedaka 


janasa 


atham 
• 


prativedayaihtu 

* 


Gir* 




iti (£) sarvatra cha 


janasa 


athe 


karomi 




KaL 


[m]e 


(2?) sa[va]ta [ch]a 


ja[nas]a 


atham 


kachhami 


hakam 


Shah. 


me 


{E) savatra cha 


ja[na]sa 


ath[r]a 


karomi 




Man. 


me 


(£) savratra cha 


janasa 


athra 


kar[o]mi 


ahaih 


Dkau. 


m[e] 


ti (S) sava[ta] ch[a] 


j[a]aasa 


atham 

■ 


kalami 


h[aka]m 


Jau. 


me 


ti (£) savata cha 











Gir, 

KaL 

Shah* 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jan. 



{F) ya cha kimchi 

(F) yam pi ch[a k]i[chhi 
(F) ya[m] pi cha 
(F) yam pi cha 
{F) am pi cha 
(F) am pi cha 



ki[chi] 
kichhi 
ki[ifa]chhi 
kimchhi 



mukhato 

m]u[kha]t[e 

mukhato 

mukhato 

mukh[a]te 

mukhate 



_ # 



anapayami svayam 
anapaya]mi [ha]karh 
anapayami a[ham] 
anapemi aham 
anapay[a]mi 
anapayami 



dapakam va 
da[pakarh] v[a] 
dapa[ka] va 
dapakam va 
dapakam v[a] 
dapakam va 



Gtr, 
KaL 

Shah. 
Man. 
Dhau* 



sravapakam 

[savakaih] 

£ravaka 

£ravakaih 

[sa]v[a]kam 

savakaih 



va ya va 

va ye va 

va ye va 

va ye va 

va e va 

va e v[a] 



puna mahamatresu 
puna mahamat[e]hi 
p[a]na mahamatrana 
puna mahamatrehi 
maham[ateh]i 
mah[a]matehi 



achayi[ke] 

a[tiyayike 

a[cha]yika 

achayike 

atiyayike 



aropitam bhavati 
alopite h]o[t]i 
a[ro]pitam bhoti 
aropite hoti 
alopite hoti 



a[t]i[ya]yike [a]lopite hoti 



Gir* taya athaya 

KaL ta[yeth]a[ye] 

Shah, taye athaye 

Man. taye athraye 

Dhau. tasi athasi 

¥#zt. tasi athasi 



vivado nijhati v[a sjaihto parisayarh 
vivade n[i]jhati v[a] samtam palis[a]ye 
viva[de] nijha[t]i va satam parishaye 
vivade nijati va sarhta par[isha]ye 
v[i]vade va [njijhati va samtam palisaya 
vivade va r ».»... . lisay[aih 



anamtaram 

anam[ta]l[i]yena 

anamtariyena 

a[na]taliyena 

ana[m]taliyarh 

a]nam[ta]liyam 



Gir. pat[i]vedeta[v]yam me sa[r]vatra sarve kale . (G) evam maya 

KaL pat[i] viye me sav[a]t[a] savarh kalam (G) hevarh anapaylte 

Shah, prativedetavo me 1 savatra savam kala[rh] (G) eva anapita[m] 

Man. pativedetaviye me savratra savra kala (G) evam anapita 

Dhau. pati[ve]detav[i]y[e] me ti savata savam kalam (G) heva[m] me 

Jan. pativedetaviye me ti savata savam kalam (G) hevarh me 



1 The preceding passage from section E is repeated thus : (E) savatra cha atham janasa karomi 
a[hath~] (F) yam cha kichi mukhato anapemi aham dapafea[m] va sravaka va ye va pana maha- 



SIXTH ROCK-EDICT 



195 



Gir* 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 



anapitain 

m [a] may a 

maya 

maya 

anusathe 

anusathe 



{H) nasti hi 
{H) nathi hi 
[H) [na]sti hi 
(U) nasti hi 
(#)nath[i hi 
{H) nathi hi 



me to[s]o 
me dose 
me tosho 
me toshe 
m]e [tos]e 
me tose 



ustanamhi 
uthan[a]sa 
uthanas[i] 
[uthanasi] 
u[thana]si 
uthanasi 



atha-sathtiranaya va 

atha-samtil[a]naye cha 

atha-sa[rii]tiranaye [cha] 

ath[r]a-sa[rh]tiranaye cha 

atha-sarhtllanaya cha 

atha-samtllan[a]y[a] cha 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau* 

Jan. 



(I) katavya-mate 
(/) kat[a]viya-mute 
(/) katava-matam 
(I) kataviya-mate 
(/) kataviya-m[at]e 

(j). ; . , . . . 



hi 
hi 

hi 
hi 
hi 



me 
me 
me 
me 
me 
me 



sa[rva]-loka-hitarii 
s[a]va-loka-hi[te] 
sava-loka-hitarh 
savra-loka-h [i] t e 

sava-loka-hite 
sava-loka-hite 



(7) tasa 
(7) t[asa 
(7) ta[sa 

(7) (>>a 
(7) tasa 

(7) tasa 



cha 

ch]a 

cha] 

chu 

cha 

cha 



puna 
[p]u[n]a 

puna 
pana 
pana 



Gir. 


esa 


mule 


ustanaih 


cha 


atha-samtTrana 


cha 


(K) nasti 


hi 


KaL 


es[e] 


mule 


uth[ane] 




[a]tha~samtilana 


cha 


(K) [na]thi 


hi 


Shah. 


mulam 


etra 


uthanarh 




atha-samtirana 


cha 


(K) na[sti] 


hi 


Man. 


eshe 


mule 


uthane 




athra-satirana 


cha 


(K) nasti 


hi 


Dhau. 


iyam 


mule 


[u]than[e 


cha 


a]tha-s amtll[a]n[a] 


cha 


(K) nathi 


hi 


yan. 


iyam 


mUle 


uthane 


cha 


atha-samtllana 
• 


clia 


(K) nathi 


hi 



Gir* kammatararii 

KaL kam[ma]tala 

Shah. k[r]amatara[m] 

Man. kramatara 

Dhau. kammata . . 

yau. k[am]matala 



sarva-loka-hitatpa 
sava-Io[ka]-hitena 
* sava-Ioka-hite[na] 
s a vra-1 oka-hi ten a 
[sa]va-lo[ka]-httena 
s a va-loka - h i ten[a] 



{L) ya cha 

{Z) yam cha 

(£) yam cha 

(L) ya[ih] cha 

(L) [am] ch[a 

(L) am cha 



kimchi 
kichhi 



[kichhi] 

kichhi] 

kichhi 



parakramami 

palakamami 

parak[r]amami 

pa[rakra]mami 

p[a]Iakamami 

p[a]lakamami 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

yau. 



aham 
hakam 

aam 
hakam 



kimti bhutanam 
kiti . bhutanam 
kit! bhutanam 



anamnam 

[ajnaniyam 

ananiyam 



k[i]t[i] bh[u]tanam ananiyam 



gachheyam 
ye[ham 
v[r]acheyam 
ye[ham] 



kimti bhutanam a[na]niyaih yeha[ih] 
hakam [n]iyam yeharh 



idha 
hi]da 
ia 
ia 

ti [h]i[da] 
ti hida 



cha nani 
cha [ka]ni 
cha sha 
cha she 
cha . [k]an[i] 
cha kani 



Gir: 


sukhapayami 


paratra 


cha 


svagam 


aradhayamtu 




{M) ta 1 


KaL 


sukhayami 


palata 


cha . 


svagarh 


aladhayitu 




(M) s[e] 


Shah. 


sukhayami 


paratra 


cha 


spagram 


aradhetu 




m 


Man. 


sukhayami 


paratra 


cha 


spagra 


a[ra]dhetu 


ti 


{M) se 


Dhau. 


sukhayami 


pal[a]ta 


cha 


svag[am 


al]adhayarhtQ 


ti 


(M) 


yaiL 


su[kha]yami 


palata 


cha 


svagam 


aladhayarhtu 


ti 


(M) 



matranam achay^k~\am aropita\i?t\ bhoti t\a\ye dihaye \y\ivade sa\iii\iam nijati va parishaye 
anamtariyena pativedetavo me. 

1 On p. 12 above, 1. 7, place ta after (M), and cancel foot-note 3. On p. 13, 1. n 3 read C (M) 
Now, for the following purpose \ &c. 

C c 2 



ig6 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. etaya athaya ayarii 

KaL eta[y]ethaye iyam 

Shah* etaye athaye 1 ayi 

Man. etaye athraye iyam 

Dhau m et[a]y[e athaye ijyam 

Jan. etaye athaye i[ya]m 



dha[m]ma-lipi 

dhama-Hpi 

dhrama 

dhrama-dipi 

dhamma-lipT 

dhaihma-lipl 



lekhapita 

lekhita 

nipista 

likhita 

likhita 

likhita 



kirhti chiraih 

chila-thitikya 

chira-thitika 

chira-thitika 

ch[i]la-th[i]tika 

chila-thitika 



tisteya 

hotu 

bhotu 

hotu 

hotu 

hotu 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhait,. 

Jau. 



iti 



tatha 

tatha 

tatha 

ta[tha 

ta[th]a 



cha 

cha 

cha 

cha] 

cha 



me putra pota 
me puta-dale 
me putra nataro 
me pu[tra nata]re 
puta 



cha prapotra cha 



papota 



me 
me 



anuvataram 

palakamatu 

parakramamtu 

para[kra]mate 

palakama[m]t[u] 

[pajlakamamtu 



Gir. sava : loka-hitaya 

KaL sava-Ioka-hita[ye] 

Shah. sava-lo[ka-hita]ye 

Man. sa[vra-lo]ka-hitaye 

Dhau. [sava-loka]4utaye 

Jan. sava-Ioka-hitaye 



(JV) dukaram 
(N) dukale 
(N) [du]kara 
(N) dukare 
(N) dukale 
{JV), dukale 



[t]u 

ch[u] 

tu 

cha 

chu 

chu 



[kh]o 
kho 



idam 
iyam 
imam 

iyam 
i[ya]m 



aflatra 

anat[a] 

anat[r]a 

[ajnatra 

aihnat[a] 

amnata 



Gir. 


agena 


* 

parakramena 








i 


KaL 


agena 


palakam[e]na 










Shah* 


agre 


parakramena 










Man. 


a[gjrena 


para[kra]mena 










Dhau. 


a[g]en[a 


pajlakamena 










Jau* 


agena 


palakamena 




* 


- 


H 


* 




SEVENTH 


ROCK-EDICT 




Gir. 


(A) Devanampiyo Piyadasi 


raja 


sarvata 


ichhati . 


save pasamda 


KaL 


(A) Devanampiye Piyadasi 


laja 


[savatja 


[i]chhati 


sava-[pasa]mda 


Shah. 


(A) Devanampriyo Friyagi 


raja 


savatra 


ichhati 


savra-[p]rashamda 


Man^ 


(A) Devanapriyo Priyadra£i 


raja 


savratra 


ichhati 


savra-pashacla 


Dhau. 


(A ) [D]evanam[p]iy e Piy[a]dasi 


laja 


savata 


ichhat[i 


sava-p]asam[da] 


Jan* 






laja 


savata 


ichhati 


sava-p[a]samda 



Gir, 


vaseyu 




(^) 


save te 


sayamam cha bhava-sudhiih 


KaL 


vas[ejvu 




(Z?) [sajve hi te 


sayama[m] bhava-sudhi 


Shah. 


vaseyu 




KB) 


save hi. te 


sayame 


bhava-£udhi 


Man. 


vaseyu 




KB) 


savre hi. te 


sa[ya]ma [bha]va-£u[dh]i 


Dhau. 


[vajsevu 


ti 


KB) 


save h[i] t[e sajyamarii [bh]av[afsudhi 


Jan. 


va[s]e . . 


[tj. 


(i?) [sav]e hi te 


sa[yama]ih bhava-[su]dhi 


Gir. 


cha 


ichhati 




(C) jano 


tu 


u chavach a-chh amdo 


KaL 


cha 


ichhaihti 




(C) jane 


[ch]u 


uchavucha~chh[a]ihde 


Shah. 


cha 


ichhaihti 




(C) jano 


chu 


uchavucha-chhaihdo 

• 


3fan, 


[cha 


ichhamjti 




(C) jane ^ 


chu 


uchavucha-chhade 


Dhau. 


cha 


ichhaihti 




(C) mun[i]sa 


ch[a 


u]ch[a]v[u]cha-[chha]rh[d]a 


Jau. 


cha 


ichhaihti 




(C) munisa 


cha 


uchavucha-chhamda 



SEVENTH ROCK-EDICT 



197 



Gir. iichavacha-rago 

KaL nchavuchaJa[g]e 

Shah, nchavucha^rago 

Man* uchavucha-rage 

Dhau. uchavucha-laga 

jfau* u chavuch[a]-l aga 



■ 

(D) te sarvarii va kasarhti eka-desam va kasa[m]ti 
(D) te savam eka-des[a]m pi k[a]chharii[t]i 

(D) te savrarh va eka-de6am va pi kashamti 

(Z?) te savram eka-de£am va pi kashati 

(Z?) te savam va ek[a]-de[saih va kachham]ti 

(D) . . . . ■ . -. • • * . [sa]m va kachhaihti 



Gzr. {E) vip[ul]e 


tu 


Pi 


dane 


yasa 


nasti 


sayame 


bhava-sudhita 


KaL {E) vipule 


Pi 


chu 


dan[e] 


asa 


nathi 


sayame 


bha[va]-sudh[i] 


Shah, (E) vipule 


pi 


chu 


dane 


yasa 


nasti 


sayama 


bhava~£udhi 


Man. {E) [vjipule 


P J . 


ch[u] 


dane 


yasa 


nasti 


sayeme 


bhava-^uti 


Dhau. [E) vipul[e].- 


Pi 


cha 


dane 


asa 


n[athi 


sa]yame 


[bh]ava-sudhi 


Jan. [E\ [v]i[pnl]e 




cha 


[d]B[ne] 


• 


« *. 


• ■ 


[dhi] 



Gir. 


T 

va katarhnata va 


dadha-bhati[t]a cha nicha 


badham 




KaL 


kitanat[a 


d]tdha-bhatita 


cha ni[che] 


badham 




Shah. 


kitranata 


dridha-bhatita 


niche 


padham 




Man. 


kitanata 


driclha-bhatita 


cha niche 


badham 




Dhau. 






cha niche 


badham 




Jan. 


1 


- 


cha niche 


[bjadharh 






1 ■ 

■ ■ 


* 

EIGHTH ROCK-EDICT 






Gzr, 


(A) atikataih 


amtaram 


rajano 


vihara-yatarh 




KaL 


(A) atikamtam . 


a[m]talam 


Devanampiya 


[vihala-yatam 


nama] 


Shah. 


{A) atikratam 


ataraih = 


Devanampriya 


vihara-yatra 


nama 


Man. 


(A) a[ti]kratam 


ataram 


Devanaprifya] 


vihara-yatra 


nama 


Dhau. 


(A) [atika]m[ta]m 


amt[ala]m 


laj[a]n[e] 


v[i]h[a]la-yatam 


nama 












« 

T 


Sop. 


* « • • 


• ■ ■ 


• • • 


» p • • 


■ 



Gir. nayasu 

KaL nikhamisu 

Shah, nikramishu 

Man. nikramishu 

Dhau. [n]i[kha]m[i]s[u] 

Jan. % 

Sop. . 



(B) eta 
(B) hida 
(B) atra 
(B) ia 
(B) . . [ta 



magavya 
migaviya 
m nigaya 
mrigaviya 
miga]viy[a] 



anani 

aihnani 

anani 

anam 

a[rh]nani 

[ajmnani 



cha 

cha 

cha 

cha 

ch[a] 

cha 



etarisani 

hedisana 

edi£ani 

edifiani 

edisani 

e[d]i 



Gir. 


abhiramakani 


ahurhsu 


(Qso 


Devanampriyo 


Piyadasi 


KaL 


abhilamanp] 


husu 


(Q 


Devanampiye 


Piyadasi 


Shah. 


abhiramani 


abhuvasu 


(C) so 


Devanampriyo 


PriyadraSi 


Man. 


abhiramani 


husu 


(0 <e] 


Devanap[r]iy[e] 


P[r]iyadrasi 


Dhau. 


a[bh]i[l]amani 


huvaihti nam 


{Q se 


Devanampiye 


P[i]y[a]dasi 


Jail* 




huvamtt nam 


(Qse 


Devanampiye 


[Piya] . . . . 



Sop. 



■ • 



198 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. raja 
KaL laja 
Shah* raja 
Man. raja 
Dhau. laja 
Jau 



dasa-varsabhisito 

das[a]-vasabhisite 

da£a-vashabhisito 

da£a-vashabhisite 

d[a]sa-[vas]abhisi[t]e 

[dasa] 



samto 
saihtam 
s a tarn 
sarhta[rh] 



ayaya 

nikhamitha 

nikrami 

nikrami 

[n]ikhami 



Sambodhirii 

Sariibodhi 

Sabodhi 

Sabodhi 

Sambodhft] 



{D) tenesa 
(D) tenata 
(D) tenada 
(D) tenada . 
{D) [t]e[na]ta 




op. 



. nikhamitha Sa 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jau. 

Sop. 



dhamma-yata 

dhamma-yata 

dhrarhma-yatra 

dhrama-yada 

dha[mma-yata] 

. . . . [ta] 



(ft 
(E) 

(ft 
(ft 
(ft 
(ft 
(ft 



etayarh 

[h]eta 

atra 

atra 

[tatjesa 

[tajtesa 

heta 



lyam 
iyam 
iya 



iyam 



hoti bamhana-samananam dasane 

hoti samana-bambhananarh dasane 

hoti Sramana-bramananam draSane 

hoti 3amana-bramanana dra[£a]ne 

[ho]ti samana-babhananarh d[a]s[a]n[e] 

hoti [sa] 

[ho]ti bam[bha] .... 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jan. 

Sop. 



cha dane 
cha dane 
danam 
dane 
ch[a] d[ane] 
cha dane 



cha thairanaih 
cha vudh[a]nam 
vudhana[mj 
cha vudhrana 
cha v[u]dhanarii 
cha vudhanam 

m 

. vudhanam 



dasane 

dasa[n]e 

daSana 

dra[£a]ne 

dasane 

dasane 

dasane 



ch[a] hiramna-patividhano cha 

ch[a] hilamna-pati[v]idhane cha 

hirana-p[r]atividhane • cha 

[cha hi]fia-pativi[dhane cha] 

cha h[i]lamna-p[a]tividha[ne cha] 

cha hilamna-pativ[i]dh[a]ne [cha] 

[cha] hirarhna-patividhane cha 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau, 

jfatt. 



janapadasa 

[ja]napadasa 

[jana]padasa 

janapadasa 

[jana]padasa 



cha janasa 

[ja]n[a]sa 
janasa 
janasa 
janasa 



daspanath 

das[a]ne 

dra£ana 

draSane 

[dasa]ne 



op. 



dhammanus[a]sti cha 

dhammanusathi cha 
dhramanuSasti 

dhramanu^asti cha 

1 

cha dhammanu[sath]T [cha] 
. [dha*]mmanusa[thi] 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jan. 

"0j 



dhama-paripuchha 
dhama-palipuchha 
dhrama-pa[ri]p[ru]chha 
dhrama-[pa]r[i]puchha 

[p]u[chh]a 

[dha]ihma-p[al]i[puchh]a 

dhamma 



cha tadopaya 

cha tatopa[ya] 

cha tatopayam 

cha tatopaya 

cha [ta]d[o]paya 



(F) esa 
(F) [e]se 
(F) eshe 
(F) eshe 
(F) e[sa 



bhuya 

bh[u]ye 

bhuy[e 

bhuye 

bhuy]e 



ye 



rati 
lati 
>ra]ti 
rati 

abhilame 
ilame 
[ra]tT 



Gir. bhavati Devanampiyasa 



KaL hoti 

Shah, bhoti 

Mati. hoti 

Dhau. hoti 

jfau. hoti 

?o& hoti 




Devanampiyasa , 
Devanampriyasa 
Devanapriyasa 
, Devanampiyasa 
De[v]anampiyasa 
De 



Priyadasino 

Piyadas[i]sa 

PriyadraSisa 

PriyadraSisa 

Piyada[s]ine 

Piyadasine 



rano 

lajine 

rano 

rajine 

lajine 

lajine 

• n[e] 



bha[g]e 

bh[a]g[e] 

bhago 

bhage 

bhage 

bhage 

bhage 



amne 
arhne 
arnni 
ane 

m 

[am]ne 
[a]. 

am , 



199 







NINTH ROCK-EDICT 








Gzr. 


(A) Devanarhpiyo 


Priyadasi raja 


eva 


aha 


(fl) asti 


jano 


KaL 


(A) Devanampiye 


Piy[a]da[s]i la[ja] 




aha 


(^) 


jan[e] 


Shah. 


(A) Devanampriyo 


PriyadraSi ^a]ya 


evam 


ahati 


(^) 


jano 


Man. 


(A) Devanapriye 


FriyadraSi raja 


evam 


aha 


(*) 


jane 


Dhau. 


(A) Devanampiye 


Piyadasi laja 


hevam 


aha 


(£) [athi 


ja]ne 


Jan. 


(A) Devan[am]piye 


Piyadasi Ia[ja] 









Gzr. uchavacham 
KaL xich[av]ucham 
Shah, uchavucham 
Man. uchavucha[rix 
Dhau* uchavucham 

yau. . . 



mamgalam 
mamgalam 
mamgalam 
ma]gala[m] 
mamgalam 



karote 

ka[l]eti 

karoti 

karoti 

kal[e]ti 



abadhesu 

abadhasi 

abadhe 

abadhasi 

[ab]adha 



va avaha-vivahesu 

avahe vivahe 
a[va]hasi vi[va]hasi 
[v]I[vaha]. 



Gir % 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 

yau. 



va 



putra-labhesu 

pajopadane 

pajupadane 

prajopadaye 
. . []u]padaye 
[pa]jupadaye 



va pravasammhi 
pavasasi 
pravase 
pravasaspi 
pavas[a]si 
pavasasi 



va etamhi 
e[ta]ye 
ataye 
etaye 
etaye 
etaye 



cha 



Gir, 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

yatt. 



edisaye 

edi£iy[e] 

[ed]i£a[ye 

hedisaye 

hedisaye 



jano 
jane 
jano 
jane] 

j[a>[e] 
jane 



uchavacham 

bahu 

ba 

bahu 

bahukam 

[ba]hu[ka]m 



mamgalam 

magala[m] 

mamgalarh 

marhgapam 

mamgalam 



karote 
k[a]leti 
karoti 
ka]ro[t]i 
k[a] . . • 



anamhi 

arhnaye 

anaye 

anaye 

amnaye 

amnaye 

(C) eta 
(C) heta 
(Q atra 

(C) atra 
■ ■ ■ • 



cha 

cha 

cha 

[cha] 

ch[a] 

cha 

tu 

[ch]u 

tu 

tu 

[chu] 



Gzr. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

yan. 



mahiclayo 

at>aka-jani[yo] 

striyaka 

abaka-janika 

5thi 



bahukam cha 

bahu cha 

bahu cha 

bahu cha 

b[ahuka]m cha 



bahuvidham cha 

bahuvidham cha 

bahuvidham cha 

bahuvidha cha 

[ba]hu[v]idh[am] ch[a 



chhudam 

khuda 

putika 

khuda 

kh]ud[am 



cha 

[ch]a 

cha 

cha 

cha] 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

yan. 



nirath[am] 

nilathiya 

nirathiyam 

nirathriya 

[nilathi]yam 



cha mamgalam 

cha magalaih 

cha mamgalam 

cha magalaih 

cha mamgalam 

[cha ma]m[gala]m 



karote 

ka[la]rhti 

karo[ti] 

karoti 

kaleti 

k[a]leti 



(D) ta 
(D) se 
(D) so 
(Z?)se 
{D) se 
{D) se 



katavyameva 
katavi cheva 
katavo cha [va] 
ka[taviye ch]eva 
kat[a]viye che[va 
kataviye cheva 



tu 

kho 

kho 

kho 

kh]o 

kho 



Gir, 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

yau. 



magalam (E) 

mamgale (E) 

mamgala {E) 

magale (£) 

m[a]rhgale {E) 

mamgale (£) 



apa-phalam tu kho 

apa-phale [ch]u kho 

apa-phala[m] tu kho 

apa-phale chu [kho 

[a]pa-phale chu kho 

apa-[pha]le chu [kh]o 



etarisam 

[e]s[e] 

eta 

e]she 

esa 

e[sa] t 



mamgalam 



h[e]dise 
he[d]ise 



mam[ga] . . 
ma 



• ■ • I 



200 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. (F) ayam tu 

KaL [F) [i]yam chu 

Shah. (F) imam [t]u 

Man. (F) iyam chu 

Dhatt* (F) . . [ya]m [ch]u 

Jan. (F) i[ya]rh [chu] 



mah[a]-phale 
kho mah[a]-ph[a]le 
kho maha-phala 
kho maha-phale 
kho mah[a]-ph[a]le 



mamgale 



ya 
ye 

y e 

ye 
e 



dhamma-mamgale 
dhaihma-magale 

ma-mamgala 
dhrama-magale 
[dha]rhma-mamgale 



Gzr. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jan. 



(G) ta[te]ta 
(G) he[ta] iyam 
(G) [a]tra ima 
{G) atra iyarh 
(G) [ta]te[sa 



dasa-bhatakamhi 

i 

dasa-bhatakasi 

dasa-bhatakasa 

dasa-bhatakasi 
• 

d]a[sa-bhatakas]i 
[sa-bha]takasi 



samya-pratipati 

s[a]mya-patip[a]tl 

samma-patipati 

samya-patipati 

sammya-patipat[i 

sarhmya-paiipati 



gurunam 

guluna 

garuna 

guruna 

gulu]nam 

gulunaih 



apachiti 

apachiti 

apachiti 

a[pachit]i 

a[pa] 

apachiti 



Gzr. 
KaL 
Shah. 

Man. 

Dhazt. 
Jau. 



sadhu 



panesu 
[p]a[n]an[am] 
prananam 
pra[na]na 



panesu 



sayamo 

samyame 

sa[m]yamo 

[sa]yame 

• . . [me] 

say[a]me 



sadhu bamhana-samananarh 

s[a]man[a]-barhbhananam 
£amana-bramanana 
&ramana-bramanana 
samana-babhan[a]nam 

saman[a]-babha[n]a[nam] 



sadhu 



Gzr. 
KaL 

Shah, 
Man. 
Dhait. 
Jan. 



danam 

dane 

dana 

[dane] 

dane 

[d]a[n]e 



et[a] 

ese 

etam 

eshe 

esa 

[esa 



cha 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau* 

Jan. 



(&) ta 
{B) se 
(N)is]o 
{B)se 
(ff) [se] 



vatavyam 

vata[v]iye 

vatavo 

vataviye 

vata[viye 



anfa] 

amne 

anam 

T ■ 

ane 

amne 

a]rh[n]e 

pita 
pxtiria 
pituna 
,pi[tu]na 
p]it[ina 
[pi]tina 



cha 
cha 
cha 
cha 
chj>] 



etarisam 
hedise | 

ediSe 



dhamma-mamgalarh 

dhaihma-magale 

dhrama-mamga[lam] 

dhrama-magale 

[dhamma]-mamga];ie 



nama 
nam a 
nama 
nama 
nama] 



va putena va 

pi putena pi 

pi putrena pi 

pi putrena pi 

pi pute]na pi 

pi putena pi 



bhatra 

bh[a]tina 

bhratana 

bhratuna 

bhatina 

bhatina 



va svamikena 

pi suvamiken[a] 

pi spamik[e]na 

pi spamikena 

pi suvamike[na] 

pi suvamike[na] 



Gzr* 


va 










idam sadhu 


idam 


KaL 


pi mita-samthuten[a] 


ava 


pativesiyena [p]i 


iyam sadhu 


iyam 


Shah. 


pi mitra-sastutena 


ava 


prativesiyena 


imam sadhu 


[imam] 


Man. 


pi mitra-sa[m]stutena 


[a]va 


pativesiyena pi 


iyam sadhu 


iyam 


Dhau. 


[P]i 






* 




. . . 




Jau. 


Pi 










iyam sadhu 


iyam 

T 


Gzr. 


katavya 


* 

mamgalam 


ava 


tasa 


athasa 


nistanaya 


(I) asti 


KaL 


kataviye 


[ma]g[a]le 


ava 

r » 


[ta]sa 


athas a 


ni[v]utiya 


Shah. 


kata[vo] 


mamgala[rh] 


yava 


tasa 


athrasa 


nivutiya 


nivutaspi 


Man. 


kataviye 


magale 


ava 


tasa 


athrasa 


nivutiya 


mvutasi 


Dhazt. 


■ • * 


. . [1> 


[a]va 


tasa 


athas[a] 


hiphatiy[a] 


(/) [a]thi 


Jau. 


kataviye 


i 

•4a 


■ » 


• • 


■ . 


■ ■ * 


■ 



NINTH ROCK-EDICT 



20 1 



Gir. 
KaL 

Shah, 
Man. 
Dhau m 



cha pi 

va p[ u ]na 

va puna 

[cha heva]rh 



vutam 

imam 

imam 

una 

v[u]te 



sadhu dana iti (y) na 

kachhami ti (/) e 

kasham (/) ye 

[kajshami ,ti (/) e 

dane s[a]dh[u] ti (?) [s]e 



tu etarisam asta 
hi i[ta]Ie magale 
hi etake magale 
hi [i]tare magape] 
[na]thi . 



[s]e 



Gir. 

Kal. 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhan. 



danam va ana[ga]ho va yarisarii dhamma-danaih va dhamanugaho va 



sa[m]sayikye se {J) siya va 
saSayike tarn (y) siya vo 
£a[£a]yike se (7) s[i]ya va 
. , . . [anu]ga[h]e v[a ad]i[se 
dane anugah[e] va adi[s]e 



tarn atham nivatey[a] siya puna no 
tarn atham nivateyati siya puna no 
tarn athram nivateya s[i]ya pana no 
dha]mma-dane dh arh[rn anugah e] . 
dhamma-dSne dh a mm anugah e cha 



Gir. (K) ta tu kho 

KaL {K) hi[da]lokike . 

Shah. (K) ialoka 

Man. (K) hidal[o]kike 

Dhatt. (K). 

Jan. (K) se chu kho mitena 



mitrena va suhadayena [v]a natikena va sahayana va 
chev[a] se (L) iyam puna dhamma-magale t akaliky[e] 

puna dhrama-magalam akalikam 
puna dhrama-magale akalike 

sahaye[na p]i 



cha vo 
cheva 
[m]i . 



tarn 
se 



(L) ida 
{£) iyam 




ena 



Gir. ovaditavyam tamhi tamhi pakarane [i]dam kacham idam sadha iti 

KaL (M) hamche pi tarn atham no niteti hida atham palata anamtam 

Shah. (M) yadi puna tarn atham na nivat[e] ia atha paratra anamtam 

Man. (M) [ha]che pi tarn athram no nivateti [hi]da a[tha] paratra anata 

Dhati. viyovadita i [tasi] pak[alana]si [iya]m ; . . . 

J&u • yam . sadh[u] 



Gir. imina sak[a] svagarh aradhetu iti 
KaL puna pavasati (N) hamche puna 
Shah, puflam prasavati (N) hamche puna 
Man. puna prasavati (N) hache puna 
Dhaiu . • . . . [l]adhayitave 
yati m imena sakiye svage aladhayitave 



(L) ki cha imina katavyataram 

tarn atham nivateti hida tato 

tarn tham nivateti tato 

ta[m] athram nivat[e]ti hida tato 

( L ) • - ........ ta[v] 

(L) kim hi imena kataviyatala 



Gir. 

KaL. 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhatu 

Jau* 



yatha svagaradhi 
ubhaye[sa]m. ladhe * hoti 
u[bha]y[e]sa ladham bhoti 
ubhayesam [ara]dhe hoti 
.... [svagasa] al[adh]i 



hida cha se athe 

■ 

ia cha so atho 
hida cha se athre 



palata cha anamtam 
paratra cha anamtam 
paratra cha anata 



KaL 

Shah, 

Man. 



puna 

punaih 

punarh 



pasavati 

prasavati 

prasavati 



IMS 



tena dhamma-magalen[a] 
tena dhramamgalena 
tena dhramagalena 

Dd 



2Q2 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



TENTH ROCK-EDICT 



Gzr m 


(A) Devanampiyo 


Priyadasi 


raja 


yaso 


va 


kit! 


va 


na 


KaL 


{A) Deva[nam]piye 


Piy[a]dasha 


laja 


y[a]shd 


va 


kiti 


va 


no 


Shah. 


(A) Devanapriye 


Priyadra£i 


raya 


yaSo 


va 


kitri 


va 


no 


Man. 


(A) [Devana]priye 


PriyadraSi 


raja 


yaso 


va 


kiti 


va 


no • 


D/iau. 


(A) [Devanam]piye 


Piyad[a]s[l 


laja 


yaso 


v]a 


MitT 


va 


n . 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man* 

Dhau. 

Jau. 



r 

mahathavah[a] 
[majhathava 
mahathavaha 
mahathravaham 
[ha]m 



mafiate 
manati 
manati 
manati . 
mathn[ate] 



anata 
an[a]ta 
anatra 
anatra 



[ya]m 

yo 

yaih 



Pi 

pi 

Pi 
i 



yaso 

yafio 

ya[£o 

[yaso] 

[ya]so 



va 

va] 

va 

va 



ki[t]i 

kitri 

kiti 

k[it]T 

ki[t]i 



va 

va 

va 

[v]a 

va 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhait. 

yau. 



ichh[at]i 

ichhati 

ichhati 

ichhati 

ichh[a]ti 



tadatpano 
tadatvaye 
tadatvaye 
tadatvaye 
tadatvaye 
tadatvaye 



dighaya 

ayatiye 

ayatiya 

ayatiya 

[a] . . 

a[ya]tiye 



cha 
cha 
cha 
cha 



cha 



me [ja]no 
jane 
jane 
jane 
. [ja]ne 
jane 



dhamma-susrurihlsa 
dhamma-sususW 
dhrama-su£rasha 
[dhra]ma-suSrusha 

[susa]m 

dhamma-sususam 



Gir. susrusata 

KaL susushatu me 

Shah, suirushatu me 

Man. su£rashatu me 

Dhau. [susu]s[at]u [m]e 

yau. sususatu me 



ti 
ti 
ti 



dharhma-vutarh 
dharhma-vatam 
dhramma-vutaih 
dh ram a-[vu tarn 
dhaihma ... 



cha 
va 
cha 
cha] 



anuvidhiyatam 
anuvi[dh]iya[m]tu 
anuvi[dhi]yatu 
anuvidhiyatu 



ti 
ti 

[me] 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

yau. 



(B) etakaya 
(B) dhata[k]aye 
(B) etakaye 
(B) etakaye 
{£) etakaye 



Devanampiyo 
Devana[ih]piye 
Devanapriye 
Devanapriye 



Piyadasi raja 

Piyadasi laja 

PriyadraSl raya 

Priya[dra]£i raja 



yaso 

yasho 

ya£o 

yafio 

[yaso 



va 
va 

va 
va 



kiti 

kiti 

kitri 

kiti 

kit! 



va 
va 
va 
va 
v]a 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jau. 



i[chha]ti 
ichha 
ichhati 
i[chha]ti 
1 . . 



(C) ya[rh] tu kichp] parik[a]mate 
(C) am ch[a] kichhi lakamati 
(Q ya[m] tu kichi parakramati 
(C) . . . . [k]ichhi parak[r]ama[ti] 
i [pa]lakama[t]i 

. . . . . . . [tj 



Devaham 

Devanampiye 

Devanampriyo 

Devanapriye 

Devanampiye 

Devanampiye 



Priyadasi 
Piyadashi 
Friyadra£i 
PriyadraSi 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

yatt. 



raja 
laja 
raya 
raja 



ta savam 

ta [sha]va 

tarn sav[r]am 

tarii savram 



paratrikaya 

palariitikyaye 

paratrikaye 

parat[r]ikay[e 

pal[atik]a[y]e 

palatikaye 



kimti 
va kiti 
va kiti 
va k]i[ti] 
. . kimti 
va ki[ih]ti 



sakale 

sakale 

sakale 

sa[kale 

saka[le 

[sa]kale 



a[pa]-parisrave 

apa-p[a]lashave 

aparisrave 

apa}pa[r]isav[e] 

apa-pal]isave 

apa-palisave 



TENTH ROCK-EDICT 



20' 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah. 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jau. 



asa 

shiyati ti 
siyati 

siyati ti 

[hu]v[eya t]i 

[hjuveya ti 



{D) esa 
{D) [e>he 
{D) eshe 
(D) eshe 
{D) pa[l]isa 
(Z?). . 



tu pari save ya apumnam 

chu palisave e apune 

tu parisrave yam apunarh 

chu- pa[ri]save e - apu[ne] 



(E) dukararh 
(E) dukale 
(E) dukare 
(E) dukare 
(E) [du]ka[Ie 



Gir. 

KaL 

Shah % 

Man. 

Dhau. 

Jan. 



tu 
chu 
[tu] 
chu 



kho 
kho 
kho 
kho 



etaih 
eshe 
eshe 
eshe 



chhudakena va 
khudakena va 
khudrakena 
khudakena [va 
, , t[a agena] 



janena 
vagena 
vagrena 
va]gr[e]na 



usatena 
ushutena 
usatena 
[u]satena 
. . [na 



va anatra 
va ana[ta] 
va anatra 
va ana[tra 
sa]vam chs 



Gtr. agena parak[r]amena savam parichajitpa 

KaL agen[a pa]lakamena shava[m] palitiditu 

Shah* agrena parakramena sava[m] paritijitu 

Man. a[gre]na para[krame]na sav[ram] ,pariti(ji]tu 

Dhau. paliti[j]i[tu] khudakena v[a] usatena va 

Jau. . , [l]itijit[u] khudakena [v]a u[sa]fena va 



Gir. usatena 

m 

KaL [u]shate[na] va 

Shah, usate . . , . 

» 

Man. usateneva 

■ 

Dhau. u[satena] chu 
J an. usatena chu 



dukararh 
dukale 



du[ka]re 

[dukalatale] 

dukalatale 



(E) et[a] t[u] kho 

(F) [h]e[ta chu] kho 
(F) at[r]a chu 

(F) atra tu \kho 



ELEVENTH ROCK-EDICT 



Gir. (A) Devinampriyo 

KaL (A) Devanamp[i]ye 

Shah, (A) Devana[rh]priyo 

Man. (A) Devanapri[y]e 

Gir. danam' yarisarii 

KaL dane adisha 

Shah, danam yadisam 

Man. dane [a]di6e 

Gir. samvibhago [va] 

KaL shav[i]bhage I 

Shah, samvibhago 

Man. samvibhaga 

Gir. dasa-bhatakamhi 

KaL dasha-bhatakashi \ 

Shahi d a sa-bh a t akanam 

Man, dasa-bhata[ka]si 



Piyadasi 
Piyadashi 
Priyadra£i 
PriyadraSi 



raja 

raya 
raja 



ev[a]m 
hevam 
evam 
evaih 



aha 
ha 

hahati 
aha 



(B) nasti 
{B) nathi 
(B) nasti 
{B) nasti 



dhamma-danarii 
dha[m]ma-dane \ 
dhrama-dana 
dhrama-dane 



dharhma-samstavo* va 

dhrama-samstav[e] 
dhrama-samtha[v]e 



dhaihma-sambadho 
dhamma-shambadh[e] | 
dh[r ]ama-s a mba[ rh]dh a 
dhrama-sa[m]ba[rh]dh[ej 



va 



(C) tata 
(Qta[ta] 
(C) tatra 
(Q tatra 



idarh 
eshe 
etam 
eshe 



etarisam 
h[e]dishe 
ed[i]5arii 
edifie 

dharhma- 
dhama- 
dh[r]ama- 
dhrama- 

bhavat: 



samya-p[r]atipati 
shamya-patipati 
sammma-patipati 
samya-patipati 

D d 2 



matari pitara 
mata-pitishu | 
mata-pitushu 
mata-[pitu]shu 



sadhu 



sus[r]usa 
shushusha 
sufirusha 
su[Sru]shat 



204 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. ■ mita-[sa]stuta-natikanam 

KaL mita-shamthuta-natikyanaih 

Shah. mi[t]ra-samstuta-natikanaih 

Man. mitra-saih[stuta]-natikana 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



i bamhana-s[r]amana[nam] 
samana-[ba]rhbhanana 
£ramana-bramanana 
6ramana-bramanana 



sadhu 



Gir. prananam anaraihbho sadhu 

KaL pananam anal[am]bhe 

Shah, pranana anara[m]bho 

Man. pranana " [ana]rabhe 



{D) eta 
(D) eshe 
(D) etaiii 
(D) [e>he 



vatavyaih 
vatav[i]ye 
vatavo 
vatavlye 



pita va 

pi[t]ma pi 

pituna pi 

pituna pi 



va 
pi 



bhat[&] 
bha[t]in£l 
bhtatuna 
bhratuna 



Gir. pativesiyehi 

KaL p[a]tiveshiyen[a] 

Shah, prative&yena 

Man. pative&yena 



ida sadhu 

iy[a]m shadhu 

[i]ma[m] sadhu 

iyam sa[dhu], 



fda ka[tav]ya[rh] 
iyam : kataviye 
imam katavo 
iyam kataviye 



da[naih] 
[da]ne 
dana 
dan[e] 

putrena 
pute[na] 
putrena 
putrena 



va mita-sastut[a]-nat[i]k[e]na va 

pi sh[a]vam[i]kyena pi mita-Samthutana 

pi [spa]mikena pi mitra-samstutana 

pi spamike[na] pi mitra~sam[stu]t[e]na 



ava 
ava 
ava 
ava 



(E) so 
(B) [4> 
(E) so 
(£) se 



t[a]tha 
tatha 
tatha 
tatha 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



karu 

kala[mta] 
karata[m] 
karata[ih] 



ilokachasa 
hidalokikye 
ialoka 
hi[dalo]ke 



aradho hoti parata 

cha kaih aladhe hoti palata 

cha a[ra]dheti paratra 

[cha] kaih aradhe ho[ti pa]ra[tra] 



pmnam 
puna 
puna 
punaih 



bhavati 
pa£avati 
prasavati 
p[r]asavati 



tena dhamma-danena 

tena dham m a- danen a 

[te]na dhrama-danena 

te[na dhra]ma-danena 



cha amnamtarh 

ch[a] anata 

cha anatam 

cha ana[rh]tam 



TWELFTH ROCK-EDICT 



Gir. (A) Devanampiye 

KaL (A) [D]evanapiye 

Shah. (A) Devanampriyo 

Man. (A) Devanapriye 



Gir* [pa]vajitani 

KaL pav[a]jita[n]i 

Shah, pravraj ita[ni] 

Man. [p]rava[ji]tani 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



cha 



Piyad[a]si 
[P]iyadash[i] 
Priyadra£i 
Priyadra&i 

i 

gharastani cha 

gahathani va 

grahathani cha 

gehathani cha 



[cha] 
cha \ 
cha 
cha 



pujaya 
puj[a]ye 
pujaye 
pujaye 



pujayati ne 



(JS) na 
{B) n[o] 
(.5) no 
(B) no 



raja 
laja 
raya 
raja 

pujayati 
pujeti 
pujeti 
pujeti 

tu 

ch[u] 

chu 

chu 



sava-pasamdani 
shava-pasham[dan]i 
savra-prashamdani 
savra-pashadani 



cha 



d[a]nena cha 
danena 
danena 
danena 



vivadhaya 
vividh[aye] 
vividhaye 
vividhaye 



tatha danam va 

tatha dane va 

tatha [da]na - va 

tatha dana - va 



pu[ja] 
puja 
puja 
puja 



TWELFTH ROCK-EDICT 



205 



Gir m 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



va 
va 
va 
va 



D[e]vanaihpiyo 
Devana[ih]piye 
Devanampriyo 
[De]vana[ih]priye 



mamnate 
m[a]nati 
manati 
manati 



yatha 
atha 
yatha 
atha 



kiti 
k[i]ta 
kiti 
kiti 



sara-vadhi . 
^[a]la-v[a]dhi 

sa[la]-vac[hi 
sala-vadhi 



asa 
£iyati 
siya 
siya 



Gir. sa[va-pa]saihdanaih (C) sar[a]-vadhi 

KaL £[a]va-pa£adana (C) £ala-vadhi 

Shah, savra-prashaihdanam (C) sala-vadhi 

Man. savra-pashadana ti (Q sala-vrudhi 



tu bahuvidha 

na bahuvidha 

tu bahuvidha 

t[u] bahuvidha 



(V) tasa tu idarii 

(Z?) ta£a chu inam 

(£>) tasa tu iyo 

(J?) tasa chu iyam 



mulam 

1 

mule 
mula 
mule 



ya 

a 

yam 
aril 



vachi-gutl 
va[cha]-guti 
vacha-guti 
vacha-guti 



Gir. pasamda-garaha va no 

KaL paSaihda-galaha va no 

Shah, pash arhda-ga ran a va no 

Man. pashada-garaha va no 



kiihti 
kiti 
kiti 
kiti 

bhave 
[£a]ya 
siya 
siya 



atpa^pasaihda-puja 
t[i] ata-pa£ada-[v]a puja 
ata-prashaihda-puj a 
ata-prashada-puj a 



va 
va 
va 
va 



para- 
pala- 
pa[ra} 
para- 



aprakaranamhi 
ap[a]k[a]I[a]na£[i] 
[a]pakaranasi 
apakaranasi 



lahuka 
lahaka 
lahuka 
lahuka 



va asa 

va £iya 

va siya 

Va siya 



Gir. tamhi tamhi prakarane 

KaL [ta]gi ta&i pakalan[a]§[i] 

Shah, tasi tasi prakara[n]e 

Man. tasi tasi pakaranasi 



(E) pujetaya 
(E) pujetav[i]ya 
(E) pujetaviya 
(E) pujetaviya 



tu eva para-pasamda 

chu p[a]la-pa[£a]da 

va chu para-prasha[ihda] 

va chu para-p[r]ashada 



Gir. tena tana prakaranena 

KaL tena tena akalana 

Shah, tena tena akarena 

Man, tena tena akarena 



(/*) evam 
\F) heva 
(F) e[v]aih 
(E) evam 



karum atpa-pasaihdam 

kalata . ata-paSada 

karataih . ata-p[r]ashaihdaih 

karataih atva-pashada 



cha 

badhaih 
badham 



vadhayati 

vadhiyati 

vadheti 

■ 

vadhayati 



■ 

para-pasaihdasa 
pala-pa£ada 1 pi 

para-prashamdarhsa pi 
para-pashadasa pi 



Gir. karoto 

KaL kalata 

Shah. ka[ra]min[o] 

Man. karataih 



atpa-pasadarh 
ata-pa£ada 
ata-p[rasharhda] 
ata-pashacla 



cha 
cha 

cha 



cha 
va 
cha 
cha 

chhanati 

chhanati 

kshanati 
• 

chhanati 



upakaroti 
upakaleti 
upakaroti 
upakaroti 



(G) tad-arhnatha 
(G) tada anatha 
(G) tada anatha 
(G) tad-ariinatha 



para-pasaihdasa 
pala-pasada 
para-[pra]shadasa 
para-pashadasa 



P 1 
va 



cha 
pi 
cha 

pi cha 



Gir. apakaroti {H) 

KaL apakaleti {H) 

Shah, apakaroti (//) 

Man. apakaroti {H) 

Gir. v[a] garahati 

KaL va I ga[la]hati 
Shah. ■ garahati 

Man. va garahati 



yo hi kochi atpa-pasamdarh pujayati para-pasamdarii 

ye [h]i kechha [a]ta-pa£a<3a punati pala-pashada 

yo hi kachi ata-prashadarh pujeti [para}p[r]ashada[m] 

ye hi kechhi atva-pashada pujeti para-pasha da 



savam 
shave 
savre 
savre 



at pa-p asa riida-bh a t iy a 
at a-pash am[da]-bha t iy a 
ata-prashada-bhatiya 
atva-pashada-bhatiya 



. kiihti atpa-pasamdam 

va kiti \ ata-pashamda 1 

va kiti ata-prashaihdarh 

va kiti atva-pashada 



206 

G£r. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. 
KaL 
Skak. 
Man. 



dlpayema 
[d]ipayema 
dipayami 
dipayama 



Gtr. upahanati 

KaL ata-pashamdashi \ 

Shah, ata-prashadam 

Man. atva-pasha[da] 



iti so cha puna tatha karato atpa-pasamda[m] badhataram 

she cha puna tatha | kalamtarii | badhatale \ up[a]hamt[i] | 

ti so cha puna tatha karamtarh 1 ba[dhata]rarh upahamti 

ti .... puna tatha karatam badhataram upahamti 



(/) ta 
(/) 

(/)so 
(/) se 



dharhmam 
d ham ni aril | 
dhramo 
dhramam 



srunaru 
shune[y]u 
Sruneyu 
grun[e]y[u 



Gir, D[e]vanampiyasa ichha 

KaL Devanampiyasha Ichha 

Shah. Devanampriyasa ichha. 

Man. Devanapriyasa ichha 



samavayo eva 

shamavaye vu 

sayamo vo 

samavaye vo 



cha 
cha \ 
cha 
cha] 

kimti 
kimti 
kiti 
kiti 



susumsera 
shushusheyu 
suSrusheyu 
su5rushe[yu] 



sadhu 
shadhu 

sadhu 

sadhu 

cha 
cha 
cha 
cha 



kimti 
kiti i 
kiti 




[a]namamnasa 
aihnamanasha 
anamanasa 
anamaijasa 



til 

ti 
ti 



(y) evam 
(y) hevam 
(y) evam 
(y) evam 



hi 
hi 
hi 
hi 



sava-pasamda 
sava-pashamda I 
savra-prashamda 
savra-pashada 



bahu-sruta 
bah a- shut a 
bahu-Sruta 
bahu-£ruta 



cha 
cha 
ch[a] 
cha 



asu 



Gir. kal[a]nagama cha [a]su 

KaL kayanaga cha | huveyu ti | 

Shah. kal[ana]gama cha siyasu 

Man. kayanagama cha [hiijveyu ti 



(.ST) ye cha tatra tata prasamna 

(K) e [cha] tata t[a]t[a] \ p[a]sh[arh]na I 

(K) ye cha tatra tatra prasana 

(K) e cha tatra tatra prasana 



Gtr. tehi 1 vatavyarh 

KaL te[hi va]taviye i 

Shah. tesha[rh] vatavo 

Man. tehi vataviye 



(L) Devanampiyo no tatha danam va 

(L) Devanapiye no tatha l danam va | 

(L) Devanampriy[o] na [tatha da]na[rh va] 

(L) Devanapriye no tatha danam va 



pujam 
puja 
p[u]ja 
puja[m] 



Gtr. va 

KaL va | 

Shah, va 

Man. va 



mariinate 
marhnatp] | 
manati 
manati 



yatha 
atha 
ya[tha] 
atha 



kimti sara-vadhT asa 

kiti sh[a]la-v[a]dhi Siya | 

kiti sala-vadhi siyati 

kiti sala-vadhi . siya 



sarva-pasadanam 
shava-pashamdatim | 
savra-prashadanarh 
savra-pashada[na] 



Gtr. (M) bahaka cha 

KaL (M) bahuka ch[a] \ 

Shah. {M) bahuka cha 

Man. (M) [ba]huka cha 



etaya atha 
etayathaye \ 
etaye a[tha] . 
etaye athraye 



vyapata 
viyapata | 
vap[a]ta 
vaputa 



dhamma-mahamata cha 
dh a[m]m a-maham at a | 
dh[ra] ma-m a[h a]m atra 
dhrama-mahamatra 



Gtr. ithljhakha-mahamata cha vacha-bhumlka cha ane cha 

KaL ithidhiyakha-mahamata j vacha-bh[u]mikya | ane va 

Shah, i[stridhi]yaksha-ma[ha]matra [vra]cha-bhumika ane cha 

Man. istrijaksha-mahamatra . vracha-bh[n]mika ane cha 



nikaya 
[n]iky[a]y[a] 
nikaye 
nikay[e] 



1 The five last words are repeated thus : so cha puna tatha karatam. 



TWELFTH ROCK-EDICT 207 

Gir. (N) ayam cha etasa % phala ya atpa-pasarhda-vadhi cha hoti 

KaL (N) iyam cha etisha | phale | yam ata-pashamda- vadhi cha \ hoti 
Shah. (JV) imam cha etisa [pha]lam yam ata-pashada-vadhi [bh]o[t'f 

Man. (N) iyam cha etisa phale yam atva-pashada-vadhi cha bh[o]t[f 



Gir+ dhammasa cha dip[a]na 

KaL dhammasha cha dipanai 

Shah, dhramasa cha di[pana] 

Man. dhramasa cha [di]pana 



THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT 



Gir. {A) . . ■ . 

KaL (A) atha-[va]sha- | bhishita- 1 sha 

Shah. (A) [atha]-vasha-a[bhis]ita[sa 

Man. (A) [atha]-vashabhisita[sa] 



no 



[De]vanaihpiyasha 

Devana]pri[a]sa 

De[va]na[priyasa] 



Piyadashine | lajinei 
Pri[a]dra£isa ra[iio] 
Priyadrasine rajine 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



Kalimga 
Kaligya 
Ka[liga] 
[Ka]liga 



vyita l 

vi[j]ita 

Mjita] 



Gir. « . . . [v . dh]e 

KaL [ta]pha apavudhe [i 

Shah, tato apavudhe 

Man. .... 



(S) . . . 

(B) diyadha-mite I 
(£) diadha-mat[r]e 
[B) [di]ya[c[ha]-mat[r]e 

[sa]ta-sahasra-matram 
3a]ta-[sha]hasha-nute \ 
£ata-sahasra-matre 



pana-shat[a]-shaha[£]e | ye 
prana-5ata-[saha]sre y[e] 
prana-[£ata-sa] . 



tatra hatam bahu-tavatakam 
tata hate i bahu-tavatake i 
tatra hate bahu-tavata[ke] 



Gir. mata (C) tata pachha adh[u]na ladhesu Kalimgesu 

KaL va mate (C) tat[o pa]chha i adhuna ladhesha | Kaligyeshu i 

Shak [va] m[utej (C) tato [pa]cha a[dhu]na Iadh[e]shu [Kaligeshu] 

Man. . . [mjtjte (C) [tato] pacha . adhuna la[dhe]shu Kaligeshu 

Gir* ti[v]o dhammavayd . . . - - , . » . 

KaL tive I dhamma[vay]e dharhma-k[a]mata \ dhaihmanushathi cha | 

Shah, [tivre dhrama-£ilana] dh r a[ma-ka]m at a dhramanu^asti cha 

Man. ti[vr]e dhrama[va]ye . . . . . . [dhra]manu[£a]sti [cha] 

* 

Gir. * . . . . v . [sa]yo Devanampriyasa 

KaL Devanampiyasha I (D) sh[e] athi anushaye \ Devanampiya[sh]a i 

Shah. Devanapriyasa (D) so [a]sti anusochana Devanap[ria]sa 

Man. [De]vana[pri] . . . . (£)) - ; 

n 

Gir. [v * j -] . ' . r • ■ [va]dho 

KaL vijin[i]tu I Kaligy^ni \ (E) avijitam hi | vijinamane | e tata | vadha 

Shah, vijiniti Kaliga[ni] (J£) avijitam [hi vi]jinamano yo tat[r]a vadha 

Man. , 



208 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. 


va 


maranam 

■ 


va 1 


apavaho 


. va 


janasa 


ta 1 


badham 

* 


KaL 


va | 


malane 


va | 


apavahe 


Mi 


jan[a]sha | 


[sh]e 


badha | 


Shah. 


va 


marahath 
• 


va 


apavaho 


va 


janasa 


tarn 


badharh 


Man. 


• . 


[marane 


va 


apavahe 


va 


janasa] 


se 


[badham] 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



Gtr. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



Gtr, vedana-mata 

KaL vedaniya-mute | 

Shah. v[e]dani[ya]-ma[taih] 

Man. vedaniya-mate 



cha g[u]r[u]-mata cha 
g[u]l[u]-mut[e] cha | 
guru-mata[m] cha 
guru-mate [cha 



Deva[nampi] . . [sa] (F) . . . , 

Devanam[pi]yasha \ {F) iyarh 

Devanampriyasa (F) idaih 

Devanapriyasa] (F) [i]yarh 



Pi 
P* 
[pi] 



chu | 
chu 

chu 



tato i 
[tato] 
tato 



galu-matatale | D [e] vanarhpiy asha (G) [ya] tata 
guru-matataram [Devanam]priyasa {G) ye tatra 



. . . bamhana va samana va ane - 

vashati b[a]bhana va sham a va ane va pa£amda gih[i]tha 
vasati bramana va §rama[ija] va a[m]ne va prashathda gra[ha]tha 



va 
va 
• > 



ye£u 
yesu 
[ye]su 



vihita 
vihita 
[vihijta 



[e]sh[a] 

esha 

esha 



a[gabhu]t[i]-shushusha 

agrabhuti-suSrusha 

[a]grabhu[ti]-su£rusha 



matrp] pitari 
m[a]ta-piti- 
mata-pitushu 
mata-pi[tu]sh[u] 



susumsa 
shushusha 
suSrusha 
su[3ru]sha 



guru-susumsa 
galu-shusha 
guruna susrusha 
guru-su§rusha 



mita-samstata-sahaya-natike[su] 
mita-shamthuta-shahaya-natikeshu 
mitra-samstuta-sahaya-natikeshu 
mit[r]a-sa[ih]stu • 



dasa- 
daia- 

■ 

dasa- 



[bha] . 

bha[ta]kash[i 
bhatakanam 



sha]m[y]a-patipati 
samma-pratipa[ti] 



diclha-bhatita 
dridha-bhatita 



tesham taita 
tesha ; tatra 



hoti 
bhoti 



Gir . ; . . - . abhiratanarh va vmikhamana {H) yesam 

KaL [upa]ghate va vadhe va abhilatanam va vinikhamane {H) yesham 

Shah. [a]pag[r]atho va vadho va abhiratana va nikramanath {H) yesha 

Man* [va]dh[e] va abh[iratanaih] va vini[k]ramani {H) yesha[m] 



Gir. va [p.] • 

KaL va pi shuvihi[t]anam 

Shah, va pi suvihitanam 

Man. va pi s[u]vih[itanam] 



shinehe 

[si]ho 

si[ne]he 



avipahine 

aviprahino 

avipahin[e 



e tanam mita-£amth[u]ta- 
[e te]sha mitra-samstuta- 
e] ta[nam] mitra-[sam] . , , . 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



. . Qi]aya-natika 

sha[h]aya-[na]tikya 

sahaya-natika 



vyasanam 

viyashanarh 

vasana 



prapunati 
papunata 
prapunati 



tata so pi 
tata she [p]i 
[ta]tra tarn pi 



tesa 

t[a]namev[a] 
tesha vo 



THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT 209 

Gir. [u]paghato hati (I) patibha[g]o chesa s[ava] 

KaL upaghat[e] hoti (7) patibhage cha esh[a] sh[a]va-manu[shana]m 

Shak apaghratho bhoti (/) pratibhagaih cha [e]taih savra-manu£anam 

Man ' . . . [esha] savra-manuSanaih 



Gir. - . * . - - - , - . . • ' 

KaL gul[u]-m[a]te cha D e van a[m]p iy ash a (7) n[a]thi cha she jan[a]pade yata 

Shah, guru-mataih cha Devanampriya[sa] (7) nasti cha 

Man. guru-mate cha Devanampriyasa (y) nasti cha se janapade yatra 



Gir. ... sti ime nikaya anatra Yone[su] . . . . - . 

KaL nathi ime nikaya anata * Y[o]nesh[u] bamhmane ch[a] shamane cha 
Shah, 

Man. nasti ime ni[ka]ya a[na]tra Yoneshu [bramane cha] 6ra[mane] . . 



Gir. . . . , . . [mh]i yatra nasti manusanaih ekataramhi 

KaL nathi cha kuvapi jan[a]padashi [ya]ta n[a]thi m[a]nushan[a] | ekatalashp] 

Shalt. ekatare 

Man. . . . pi {janapada]si ya[t]ra . • , . . 



Gir. pasamdamhi na nama prasa[d]o (K) y[a]vata[k]o j[ano] 

KaL [p]i 1 pashadashi 1 no n[a]ma pashade 1 (K) she ava[ta]ke jane | 

Shah, pi prashadaspi na nama prasado {K) so yamatro [ja]no 

Man. . . , , na nama prasade (K) se yavatake jane 



Gir. [ta]d[a] - . - • - 

KaL t[a]da Kali[m]geshu | {ladheshu ha]te ch[a] mat[e] cha [ [apavudhe] 

Shak tada Kalige [ha]ta cha mut[o] cha apav[u^ha] 

Man. tada Kaligesh[u] hate cha apavudhe 



Gir. . . , . - • - . sra-bhago va garu-mat[o] 

KaL [cha 1] tato shat[e] bhage va 1 shah[a]sha-bhpge va \ aja gulu-mate 

Shah, cha tato £ata-bhage va sahasra-bhagam va [a]ja guru-matam 

Man. cha ta[to] Sata-bhage va salrasra-bhage va aja guru-ma[te] 



Gir. Devanaih 

* * ■ *• 

KaL va| Devana[m]piyastja . -. ' . . . 

Shak v[o] Devanampriyasa (Z) yo pi cha apakareyati kshamitaviya-mate va 

Man. [va] DevahapriyaJWJ (L) . . . . pa[ka] . v . [mi]tavi . . . • 



Gir. . . , na ya saka chhamitave (M) ya cha pi afaviyo 

K.aL * * • ■ * • * . m • * #■ ■ • 

Shah. Devanamp[r]iyasa yam Sako kshamanaye (M) ya pi cha atavi 

Man. . . . . , . ... (M) . . [pi cha] atavi 



Gir. D[e]vanampiya[sa] pijite pati . . . - ... • - 

KaL * . . * - • . # . * . • • * • * 

Shah, Devanampriyasa vijite bhoti ta pi anuneti anunijapeti 

Man. Devanapriyasa vijitasi hoti [ta] pi a[nuna]ya[ti a]nu[nijha]paya[ti] 

i«* e e 



2IO 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah, 
Man. 



. ♦ chate te[sa]ih D e vanampiyasa 



{N) anutape pi 
(N) [anu]tape pi 



cha 
cha 



prabhave Devanampriyasa 
prabhave Devanapriyasa 



vuchati tesha 
vuchati [tejsha 



kiti 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



* . . . . [ney]u 
avatrapeyu na cha [ha]ihneyasu 



{O) ichha 
(O) ichhati 
{O) . chha 



. sava- 

. . . sha[va]- 

hi D [e]vanampr iyo savra- 
■ vanapri[y .] . . 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



bhutanam achhatirii cha sayamam cha samachairarh ch[a] madava cha 

[bhu] [shayama shamacha]liya[m] madava ti 

bhutana akshati sa[rii]yamam sama[cha]riyaih ] rabhasiye 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



in • ■ 

(P) iyaih vu 
(P) ayi cha 



mu , • 

mukha-mut[a] 

[mukha]-mute 



vijaye 
v[i]jaye 



Devanaihpiyesha ye dha[m]ma- 
Devanampriya[sa] yo dhrama- 
D[e]vanapriyasa ye dhrama- 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



vijaye (Q) sh[e] cha 
vijayo {Q) so cha 
vijaye (Q) se cha 



puna 
puna 
[puna] 



[la]dh[o] 
ladhe 
ladho 
la[dh]e 



* * ■ * 



nampnyasa 
Devana[mp]i . . 
Devanaihpriyasa 
[Deva]napri[ya]sa 



idha 



iha 
hida 



cha 
cha 
cha 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah* 
M$m. 



[sa]vesu 
shaveshu 
saveshu 
sa[vr]eshu 



[<*.] 

cha 
cha 
cha 



4 

ateshu a 
amteshu [a] 
amteshu a 



shashu 
shashu 
shashu 



pi [yo]jana-shateshu at[a] 
pi yojana-6a[t]eshu yatra 
pi y[o]ja[na-3a]t[e]shu . . . 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shaft. 
Man. 



Atiyoge 
Amtiyoko 
. . tiyo[ge 



nam[a] 

nania 

nama 



\r* 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



chatparo 
chatali 4 
chature 4 



rajano 
lajane 
rajani 



[Yo]na-raja 
Yo[na-la] . ; 
Y[d]na-raja. 
Yo]na{raja] 

Turamayo 
Tulamaye 
Turamaye 



param 

[pajam 

param 



cha tena 

cha tena A[ih]tiyogena 
cha tena Atiyok[e]na 



cha 

[na]m[a] 
nama 



[A]mt[ek]ina 
Amteki[ne 
Amtikini 
Amt[e] . , . . 



cha - 
na]ma 
nama 
[nama 



Maga 
Maka 
Maka 
Ma]ka 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



cha . . 
nama 
nama 
na[ma] 



Alikyashudale 

AUkasudaro 

AHkasudare 



nama 
nama 
nama 



nkfiarh 

nicha 

nicha 



Choda-Pamdiya 
Choda-Parhda 

• ft 

Choda-Pamdiya 



avam 

ava 

a 



Gir. 
KaL 
Shah. 
Man. 



Tambapamniya 
Ta[m]bapam[ni]ya 
Tamb ap a[m]niya 



hevamev[a] 



(R) hevameva 
(R) [e]vameva 
(K) evameva 



idha raja~vi[sa]yamhi 

[hi]da Ia[ja]-vi£avashi 

[hi]da raja-vishavaspi 

[hida] raja-vishava[si] 



THIRTEENTH ROCK-EDICT an 

■ + 

Gir* [Y]o[na}Kambo . ■ V • 

KaL Yona- Kamboj eshu Nabhak[a]- Nabhapam tishu Bhoj a- Pitinikye[sh]u 

Shah. Yona-Ka[m]boyeshu Nabhaka-Nabhitina Bhoja-Pitinikeshu 

Man. Y[o]na-Kam[bojeshu] Nabhaka-[Na]bhapa[m]tishu [Bh]o[j a-Pi]tini[ke]shu 

Gir. . mdhra- Parirhdesu savata Devanampiyasa dhaihmanus[a]stirh 

KaL [Adha]-P[a]lade[sh]u [sha]vata [D]eva[na]mpi[ya]sha dhaihmanu[sha]thi 

Shah. Amdhra-Palideshii savatra Devanampriyasa dhramanuSasti 

Man. Adha-[Pa] . . . . . . ' ' 

— - — 

i ■ 

Gir* anuv[a]tare (S) yata pi duti , . . . * 

KaL anuvatamti {S) y[a]ta pi duta Devana[mp]iyasa no yamti t[e] pi 

Shah, anuvatamti (S) yatra pi Devanampriyasa duta na vrachamti te pi 

Man. . « . . . (S) [yatra pi du]ta [De]vanapriyaga na yamti te pi 

Gir. : . . . . . . . . [na > dta— ** 

KaL sutu Dev[ana]rhp[i]namya dh[amma]-vutam v[i]dh[a]na[m] dhammanusa[th]t 

Shah, irutu Devanampriyasa dhrama-vutam vidh[a]nam dhramanu£asti 

Man. Srutu Devanapriyasa dhrama-vuta vidhana[ih] dhramanu&asti 

Gir. cha dhamam anuvidhiyare , 



KaL dha[m]ma[ih] anuvidhiyarha [a]nuvidhiyisama [ch]a {T) ye se 

Shah. dhramaih [a]nuvidhiyarhti anuvidhiyifiam[ti] cha (T) yo [sa] 

Man. dhra[ih]ma[ih] anuvidhiyamti [a]nuvidhiy[i£aihti cha] (7) [ye se] 



Gir, [ v ]ij a y° savatha puna vijayo 



KaL [la]dhe etakena hoti savata vi[ja]ye 

Shah, ladhe etakena bho[ti] savatra vijayo sava[tra] pu[na] vijayo 
Man. ladhe e[ta]ke[na ho]ti savra[tra] vi[jaye] ... 



Gir. piri-raso sa (If) ladha sa plfi hoti dhamma-vijayamhi 

KaL piti-lase se (if) gadha sa hoti piti piti dharhm[a]-vijayashi 

Shah, priti-raso so {U) ladha bh[oti] priti dhrama-vijayaspi 

Man 



Gir. , . . m 

KaL {V) lahuka y[u] kho sa piti {W) palamtikyameve * maha-phala 

Shah. (V) lahuka tu kho sa priti (Z^) paratri[ka]meva maha-phala 

Man. ■ . . . {W) paratrikameva maha-phala 



Gir. . , . . ih[p]riyo (X) eta[ya atha]ya ayam dhamma- 

KaL mamnam[ti] Dev[e]nam[pi]ne (X) etaye cha athaye iyam dha[m]ma- 

Shak mfenati Devana[m]priyo (X) etaye cha af haye ayi dhrama- 

Man. [ma]nati De[va]napri[ye] (X) e[ta]ye cha [a]thray[e] iyam dhramma- 



Gir. [1] , . . . • . . • . [va]m vijayam ma 

KaL lipi likhita kiti puta papota me a[su] nava[m] yijay[a] ma 



Shah, dipi nipi[sta] kiti putra papotra me asu navam vijayam' ma 
Man. dipi li[khi]ta kiti putra prap[o]tra me a[su] nava[m] vp]. . . . 

e e 2 



212 



SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 



Gir. vijetavyam mamna sarasake eva vijaye chhati cha . "■ * 

KaL vijayatavlya manishu shayakashi no vi[ja]yashi khamti cha laihu- 

Shak. vijetav[i]a manishu spa[kaspi] yo vijay[e -kshamjti cha lahu- 

r Man. .... [tavfjyarh manpshu saya] . * : . . * . ' . 

Gir. . 

KaL damdata [cha] lochetu tameva cha vijayam manatu ye 

Shah. da[m]data cha rochetu tarn cha yo vija mana[tu] yo 

Man. . . . , ■ 1 ■ . 

Gir. . . . . . * kik[o] ch[a pa]r[alo]ki[ko] . . 

KaL dhamma-vijaye (Y) she hidalokikya palalokiye (-2) shava 

Shah, dhrama-vijayo (Y) so hidalokiko paralokiko (2) sava- 

Man (K) . , hidaloke paralokike (Z) sava 

Gir. . . '. . . . . . . • . * - . 

cha ka nilati hot[u] uyama-lati (AA) sha. hi 

Shah, chati-rati bhotu ya [dh]ramma-rati (-4-4) sa hi 

Man. cha [ka] nirati hotu ya dhrama-rati {AA) sz hi 

■ '. r 

t .■■ ■ 

Cr^V. ilokika cha paralokika cha 

KaL hi[da]lokika pa[la]lokikya 
Shah, hidalokika paralokika 
Man. [i]aloki[ka] paraloki[ka] 



FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICT 

■ 

Gir. (A) ayam dhamma-Iipi Devanampriyena Priyadasina r[a]na 

KaL {A) iyam dhama-lipi Dev[anamp]i[y]e[n]a [P]iyadasina lajina 

Shah. {A) ayi dhrama-dipi Devanampriyena Pri6i[na] rafia 

Man. (A) [i]yam dhrama-dipi De[va]napriyena Pri[ya] [j* na ] 

Dhau. (A) iyam dharhma-Kpi De[v]anampiyena Piyada[sin]a lajpna] 

■ 

■■ 

Gir. l[e]khapita asti eva samkhit[e]na asti majhamena asti vistatana 
KaL likhapita athi yeva sukhitena [a]thi majhimena - athi vithatena 
Shah, nipesapita asti vo samkshitena asti yo vistritena 
Man. [likhapita] . - . - - - * • • • • - 

Dhau. [likha] , ... ' . . . ; athi majjhimena] . 
Jau. . . . . .. .. . - [ma]jhime[na] ath[i] vithatena 

Gir. (B) na cha sarvam [sa]rvata ghatitam (C) mahalake hi vijitam 

KaL (B) no hi savata save [gha]tite (C) mahalake hi vijite 

Shah. {B) na hi savatra sasavre gatite (C) mahalake hi vijite 

Man. . . - . . ... . . . 

Dhau. [B) . . [h]i save sav[a]ta ghatite {€) mahamte hi vijaye 

Jau. (B) [no] hi save savata ghatite (C) mahamte hi vijaye 



FOURTEENTH ROCK-EDICT 



213 



Gir. bahu cha 
KaL bahu cha 
Shah, bahu cha 

Man . 

Dhau* bahu[k]e cha 
Jan. 



likhitam 

likhite 

Hkhite 

[likhite 

likhite 



likhapayisaih 
lekhapefiami 
Iikha[p]e£ami 
Kkha]pe[£a]mi 
Hkhiyis . 



cheva 
cheva 
cheva 
che[va] 



(D) asti cha 
nikyarh (D) athi cha 
(Z>) asti chu 
(D) [asti chu] 
(D) [a]thi . . 



ni . . . 



Gin eta karh puna 

KaL heta puna 

Skak. atra puna 

Man. [a]tra puna 

Dhau. . „ , 



puna 
pun[a] 
puna 
puna 



vutam 

Ia[p]it[e] 

[la]pitarh 

la[pite] 

[vujte 



tasa 

tasha 

tasa 

tasa 

ta[sa] 



tasa 
tasha 
tasa 
ta[sa] 



athasa 
athasha 
[ajthasa 
a[thra]sa 



madhurataya 
madhuliyaye 
madhuriyaye 
[madhu]riyaye 

• [yMe] 

[sa] madhuliyaye 



Gir. 


kimti 


■ 


jano 


tatha 


patipajetha 








tatra 


KaL 


yena 




jane 


tatha 


patipajeya 


(E) she 


shaya 




ata 


Shah. 


ye[na] 




jana 


tatha 


patipajeyati 


(B) so 


siya 


va 


atra 


Man. 


[yejna 




jane 


ta[tha] 


patipaje[ya]ti 


(£) se 


[si]ya 




atra 


Dhau. 


[k]iihti 


cha 


j[a]ne 


tatha 


patipajeya ti 




P* 


chu 


heta 


yau. 


kimt[i] 


cha 


jane 


tatha 


patipajeya ti 


{£) e 


pi 


chu 


heta 



Gir. ekada 

KaL k[i]chhi 

Shah, kiche 

Man. ki[chhi] 
Dhau. 

yau. 



asamat[a]ih Kkhita[m] asa 
asamati likhite 
asamatam likhitam 
. . . [t]i likhi[t.] 
asamati Hkhite s] , - 



desam va sachhaya [ka]ranam va 

disha va shamkheye kalanam va 

defiam va sathkhay[a] karana va 

. . . . va [samkha]ya , 

. . sam * . [lochay]itu 



Gir* [a]Iochetpa lipikaraparadhena va 
KaL alochayitu 1 i [p]i kal ap al adhena va 
Shah, alocheti dipikarasa 



va aparadhena 



Man. 

Dhau. 

yau. 



k[a]l[a] . . 



II. THE TWO SEPARATE ROCK-EDICTS 



FIRST SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT 

Dhau. (A) [Devana]rh[pi]y[asa vacha]nena Tosaliyam ma[ha]mata 

y&u> (A) Dev[a]nampiye he[va]m [a]ha (B) Sam[a]payam mahamata 



Dhau. [naga]Ia-[v]i[yo]halak[a va]taviya (B) [am kichhi dakha]mi 

yau. [na]gala-viyohalaka hefvaih va]tav[i]y[a] (Q am kichhi dakhami 



Dhau. hakam tarn ichhami. k[i]m[t]i kam[mana pa]ti[paday]eham 

yau. ha[ka]m [tarn] ichham[i k]imt[i karii kamana pa]tipatayeham 



214 SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 

Dkau. duvalate cha alabheharh (C) esa cha me mokhya-mata duva[Ia] 
Jau. duvalate cha alabheham (D) es[a] cha me mokhiya-mata duvalam 

Dkau. [etasi athajsi am tuph[esu] anusathi (D) tuphe hi bahusu pana- 
Jau* a[m] tuphesu anusathi (£) phe hi bahusu pana- 

Dkau. sahasesum a[yata] p[a]na[yam ga]chh[e]ma su munisanam 
Jau. sahasesu [a]ya[ta] p[a]na[yam] gachhema [su] m[u]n[i]s[a]na[ih] 

Dkau. (£) save mutiise paja mama (F) ath[a] pajaye ichhami h[a]ka[m] 
Jau. (F) sava-mu[n]a me paja {£*) atha pa[ja]ye ichham[i] 

T 

Dkau. [kimti sa]ve[na hi]ta-sukhena hidalo[kika]-palalokike[na] y[ujev]u 

yau. [kim]t[i] me savena hita-sukhena y[u]jeyQ ti hi[dal]o[g]ik[a]-palalokikena 

Dkau. [t]i [tatha . . . , muni]sesu pi [i]chhami [ha]ka[m] (G) no cha 

yau. [he]meva me ichha sava-munis[e]su (//) no chu tu[phe] 

Dkau. papunatha av[a]-ga[m]u[k]e [iyaih athe] (//) [k]e[chha] v[a] eka- 

Jau. . [e]tam [p]a[p]unatha ava-gamu[k]e [i]yam ath[e] (/) kecha eka- 

Dhau. puli[se] .... nati e[ta]m se pi desam no savam (I) de[kha]t[a hi] 
yau. [muni]s[e] pa[p]unati se pi desam no savam (y) dakhatha hi 

■ 

j m 

Dkau. [t]u[phe] etaih suvi[hi]ta pi , {y) [n]itiyam eka-pulise [pi athi] y[e] 
yau. [tuphe] pi suvita [p]i (K) bahuka athi ye eti eka-munise 

Dkau. bamdhanam va p[a]iikilesaih va papunati {K) tata hoti akasma 
yau. ba[m]dhanam pali[kile]saih [p]i papunati (L) tata [ho]t[i aka]sm[a] 



Dkau. tena badhana[m]ttk[a] amne cha hu jane da[v]iye. 

yau. ti ten[a] badhana[rh]ti[ka anye] cha [va]ge bahuke 



Dkau. dukhTyati (L) tata ichhitaviye tuphehi kimti m[a]jham patipadayema 
yau. vedayati (M) tata tuphe[hi ichhi]taye kimti majham [pa]tipatayem[a] 



Dkau. ti (M) imeh[i] chu [jateh]i no sampatipajati isaya asulopena 

yau. (JV) imehi jate[hi] no [pa]tipa[ja]ti i[s]a[ya] asulopena 

Dkau. ni[thu]liyena tulanafya] anavutiya alasiyena k[i]lamathena 

yau! [ni]thu[Ii]ye[na] t[ul]aya [a]na[v]uti[ya ala]s[y]e[na ki]lamath[e]na 



Dkau, (N) se ichhitaviye kitim ete [jata no] huvevu ma[m]a 
yau. (O) hevam ichhit[a]vi[y]e kimti me et[a]ni jata[ni n]o hveyu 



Dkau. ti (O) etasa cha sava[sa] mule anasulope a[tu]I[a]na cha 

yau. ti {F) savasa chu iyam mfl[le] a[n]a[s]u[lo]p[e atulana] cha 



Dkau. (F) niti[ya]m e kilamte siya [na] te uga[chha] 

yau. (0 ni[tiya]rh [e]y[am k]il[amt]e [siya].... samchalitu uthay[a] 

■ 



FIRST SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT 215 

Dhau. samchalitaviy[e] tu va[t]ita[v]iy[e] etaviye va (£?) hevammeva 

?au. samchalitavye tu v[a]titaviya [pi] etaviye pi nit[i]yam (R) eve 

Dhau. e dapcheya] t[u]phak[a] tena" vataviye anaifane dekhata 

Jan. . dakh[e]ya * ana[ih]ne nijhap[e]ta[vi]ye 

* 

Dhau. hevam cha hev[a]ih cha [D]evanaihpiyasa anusathi (/?) se 

Jail. heva[ih hevam] cha Devanam[p]i[ya]sa an[u]sa[thi ti] (S) [eta]m 

. — M J| _ 

Dhau. mah[a-pha]le [e] t[a]sa [sampa]tipada maha-apaye asampatipati 
yau. [sampatipa]ta[yaih]tam maha-phale hoti asampatipati mahapay[e] hoti 

Dhau. (S) [vi]pat[i]padayamme hi etam nathi svagasa [a]l[a]dhi no Iaj[a]la[dh]i 
Jau. (T) vipatipatayamtam no svag[a]-aladhi no lajadhi 

F 1 ' 

1 

Dhau. {T) dua[ha]le hi i[ma]sa kamm[asa] m[e] kute man[o]-atileke 
yau. {U) du[a]hale etasa [karh]masa sa me k[u]t[e ma]n[o-ati]Ie[ke] 

Dhau. (U) sa[m]patipajam[i]n[e] chu [etam] svaga[ih] aladha[yi]sa[tha] 
yau. (V) [etam sampatipajamlne mama] cha ananeyam esatha 

Dhau. [mama cha a]naniyam ehatha {V) iyam cha l[i]p[i] t[i]sa-na[kha]tena 
yau. svagam cha ala[dha]yisa[th]a {TV) iyam cha li[p]E anutisaih 

■ 

Dhau. so[ta]viy[a] ( W) amta[l]a [p]i cha [t]i[s]e[na kha]nasi kha[nas]i 

yau* sot[a]v[i]ya (X) [a]la [p]i kha[ne]na sota[vi]ya 

. ^ _ ' ■ ( 

Dhau. ekena pi sotaviya (X) hevaih cha kalaihtam tuphe chaghatha 

yau. ek[a]k[e]na pi (Y) . m[i]ne ch[aghatha] 

Dhau. sampa[ti]pad[a]y[i]tave ( Y) [e]t[a]ye athaye iya[m l]i[p]i likhit[a h]ida ena 
yau. ' . . . . . • tave {Z) etaye cha ath[a]ye iyam [li]khita p]ipi ena 

Dhau. nagala-vi[y]o[ha]laka sas[v]ataih samayam yujevu t[i] ... 

yau. mahamata nagalaka sa[s]vata[m] sama[ya]ih [etam] yu[j]ey[u] t[i] ena 



Dhau. . . [na]sa akasma [pa]libodhe va [a]k[a]sma paliki[l]e[s]e va no siya 
yau. [muni]s[a]nath [a] ..... ne [pal]i[k]t 

\ 1 , * 

Dhau. ti (Z) etaye cha athaye haka[m] . • . . mate p[a]mchasu pamchasu 
yau. . . . . ye [pa]mchasu pamchasu 



Dhau. [va]sesu [n]i[kha]may[i]sami e akhakhase a[cham]d[e] 

yau. va[sesu] anu[sa]yanam nikhama[y]isami mahamata[m] achaihda[m] 

■ 

Dhau. s[a]khinalaihbhe hosati etam atham janitu [ta]tha kala[rh]ti 

yau. aphal[usa]m ta . . . - . . . - . - ■". . . • 



Dhau. atha mama anusathi ti {A A) Ujenite pi chu kumale etaye v[a] 

y Qflt. urn . . m . • ■ * pi kumale [v] . . ta 



2i6 SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 

Dkau. athaye [ni]khama[yisa] hedisameva vagarh no cha atikamayisati 

Jau. . , . m[ayi] . . . , \ 

Dhmi. timni vasani (BB) hemeva T[a]kha[s]ilate pi {CC) [a]da a 

7«»- • - • • [la]t[e} 



Dkau. te mahamata nikhamisaihti anusayanath tada ahapayitu atane 
Jau. vachanik[a] ada [anusa]yanam n[ikha]mi[saih]ti a[ta]ne 

Dkau. kammam etam pi janisamti tarn pi ta[th]a kalamti 

J mi. ka[mma]m [yitu tarn pi tatha] kalamti 

D/tau. a[tha] lajine anusathl ti 

Jau. [atha] - : 

SECOND SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT 

Dkau. (A) Devanampiyas[a] vachanena Tosaliyariv kumale mahamata cha 
Jau. (A) Devanarhpiye hevaih a[ha] {B) Samapayam mahamata 

Dhau. * vataviya (£) am kichhi dakhamp] h[akam tarn i] . . . . 

Jau. l[a]ja-vachanik[a] vataviya {€) am kichhi dakh[a]mi hakam tarn i[chh]ami 



Dkau ■ - duvalate cha alabheham (C) 

Jau. hakam k[im]ti kam kamana patipatayeharh duva[la]te cha alabheham {D) esa 

Dkau. cha me mokhya-mata duvala etasi athasi am tuphe[s]u . . . , 

Jau. cha me mokhiya-mat[a] duval[a] etasa a[tha]sa a[m] t[uph]esu anusa[thi] 

Dkau, , - . . mama (JS) ath[a] pajaye ichhami hakam ki[m]ti 

Jau. {E) sava-munisa me paja {F) atha pajay[e] ichhami kimti me 

Dkau. savena hi[ta-sukhe]na hidalokika-palalokikaye yujevii ti 

Jau. savena hita-su[kh]ena yu[je]yu 1 ti hidalogika-palaloki[k]e[na] 

Dkau. h[e]v[am] - . , . , . (F) siya amtanarh avijitanam 

Jau. hevaih me va me ichha sava-munisesu (G) siya amtanarh [a]vijitanam 

Dkau. ki-chha[mde] su laja [aphesu] . ♦ (G) , * , . mfajva ichha mama arhtesu 

Jau. kim-chharhde su laja aphesu ti (H) etaka [va] me ichha [a]rhtesu 

Dkau. . . . i [p]a[p]unevu te iti Devanaihppy] , [anu]v[i]g[ina] mamaye 

Jau. papuneyu laja hevaih ichh[a]ti anu[v]i[g]ina hve[yu] 

Dkau. huvevu ti asvasevu cha sukhammeva lahevu mamat[e] 

Jau. mamiyaye [a]svaseyu cha me sukhaih[m]ev[a] cha lahey[u] mamate 



Dkau. no dukha[m] h[e]va[rh] . . . un[e]vu iti khamisati ne 

Jau. [n]o kha[m] hevaih cha papuneyu kha[m]i[sa]ti ne 

1 The last eight words are repeated thus : [a\tha pajaye ichhami Hm\ti\ m[e] savena hita- 
sukk\e\na yujeyu. 



SECOND SEPARATE ROCK-EDICT 217 

Dhau. Devanampiye [aph]aka ti e chakiye khamitave mama nimitam [va] 

Jau* laja e s[a]kiye khamitave mamam nimitam 

Dhau. cha dhammarh chalevu hidaloka palaloka[m] cha 

Jau* cha dhammajm] chaley[u] ti hida!og[aih] cha palalogam cha 

Dhau* aladhayevu {H) etasi athasi haka[rh] anusasami tuphe 

yau. aladhayey[u] (/) etaye cha athaye hakam tupheni anusasami 

Dhau. ana[n]e [e]takena hakam anusasitu chhamdam cha veditu 

yau 9 ana[ne etajkena [ha]kam tupheni a[nu]sasitu chhaihda[rh cha] vedi[t]u 

Dhau. a [hi] dhi[t]i patimna cha mama [a]jala (/) s[e] hevam katu 

Jau* a mama dhiti patimna cha achala {J) *sa hevam [ka]tu 

Dhau. kamme chal[i]t[a]v[i]ye asv[asa] ♦ [cha] tani ena 

yau. k[am]me [cha]litaviye asvasa[n]iya ch[a] te en[a] te 

Dhau* papunevu iti atha pita tatha Devanampiy[e] aphaka atha cha 

Jau. papuneyu a[th]a pita [h]evarh [n]e laja ti atha 

Dhau. atanam hevam Devanampiye [a]nukampati aphe atha cha paja 

yau. [a]tanam anukampatfi he]vam a[ph]eni anuka[mpa]ti atha paja 

+ 

Dhau. hevam may[e] D [e] vanampiyasa (y) se hakam anusasitu [chha]rhda[m] 

Jan. hevam [may]e la[j]ine (J£) tupheni hakam anusasita [chh]aihdam j 

i 

Dhau. ch[a veditu tu]phak[a] desavutike 

yau, [cha v]e[di]ta [a ma]ma dhiti pati[m]na cha achala [saka]la-desa-ay[ut]ike 

Dhau. hosami etaye athaye {K) patibala hi tuph[e] asvasanaye hita- 

Jau* hosami et[a]si [a]thas[i] (Z) [a]lam [h]i tuphe asvasa[na]ye hi[ta]- 

Dhau. sukhaye cha [tesa] hidalokika-p£lalo[ki]kaye {£) hevam cha 

yau. sukhaye [cha te]sa[m] hida!ogi[ka]-p[a]lal[o]ki[k]a[y]e (M) hevam cha 

Dhau. kalamtam tuphe svagarh aladha[yi]satha mama ch[a] ananiyaih 

yau. kalamtam * svaga[m cha a]Iadhayisa[tha] mama cha ana[n]eyam 



Dhau. ehatha (M) etaye cha athaye iyam lipi likhita hida e[na] 
yau. es[a]tha (N) etaye cha a[th]aye i[ya]m lipi li[kh]i[ta hi]da e[na] 



Dhau* [ma]hamata svasata[m sa]ma yujisamti as[va]s[a]naye dharhma- 
yau. [ma]h[a]mata sasvatam samam yujeyu asvasanaye cha dhamma- 

Dhau. chala[n]aye cha tes[a] amtanam (N) iyam cha lipi [anu]chatummasam 
yau* chala[na]ye [cha] arhta[na]rh (O) iyam cha lipi a[nu]ch [a] t u rh[m]a s am 

■ ■ 

Dhau. tisena nakhatena sotaviya (O) kamam chu [kha]ijas[i] khanasi 
yau. s[ota]viya tisena (P) aihta[la] pi cha sotaviya 

law F f - 



2i8 SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 

i 

Dhau. arhtala pi tisena ekena [p]i [so]taviya (P) hevam kala[m]tam 
Jan* (Q) khane samtam eke[na] pi [sota]v[i]ya (R) hevajm] cha [ka]lam[ta]m 

Dkau* [tjuphe chaghatha sampatipadayitave 
Jan. chaghatha saihpatipatayit[av]e 

III. THE SIX PILLAR-EDICTS 

* ■ T 

FIRST PILLAR-EDICT 

Top. (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (&) saduvlsati-vasa-abhisitena 

Ar. (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) saduvisati-vasabhisitena 

Nand. (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam a[ha] (£) saduvisati-vasabhisitena 

RSm. {A) Devanampiye P[i]yadasi laja heva aha (£) saduvisati-vasabhisitena 

AIL (A) Devanampiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha {&) saduvisati-vasabhisitena 

Top. me . iyaih dhamma-lipi likhapita (C) hidata-palate dusampatipadaye 

Ar. me iyaih dhamma-li[p]i likhapita (C) hidata-palate dusampatipadaye 

Nmid* me iyarh dhamma-lipi likhapita (C) hidata-palate dusampatipadaye 

Ram. me iyam dhamma-lipi likhapita (C) hidata-palate dusampatipadaye 

AIL y me iyaih dhamma-lipi likhapita {C) hidata-palate dusaihpatipada[y]e 

Top. amnata agaya dhamma-kamataya agaya palikhaya agaya su[su]saya 

Ar. amnata agaya dhamma-kamataya agaya palikhay[a] agaya sususaya 

Nand. amnata agaya dhamma-kamataya agaya palikhaya agaya sususaya 

Ram. amnata agaya dhamma-kamataya agaya palikhaya agaya sususaya 

AIL amnata agaya dhamma-kamataya agaya palikhaya agaya sususaya 

Top. agena bhayena agena usahena (D) esa chu kho mama anusathiya 

Ar. agena bhayena agena usahena (Z?) esa chu kho mama anusathiya 

Nand. agena bhayena agena usahena (Z?) esa chu kho mama anusathiya 

Ram. agena bhayena agena usahena (D) esa chu kho mama anusathiya 

AIL agena bhayena a[g]ena usahena {D) esa chu kho mama anusathi[y]a 

a 

Top. dhammapekha dhamma-kamata cha suve suve vadhita vadhisati cheva 

Ar. dhammapekha dhamma-kamata cha suve suve vadhita vadhisati cheya 

Nand* dhammapekha dhamma-kamata cha suve suve vadhita vadhisati cheva 

Ram. dhammapekha dhamma-kamata cha suve suve vadhita vadhisati cheva 

All* dhammapekha dhamma-kamata cha suve suve vadhita vadhisati ch[e]va 



Top. (Z?) pulisa 


pi 


cha me 


ukasa 


cha 


gevaya 


cha 


majhima 


cha 


Ar. {E) pulisa 


P 1 


me 


ukasa 


cha 


gevaya 


cha 


majhima 


cha 


Nand. (£) pulisa 


pi 


me 


ukasa 


cha 


gevaya 


cha 


majhima 


cha 


Ram. (E) pulisa 


Pi 


me 


ukasa 


cha 


gevaya 


cha 


majhima 


cha 


AIL {E) pulisa 


Pi 


me 


ukasa 


cha 


gevaya 


cha 


majhima 


cha 



\ 



Top, anuvidhlyamti s ampati paday am ti cha alam chapalam samadapayitave 

Ar* * anuvidhlyamtl sampatipadayamti cha alam chapalam samadapayitave 

Nand. anuvidhlyamti sampatipadayamti cha alam chapalam samadapayitave 

Ram. anuvidhlyamti sampatipadayamti cha alam chapalam samadapayitave 

AIL anuvidhlyamti sampatipadayamti cha alam chapalam samadapayitave 



FIRST PILLAR-EDICT 



219 



Top. (F) 



4 

amta-mahamata pi (G) esa hi vidhi ya iyaih dhammena 



Mzr. . ' . . . . . , . . . . 

Ar. (F) hemeva amta-mahamata pi {G) esa hi vidhi ya 

Nand. (F) hemeva amta-mahamata pi (G) esa hi vidhi ya 

Ram. (F) hemeva amta-mahamata pi {G) esa hi vidhi ya 

AIL (F) heihmeva amta-mahamata pi (G) esfi hi vidhi ya 



lyam 
iyaih 
iyath 
[i]yam 



dhammena 
dhammena 
dhammena 
dhammena 



Top. 
Mzr. 

w 

Ar. 

Nand, 

Ram. 

A. II. P 



palana dhammena 
. . , . [nam] dhammen[a] 
palana dhammena 
palana dhammena 
palana dhammena 
palana dhammena 



* * 



op. gob 
Mzr. 
Ar. 
Nand. 
Ram. 
AIL 



ti 



gott ti 

goti ti 

goti ti 

feutj [ti 



cha] 



vidhane 

v[i]dh[ane] 

vidhane 

vidhane 

vidhane 

vidhane 



dhammena 
dha[me] . 
dhammena 
dhammena 
dha[m]m[e]na 
ariimena 





1 


■ 


V 



sukhiyana dhammena 



dhammena 
dhammena 
dhammena 
dhammena 



suioiLijyana 
sukhiyana 
sukhiyana 
sukhiyana 



SECOND PILLAR-EDICT 



°1 
Mzr. 

Ar. 

Nand. 

Raw. 

AIL 



(A) Devanampiye 
(A) De[va]n[a]mpiye 
(A) Devanampiye 
(A) Devanampiye 
(A) Devanampiye 
(A) Devanampiye 



Piyadasi laja 

Piyadasi laja 

Piyadasi laja 

Piyadasi laja 

Piyadasi laja 

Piyadasi laja 



hevam 

[hevarh 

hevam 

hevam 

hevam 

hevam 



aha 
a]., 
aha 
aha 

■ 

aha 
aha 



(B) dhamme 
(B) dh[am]me 
(B) dhamme 
(B) dhamme 
(B) dhamme 
(B) dhamme 



sadhu 

s[a]dh[u] 

sadhu 

sadhu 

sadhu 

sadhu 



Top. 

Mir. 

Ar. 

Nand. 

Ram. 

AIL 



kiyam 

k[iya]m 

kiyam 

kiya 

kiyam 



chu 
■ * . 
chu 
chu 
chu 
chu 



dhamme ti 

. . [m]e ti 

dhamme ti 

dhamme ti 

dhamme ti 

dhamme ti 



(C) apasinave 
(Q a[pa]sinave 
(C) apasinave 
(C) apasinave 
(C) apasinave 
(C) apasinave 



bahu 
bahu 
bahu 
bahu 
bahu 
bahu 



kayane 
kayane 
kayane 
kayane 
kayane 
kayane 



daya 
daya 
daya 
daya 
daya 
daya 



dane 
dane 
dane 
dane 
dane 
dane 



sache 
sache 
sache 
sache 
sache 
sache 



Top. 

Mzr. 

Ar. 

Nand. 

Ram. 

AIL 



sochaye 
sochaye 
sdcheye 
socheye 
socheye 
sochaye 



ti 
ti 
ti 



(P) 



chakhu-dane 

[chakhu-dajna 

chakhu-dane 

chakhu-dane 

chakhu-dane 

chakhu-dane 



P* 

[pi 

Pi 
pi 

Pi 
pi 



me 

me] 

me 

me 

me 

me 



bahuvidhe 
bahuvidhe 
bahuvidhe 
bahuvidhe 
bahuvidhe 
bahuvidhe 



dimne 
dimne 
dimne 
dimne 
dimne 
dimne 



chatupadesu 

ch[a]tu[pa]desu 

chatupadesu 

chatupadesu 

chatupadesu 

chatupadesu 



op. 
Mzr. 
Ar. 
Nand. 
Ram. 
AIL 



pakhi-valichalesu 

pakhi-va!ichale[su 

pakhi-valichalesu 

pakhi-valichalesu 

pakhi-valichalesu 

pakhi-valichalesu 

Ff 



vividhe 
viv]i[dhe 
vividhe 
vividhe 
vividhe 
vividhe 
2 



me anugahe 
me anu]gahe 
me anugahe 
me . anugahe 
me anugahe 
me anugahe 



05) 

(2) 

kate 
* 

kate 

kate 

kate 
■ 

kate 

m 

kate 



dupada- 

du[pa]da- 

dupada- 

dupada- 

dupada- 

dupada- 



a 
a 
a 
a 
a 
a 



pana- 
pana- 
pana- 
pana- 
pana- 
pana- 



220 SYNOPTICAL TEXTS 

Top. dakhinaye (F) amnani pi cha me bahuni kayanani katani (G) etaye 

Mir. dakhinaye (F) a[rh]nani pi cha me bah[ani kayanani] katani (£r) etaye 

Ar. dakhinaye (F) a[rh]narii pi cha me bahuni kayanani katani (G) etaye 

Nand. dakhinaye (F) amnani pi cha me bahuni kayanani katani (G) etaye 

Ram. dakhinaye (F) amnani pi cha me bahuni kayanani katani (G) etaye 

AIL dakhinaye §F) amnani pi cha me bahuni kayanani katani (G) etaye 

. .. . . .. . . ..... * 

Top. me athaye iyarh dhamma-lipi likhapita hevarh anupatipajathtu chilarii- 

Mir. me athaye iyarii dhamma-lipi li[khapita] anupatipajamtu chil[aih]- 

Ar. me athaye iyarii dhama-lipi likhapita hevam anupatipajamtu chilaih- 

Nand. me athaye iyam dhamma-lipi likhapita hevam anupatipajamtu chilam- 

Rant* me athaye iyam dhamma-lipi likhapita hevam anupatipajamtu chilarh- 

AIL me athaye iyam dhamma-lipi likhapita hevaih anupatipajamtu chila- 



Top. 


thitika 


cha 


hotu ti 


ti 


{H) ye 


cha 


hevam 


sampatipajisati 


se 


Mtr. 


[th]itika 


cha 


hot[a] 


ti 


(H)ye 


[cha] 






se 


Ar. 


thitika 


cha 


hotu 


tl 


{ff) ye 


cha 


hevam 


sampatipajisati 


se 


Nand. 


thitika 


cha 


hotu 


• 

tl 


(&) ye 


cha 


hevam 


sampatipajisati 


se 


Ram. 


thitika 


cha 


hotu 


• 

tl 


{H) ye 


cha 


hevam 


sampatipajisati 


se 


All, 


thitika 


cha 


hotu 


• 

tl 


if?) ye 


cha 


hevam 


sampatipajisati 


CP 



Top. sukatam kachhati ti 

Mtr. sukatam ka[chha]ti ti 

Ar. sukatam kachhati ti 

Nand. sukatam kachhati 

Ram. sukatam kachhati ti 

AIL sukatam kachhati ti 

THIRD PILLAR-EDICT 

Top. (A) Devanaihpiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (27) kayanammeva dekhati 

Mir. (A) Devanaihpiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) kayanammjeva de] 

Ar. {A) Devanaihpiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha {£) kayanammeva dekhamti 

Nand. (A) Devanaihpiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) kayanammeva dekhamti 

Ram. (A) Devanaihpiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) kayanammeva dekhamti 

AIL (A) Devanaihpiye Piyadasi laja hevam aha (B) kayanameva dekhati 



Top. 


iyam 


me kayane kate ti 


(C) no 


mina 


papain 


■ 

d[e]khati 


iyarii 


me 


Mir. 


* • • * 


. . kayane kate tl 


{€) no 


min[a] 


papam 


dekhati 


iyarii 


me 


Ar. 


iyam 


me kayane kate ti 


{C) no 


mina 


papain 


dekhamti 


iyarii 


me 


Nand. iyam - 


me kayane kate ti 


(C) no 


mina 


papam 


dekhamti 


iyarii 


me 


Ram. 


iyam 


me kayane kate ti 


(C) no 


mina 


papam 


dekhamti 


iyaih 


me 


AIL 


iyam 


me kayane kate ti 


(C) no 


mina 


papakam 


dekhati 


iyaih 


me 


Top. 


pape 


kate ti iyam va 


asinave 


nama 


■ 

ti (D) dupativekhe 


chu 


kho 


Mir. 


pap[e 


kate ti iyam va] 


asinave 


nama 


ti (Z?) [du]pativekhe 


chu 


kho 


Ar. 


pape 


kate ti iyam va 


Ssinave 


nama 


ti {D) dupativekhe 


chu 


kho 


Nand. 


pape 


kate ti iyam va 


asinave 


nama 


ti (D) dupativekhe 


chu 


kho 


Ram. 


pape 


kate. ti iyam va 


asinave 


nama 


ti (D) dupativekhe 


chu 


kho 


AIL 


papake kate ti iyam va 


asinave 


nama 








k 



THIRD PILLAR-EDICT 



221 



op. es5 \E) hevaifa chu 

Mtr. esa (£) hevam c